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Research Proposal on stress

Liying Ying, Xiaomin Chen, Lai Har Wu, Jing Shu, Xiangli Wu, Alice Yuen Loke
PURPOSE: Couples as dyads suffer from the diagnosis of infertility and related treatment. These couples commonly experience emotional and physical pain and tension in their marital lives. The purpose of this study is to report on the process of developing a potentially feasible and effective complex intervention for couples undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment in China. METHODS: The Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for developing and evaluating the complex intervention was adopted to guide the development of the Partnership and Coping Enhancement Programme (PCEP)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Allison N Macdonald, Katrina B Goines, Derek M Novacek, Elaine F Walker
Accumulating behavioral and genetic research suggests that most forms of psychopathology share common genetic and neural vulnerabilities and are manifestations of a relatively few core underlying processes. These findings support the view that comorbidity mostly arises, not from true co-occurrence of distinct disorders, but from the behavioral expression of shared vulnerability processes across the life span. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the shared vulnerability mechanisms underlying the clinical phenomena of comorbidity from a transdiagnostic and ontogenic perspective...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Lianne M Tomfohr-Madsen, Tavis S Campbell, Gerald F Giesbrecht, Nicole L Letourneau, Linda E Carlson, Joshua W Madsen, Sona Dimidjian
BACKGROUND: Clinically significant psychological distress in pregnancy is common, with epidemiological research suggesting that between 15 and 25 % of pregnant women experience elevated symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. Untreated psychological distress in pregnancy is associated with poor obstetrical outcomes, changes in maternal physiology, elevated incidence of child physical and psychological disorders, and is predictive of maternal postpartum mood disorders. Despite the wide-ranging impact of antenatal psychological distress on mothers and their children, there is a gap in our knowledge about the most effective treatments that are available for psychological distress experienced in pregnancy...
October 13, 2016: Trials
K Roelofs, J Pasman
Conversion disorder (CD) has traditionally been ascribed to psychologic factors such as trauma, stress, or emotional conflict. Although reference to the psychologic origin of CD has been removed from the criteria list in DSM-5, many theories still incorporate CD as originating from adverse events. This chapter provides a critical review of the literature on stressful life events in CD and discusses current cognitive and neurobiologic models linking psychologic stressors with conversion symptomatology. In addition, we propose a neurobiologic stress model integrating those cognitive models with neuroendocrine stress research and propose that stress and stress-induced changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function may result in cognitive alterations, that in turn contribute to experiencing conversion symptoms...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Lorenzo Vergani, Francesca Mapelli, Elisabetta Zanardini, Elisa Terzaghi, Antonio Di Guardo, Cristiana Morosini, Giuseppe Raspa, Sara Borin
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic chemicals, recalcitrant to degradation, bioaccumulative and persistent in the environment, causing adverse effects on ecosystems and human health. For this reason, the remediation of PCB-contaminated soils is a primary issue to be addressed. Phytoremediation represents a promising tool for in situ soil remediation, since the available physico-chemical technologies have strong environmental and economic impacts. Plants can extract and metabolize several xenobiotics present in the soil, but their ability to uptake and mineralize PCBs is limited due to the recalcitrance and low bioavailability of these molecules that in turn impedes an efficient remediation of PCB-contaminated soils...
October 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Hannah Watson, Mark Bolton, Britt J Heidinger, Winnie Boner, Pat Monaghan
Repeated exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids during development can have long-term detrimental effects on survival and fitness, potentially associated with increased telomere attrition. Nestling birds are regularly handled for ecological research, yet few authors have considered the potential for handling-induced stress to influence hormonally mediated phenotypic development or bias interpretations of subsequent focal measurements. We experimentally manipulated the handling experience of the semi-precocial nestlings of European Storm Petrel Hydrobates pelagicus to simulate handling in a typical field study and examined cumulative effects on physiology and condition in late postnatal development...
October 2016: Ibis
S Negrão, S M Schmöckel, M Tester
BACKGROUND: Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant's physiology, making it difficult to study in toto Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant's response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. SCOPE AND CONCLUSIONS: We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components...
October 5, 2016: Annals of Botany
Devon C Payne-Sturges, Katrina Smith Korfmacher, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Maria Jimenez, Elaine Symanski, Jessie L Carr Shmool, Ogonnaya Dotson-Newman, Jane E Clougherty, Robert French, Jonathan I Levy, Robert Laumbach, Kathryn Rodgers, Roseann Bongiovanni, Madeleine K Scammell
Studies have documented cumulative health effects of chemical and nonchemical exposures, particularly chronic environmental and social stressors. Environmental justice groups have advocated for community participation in research that assesses how these interactions contribute to health disparities experienced by low-income and communities of color. In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a request for research applications (RFA), "Understanding the Role of Nonchemical Stressors and Developing Analytic Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessments...
December 1, 2015: Environmental Justice
Nancy Goff, Kerry Wyss, Arthur Wendel, Paul Jarris
CONTEXT: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) has emerged as a promising tool to integrate health considerations into decision making. The growth and success of HIA practice in the United States will be dependent on building the capacity of practitioners. OBJECTIVE: This article seeks to identify the role of state health agencies (SHAs) in building capacity for conducting HIAs and the key components of initiatives that produced effective HIAs and HIA programs. The authors proposed to answer 3 research questions: (1) What can be the role of the SHA in HIA? (2) What are the characteristics of successful state HIA programs? and (3) What are some effective strategies for building capacity for HIA in SHAs and local health departments? DESIGN: The authors reviewed program reports from the ASTHO's pilot state health agencies (California, Minnesota, Oregon, and Wisconsin) that, between 2009 and 2011, created HIA programs to provide HIA training, conduct HIAs, and build practitioner networks...
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Miriam Fornells-Ambrojo, Alison Gracie, Chris R Brewin, Amy Hardy
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to psychosis and associated experiences (psychosis-related PTSD, or PR-PTSD) is the subject of a growing field of research. However, a wide range of PR-PTSD prevalence rates has been reported. This may be due to definitional and methodological inconsistencies in the assessment of PR-PTSD. OBJECTIVE: The focus of the review is two-fold. (1) To identify factors that enhance, or detract from, the robustness of PR-PTSD assessment and (2) to critically evaluate the evidence in relation to these identified criteria, including the impact on PR-PTSD prevalence rates...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
BreAnne A Danzi, Annette M La Greca
BACKGROUND: Different criteria for diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been recommended by the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the proposed 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Although children are vulnerable to PTSD following disasters, little is known about whether these revised criteria are appropriate for preadolescents, as diagnostic revisions have been based primarily on adult research...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Arnauld A Thiry, Perla N Chavez Dulanto, Matthew P Reynolds, William J Davies
The need to accelerate the selection of crop genotypes that are both resistant to and productive under abiotic stress is enhanced by global warming and the increase in demand for food by a growing world population. In this paper, we propose a new method for evaluation of wheat genotypes in terms of their resilience to stress and their production capacity. The method quantifies the components of a new index related to yield under abiotic stress based on previously developed stress indices, namely the stress susceptibility index, the stress tolerance index, the mean production index, the geometric mean production index, and the tolerance index, which were created originally to evaluate drought adaptation...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Megan L Rogers, Joye C Anestis, Tiffany M Harrop, Matthew Schneider, Theodore W Bender, Fallon B Ringer, Thomas E Joiner
A new suicide-specific diagnostic entity, acute suicidal affective disturbance (ASAD), was recently proposed to fill a void in the nomenclature. Although several studies have examined the reliability, validity, and potential clinical utility of ASAD, no studies have examined personality indicators of ASAD. This study sought to examine the association between personality and psychopathology factors, as assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Revised Form (MMPI-2-RF), and constructs that comprise ASAD in a sample of 554 psychiatric outpatients who completed all measures prior to their intake appointments...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
Diana J Burgess, Mary Catherine Beach, Somnath Saha
Like the population at large, health care providers hold implicit racial and ethnic biases that may contribute to health care disparities. Little progress has been made in identifying and implementing effective strategies to address these normal but potentially harmful unconscious cognitive processes. We propose that meditation training designed to increase healthcare providers' mindfulness skills is a promising and potentially sustainable way to address this problem. Emerging evidence suggests that mindfulness practice can reduce the provider contribution to healthcare disparities through several mechanisms including: reducing the likelihood that implicit biases will be activated in the mind, increasing providers' awareness of and ability to control responses to implicit biases once activated, increasing self-compassion and compassion toward patients, and reducing internal sources of cognitive load (e...
September 15, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
Douglas L Miller
Diagnostic ultrasound can induce pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) in rats and other mammals. This phenomenon represents the only clearly demonstrated biological effect of (non-contrast enhanced) diagnostic ultrasound and thus presents a uniquely important safety issue. However, the physical mechanism responsible for PCH remains uncertain more than 25 y after its discovery. Experimental research has indicated that neither heating nor acoustic cavitation, the predominant mechanisms for bioeffects of ultrasound, is responsible for PCH...
September 17, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Kazuomi Kario
The essential benefit of the management of hypertension is derived from the blood pressure (BP) lowering per se, indicating the importance of BP throughout 24 hours. Recent guidelines stressed the importance of home BP for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. It is well-known that cardiovascular events occur more frequently in the morning BP levels have been shown to increase during the period from night to early morning. Clinical research using ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) or home BP monitoring has clarified that morning BP and BP surge are more closely related to the cardiovascular risk than office BP (Kario et al...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Masatsugu Horiuchi
Hypertensive patients have greater chances of such cardiovascular events as stroke, coronary heart disease, heart or renal failure, peripheral artery disease, and dementia. It is also well recognized that diabetes increases the cardiovascular risks in concert with hypertension. Therefore, main goals for an innovation of anti-hypertensive therapy would be to achieve further risk reduction by targeting the functional, metabolic, and structural alterations associated with hypertension. Professors Dzau and Braunwald et al proposed the concept of "the cardiovascular disease continuum" in 1991, and that hypertension may trigger the chain of events, leading to end-stage heart disease; however, this concept was quite new at that time, and there was some discussion whether "the cardiovascular disease continuum" is true or not...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
V Calabrese, J Giordano, M Ruggieri, D Berritta, A Trovato, M L Ontario, R Bianchini, E J Calabrese
In the United States, 1.1-1.5% of children have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), corresponding to a 30% increase in incidence and prevalence. Social and communication impairments are the main signs and symptoms of ASD, and currently available medications have been ineffective in reducing these core deficits. Observational studies have indicated that children with ASD tend to show improved cognition and behavior after febrile illness, which is associated with alteration of metabolic pathways, leading to cellular stress responses and increased expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps)...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Laurence Conty, Nathalie George, Jari K Hietanen
The perception of direct gaze-that is, of another individual's gaze directed at the observer-is known to influence a wide range of cognitive processes and behaviors. We present a new theoretical proposal to provide a unified account of these effects. We argue that direct gaze first captures the beholder's attention and then triggers self-referential processing, i.e., a heightened processing of stimuli in relation with the self. Self-referential processing modulates incoming information processing and leads to the Watching Eyes effects, which we classify into four main categories: the enhancement of self-awareness, memory effects, the activation of pro-social behavior, and positive appraisals of others...
October 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Vanda Sieber, Julia Schüler, Mirko Wegner
The empirical evidence for the relationship between autonomy-supportive environments and physiological stress is inconsistent. Whereas some studies report a decrease in stress in autonomy-supportive environments, other studies show a negative effect of autonomy on physiological stress. As previous research has not considered individual differences within this relationship, the present research aims to close this empirical gap by proposing that an implicit autonomy disposition, which is defined as a dispositional preference for self-determination, serves as a moderator...
September 8, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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