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Sean Robison, Gauri Rani Karur, Rachel M Wald, Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Andrew M Crean, Kate Hanneman
BACKGROUND: Calculation of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) extracellular volume (ECV) requires input of hematocrit, which may not be readily available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ECV calculated using various noninvasive measures of hematocrit compared to ECV calculated with input of laboratory hematocrit as the reference standard. METHODS: One hundred twenty three subjects (47.7 ± 14.1 years; 42% male) were prospectively recruited for CMR T1 mapping between August 2016 and April 2017...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Antonio Esposito, Anna Palmisano, Sofia Antunes, Caterina Colantoni, Paola Maria Vittoria Rancoita, Davide Vignale, Francesca Baratto, Paolo Della Bella, Alessandro Del Maschio, Francesco De Cobelli
PURPOSE: Diffuse remodeling of myocardial extra-cellular matrix is largely responsible for left ventricle (LV) dysfunction and arrhythmias. Our hypothesis is that the texture analysis of late iodine enhancement (LIE) cardiac computed tomography (cCT) images may improve characterization of the diffuse extra-cellular matrix changes. Our aim was to extract volumetric extracellular volume (ECV) and LIE texture features of non-scarred (remote) myocardium from cCT of patients with recurrent ventricular tachycardia (rVT), and to compare these radiomic features with LV-function, LV-remodeling, and underlying cardiac disease...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Mouhannad M Sadek, Varsha Chaugai, Mark J Cleland, Timothy J Zakutney, David H Birnie, F Daniel Ramirez
BACKGROUND: The relevance of transthoracic impedance (TTI) to electrical cardioversion (ECV) success for atrial tachyarrhythmias when using biphasic waveform defibrillators is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: TTI is predictive of ECV success with contemporary defibrillators. METHODS: De-identified data stored in biphasic defibrillator memory cards from ECV attempts for atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) over a two-year period at our center were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Fabian Aus dem Siepen, Christian Baumgärtner, Matthias Müller-Henessen, Florian André, Daniel Messroghli, Marco Ochs, Johannes Riffel, Evangelos Giannitsis, Hugo A Katus, Matthias G Friedrich, Sebastian J Buss
Background: Myocardial T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) derived from cardiovascular MRIs are more and more widely accepted as important markers for diagnosis, risk prediction and monitoring of cardiac disease. Yet data regarding long-term stability of myocardial T1 mapping are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term stability of native and postcontrast T1 mapping values in healthy volunteers. Methods: 18 strictly selected healthy volunteers (52±10 years, 12 men) were studied on a Philips Achieva 1...
2018: Open Heart
Mohammad R Ostovaneh, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Tomoki Fuji, Hooman Bakhshi, Ravi Shah, Venkatesh L Murthy, Russell P Tracy, Eliseo Guallar, Colin O Wu, David A Bluemke, João A C Lima
BACKGROUND: The association of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with liver fibrosis is poorly understood. We aim to assess the association of liver fibrosis by T1-mapping magnetic resonance imaging and CVD in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). METHODS AND RESULTS: MESA enrolled 6814 participants free of clinical CVD at baseline (2000-2002). A subsample of participants underwent T1-mapping magnetic resonance imaging 10 years after the baseline (Y10 MESA exam, 2010-2012)...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
José A B Araujo-Filho, Antonildes N Assuncao, Marcelo D Tavares de Melo, Loïc Bière, Camila R Lima, Roberto N Dantas, Cesar H Nomura, Vera M C Salemi, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Jose R Parga
Aims: From pathophysiological mechanisms to risk stratification and management, much debate and discussion persist regarding left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC). This study aimed to characterize myocardial T1 mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) fraction by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), and investigate how these biomarkers relate to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and ventricular arrhythmias (VA) in LVNC. Methods and results: Patients with LVNC (n = 36) and healthy controls (n = 18) were enrolled to perform a CMR with T1 mapping...
March 6, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Paul R Scully, Gorka Bastarrika, James C Moon, Thomas A Treibel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review article discusses the evolution of extracellular volume (ECV) quantification using both cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and computed tomography (CT). RECENT FINDINGS: Visualizing diffuse myocardial fibrosis is challenging and until recently, was restricted to the domain of the pathologist. CMR and CT both use extravascular, extracellular contrast agents, permitting ECV measurement. The evidence base around ECV quantification by CMR is growing rapidly and just starting in CT...
March 6, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Isabel Kazour, Suraj D Serai, Stavra A Xanthakos, Robert J Fleck
The goal of this study was to assess the ability of quantitative T1 cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to calculate liver extracellular volume (ECV) in patients with varying degrees of congestive hepatopathy (CH). T1 measurements and ECV calculations were performed retrospectively in three cohorts of patients: normal cardiac function, tetralogy of fallot (TOF) repair and Fontan palliation. All CMR studies included modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) T1 mapping scans performed pre- and post-injection of a gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA)...
March 3, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Eduardo Fernández-Martínez, Maribel Jiménez-Santana, Mónica Centeno-Álvarez, Jose Martín Torres-Valencia, Mineko Shibayama, Raquel Cariño-Cortés
Background: Drugs for the treatment of liver diseases are scarce and not effective enough. Some species of the genus Cirsium possess hepatoprotective activity. There are no studies on the hepatoprotective effects of nonpolar extracts from inflorescences of thistles Cirsium vulgare and Cirsium ehrenbergii , and there are few reports on their chemical composition. Objective: The aim is to obtain the hexane extract from inflorescences of both thistles and to identify preliminarily their main chemical component, and to evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of the extracts...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Parisa Badiee, Maral Choopanizadeh, Abdolkarim Ghadimi Moghadam, Ali Hossaini Nasab, Hadis Jafarian, Ahmad Shamsizadeh, Jafar Soltani
Background and Objectives: Colonization of Candida species is common in pediatric patients admitted to hematology-oncology wards. The aim of this study was to identify colonized Candida species and their susceptibility patterns in hematologic pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from mouth, nose, urine and stool of the patients admitted to five university hospitals and cultured on sabouraud dextrose agar. The isolates were identified by API 20 C AUX system and their susceptibility patterns were evaluated by CLSI M27-A3 and S4...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Arthur J Morris, Karen Rogers, Wendy P McKinney, Sally A Roberts, Joshua T Freeman
OBJECTIVES: We have reviewed the susceptibility results of local yeast isolates performed 2001-2015 to record the impact of recently updated interpretive criteria, and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs), for yeast species. METHODS: Testing was performed using Sensititre® YeastOne® and results interpreted following CLSI criteria or YeastOne derived ECVs. RESULTS: 2345 isolates were tested; 62% were from sterile body sites or tissue. Application of the new CLSI interpretative criteria for fluconazole increased the proportion of non-susceptible isolates of C...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Muhammad M Haj-Yahia, Becky Leshem, Neil B Guterman
The study examined family and teacher support as factors that can protect adolescents from internalized and externalized problems after exposure to community violence (ECV). Self-administered questionnaires were filled out by a sample of 1,832 Arab and Jewish Israeli high school students. The Arab adolescents reported significantly higher levels of community violence victimization, internalized problems, externalized problems, family support, and teacher support than the Jewish adolescents. The girls reported higher levels of internalized problems, and the boys reported higher levels of externalized problems...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Thomas A Treibel, Rebecca Kozor, Rebecca Schofield, Giulia Benedetti, Marianna Fontana, Anish N Bhuva, Amir Sheikh, Begoña López, Arantxa González, Charlotte Manisty, Guy Lloyd, Peter Kellman, Javier Díez, James C Moon
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, a key process in human cardiac disease, results from cellular (hypertrophy) and extracellular matrix expansion (interstitial fibrosis). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether human myocardial interstitial fibrosis in aortic stenosis (AS) is plastic and can regress. METHODS: Patients with symptomatic, severe AS (n = 181; aortic valve area index 0.4 ± 0.1 cm2 /m2 ) were assessed pre-aortic valve replacement (AVR) by echocardiography (AS severity, diastology), cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) (for volumes, function, and focal or diffuse fibrosis), biomarkers (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin T), and the 6-min walk test...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Benjamin Zorach, Peter W Shaw, Jamieson Bourque, Sujith Kuruvilla, Pelbreton C Balfour, Yang Yang, Roshin Mathew, Jonathan Pan, Jorge A Gonzalez, Angela M Taylor, Craig H Meyer, Frederick H Epstein, Christopher M Kramer, Michael Salerno
BACKGROUND: Preliminary semi-quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion studies have demonstrated reduced myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) in patients with angina and risk factors for microvascular disease (MVD), however fully quantitative CMR has not been studied. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether fully quantitative CMR identifies reduced MPR in this population, and to investigate the relationship between epicardial atherosclerosis, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), extracellular volume (ECV), and perfusion...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Andrew Du, Andrew M Zipkin, Kevin G Hatala, Elizabeth Renner, Jennifer L Baker, Serena Bianchi, Kallista H Bernal, Bernard A Wood
A large brain is a defining feature of modern humans, yet there is no consensus regarding the patterns, rates and processes involved in hominin brain size evolution. We use a reliable proxy for brain size in fossils, endocranial volume (ECV), to better understand how brain size evolved at both clade- and lineage-level scales. For the hominin clade overall, the dominant signal is consistent with a gradual increase in brain size. This gradual trend appears to have been generated primarily by processes operating within hypothesized lineages-64% or 88% depending on whether one uses a more or less speciose taxonomy, respectively...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Amanda I Rodriguez, Megan L A Thomas, Denis Fitzpatrick, Kristen L Janky
OBJECTIVES: Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing is increasingly utilized in pediatric vestibular evaluations due to its diagnostic capability to identify otolith dysfunction and feasibility of testing. However, there is evidence demonstrating that the high-intensity stimulation level required to elicit a reliable VEMP response causes acoustic trauma in adults. Despite utility of VEMP testing in children, similar findings are unknown. It is hypothesized that increased sound exposure may exist in children because differences in ear-canal volume (ECV) compared with adults, and the effect of stimulus parameters (e...
March 2018: Ear and Hearing
Christos P Kotanidis, Maria-Anna Bazmpani, Anna-Bettina Haidich, Charalambos Karvounis, Charalambos Antoniades, Theodoros D Karamitsos
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to explore the diagnostic accuracy of various cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) index tests for the diagnosis of acute myocarditis in adult patients. BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis remains one of the most challenging diagnoses in cardiology. CMR has emerged as the diagnostic tool of choice to detect acute myocardial injury and necrosis in patients with suspected myocarditis. METHODS: We considered all diagnostic cohort and case-control studies...
February 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Uyên Châu Nguyên, Simon Claridge, Kevin Vernooy, Elien B Engels, Reza Razavi, Christopher A Rinaldi, Zhong Chen, Frits W Prinzen
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between vectorcardiography (VCG) and myocardial scar on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, and whether combining these metrics may improve cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response prediction. METHODS: Thirty-three CRT patients were included. QRSarea , Tarea and QRSTarea were derived from the ECG-synthesized VCG. CMR parameters reflecting focal scar core (Scar2SD , Gray2SD ) and diffuse fibrosis (pre-T1, extracellular volume [ECV]) were assessed...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Electrocardiology
Valentina O Puntmann, Gerry Carr-White, Andrew Jabbour, Chung-Yao Yu, Rolf Gebker, Sebastian Kelle, Andreas Rolf, Sabine Zitzmann, Elif Peker, Tommaso D'Angelo, Faraz Pathan, Elen, Silvia Valbuena, Rocio Hinojar, Christophe Arendt, Jagat Narula, Eva Herrmann, Andreas M Zeiher, Eike Nagel
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the major cause of cardiac morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite the advances in treatment with coronary revascularization and modern antiremodeling therapy. Risk stratification in CAD patients is primarily based on left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction (LVEF), risk scores, and the presence and extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). The prognostic role of T1 mapping in noninfarcted myocardium in CAD patients has not yet been determined...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Ricardo Ladeiras-Lopes, Henrique T Moreira, Nuno Bettencourt, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Francisco Sampaio, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Colin Wu, Kiang Liu, Alain G Bertoni, Pamela Ouyang, David A Bluemke, João A Lima
The relationship of MetS (metabolic syndrome) and insulin resistance (one of its key pathophysiological mediators) with diastolic dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis is not well understood. This study aimed to evaluate the association of MetS with diastolic function and myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in a large community-based population.This cross-sectional analysis included 1,582 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50% and no past history of cardiac events...
February 14, 2018: Diabetes
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