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Research Proposal on stress

Marie Toutfaire, Elise Dumortier, Antoine Fattaccioli, Martine Van Steenbrugge, Charlotte M Proby, Florence Debacq-Chainiaux
Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common type of non-melanoma skin cancer in white-skinned populations. cSCC is associated with sun exposure and aging, which is concomitant with an accumulation of senescent cells in the skin. The involvement of senescent cells in carcinogenesis has been highlighted in several cancer types and an interaction between cSCC cells and senescent cells is proposed, but still little explored. Tumor-associated effects are mostly attributed to the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Aleksandra Klimczak, Urszula Kozlowska, Maciej Kurpisz
Muscular dystrophies represent a group of diseases which may develop in several forms, and severity of the disease is usually associated with gene mutations. In skeletal muscle regeneration and in muscular dystrophies, both innate and adaptive immune responses are involved. The regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) of bone marrow origin was confirmed by the ability to differentiate into diverse tissues and by their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties by secretion of a variety of growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines...
March 13, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Marlysa B Sullivan, Matt Erb, Laura Schmalzl, Steffany Moonaz, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Stephen W Porges
Yoga therapy is a newly emerging, self-regulating complementary and integrative healthcare (CIH) practice. It is growing in its professionalization, recognition and utilization with a demonstrated commitment to setting practice standards, educational and accreditation standards, and promoting research to support its efficacy for various populations and conditions. However, heterogeneity of practice, poor reporting standards, and lack of a broadly accepted understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in yoga therapy limits the structuring of testable hypotheses and clinical applications...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Caixia Guo, Ru Ma, Xiaoying Liu, Tian Chen, Yang Li, Yang Yu, Junchao Duan, Xianqing Zhou, Yanbo Li, Zhiwei Sun
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), a marker of hyperlipidemia, plays a pivotal role in the development of atherosclerosis through the induction of macrophage-derived foam cell formation and thereafter apoptosis. Previous studies have indicated that silica nanoparticle (SiNPs) may exert a proatherogenic role, which could induce endothelial dysfunction, and monocytes infiltration. However, little is known about SiNPs' effects on macrophage-derived foam cell formation and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Iris E Sommer, Hidde Kleijer, Kenneth Hugdahl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hallucinations are common and often stressful experiences, occurring in all sensory modalities. They frequently complicate many disorders or situations, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, hearing or vision loss, intoxications and delirium. Although psychoeducation, coping techniques and psychotherapy may be broadly applicable, they do not address a specific underlying brain mechanism. Pharmacotherapy may effectively alleviate hallucinations if the corresponding mechanism is present, whereas in its absence, may only cause harmful side effects...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Oded Potchter, Pninit Cohen, Tzu-Ping Lin, Andreas Matzarakis
Over the past century, many research studies have been conducted in an attempt to define thermal conditions for humans in the outdoor environment and to grade thermal sensation. Consequently, a large number of indices have been proposed. The examination of human thermal indices by thermal subjective perception has become recently a methodical issue to confirm the accuracy, applicability and validation of human thermal indices. The aims of this study are: (a) to review studies containing both calculated human thermal conditions and subjective thermal perception in the outdoor environment (b) to identify the most used human thermal indices for evaluating human thermal perception (c) to examine the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions and (d) to compare between categories of thermal sensation in different climatic zones based on subjective perception and levels of thermal strain...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Erik W Martin, Tanja Mittag
Liquid-liquid phase separation seems to play critical roles in the compartmentalization of cells through the formation of biomolecular condensates. Many proteins with low-complexity regions are found in these condensates, and they can undergo phase separation in vitro in response to changes in temperature, pH and ion concentration. Low-complexity regions are thus likely important players in mediating compartmentalization in response to stress. However, how the phase behavior is encoded in their amino acid composition and patterning is only poorly understood...
March 8, 2018: Biochemistry
Ina Laura Pieper, Gemma Radley, Abigail Christen, Sabrina Ali, Owen Bodger, Catherine A Thornton
Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are a life-saving form of mechanical circulatory support in heart failure patients. However, VADs have not yet reached their full potential due to the associated side effects (thrombosis, bleeding, infection) related to the activation and damage of blood cells and proteins caused by mechanical stress and foreign materials. Studies of the effects of VADs on leukocytes are limited, yet leukocyte activation and damage including microparticle generation can influence both thrombosis and infection rates...
March 7, 2018: Artificial Organs
Sha Li, Hor Yue Tan, Ning Wang, Fan Cheung, Ming Hong, Yibin Feng
Liver disease, involving a wide range of liver pathologies from fatty liver, hepatitis, and fibrosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, is a serious health problem worldwide. In recent years, many natural foods and herbs with abundant phytochemicals have been proposed as health supplementation for patients with hepatic disorders. As an important category of phytochemicals, natural polyphenols have attracted increasing attention as potential agents for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases. The striking capacities in remitting oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and inflammation put polyphenols in the spotlight for the therapies of liver diseases...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Hua V Lin, Jingru Wang, Jie Wang, Weiji Li, Xuesong Wang, James T Alston, Melissa K Thomas, Daniel A Briere, Samreen K Syed, Alexander M Efanov
OBJECTIVE: GPR142 agonists are being pursued as novel diabetes therapies by virtue of their insulin secretagogue effects. But it is undetermined whether GPR142's functions in pancreatic islets are limited to regulating insulin secretion. The current study expands research on its action. METHODS AND RESULTS: We demonstrated by in situ hybridization and immunostaining that GPR142 is expressed not only in β cells but also in a subset of α cells. Stimulation of GPR142 by a selective agonist increased glucagon secretion in both human and mouse islets...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Brody Heritage, Michelle Quail, Naomi Cocks
PURPOSE: This study explored the predictors of the outcomes of turnover and occupation attrition intentions for speech-language pathologists. The researchers examined the mediating effects of job satisfaction and strain on the relationship between stress and the latter outcomes. Additionally, the researchers examined the importance of embeddedness in predicting turnover intentions after accounting for stress, strain and job satisfaction. METHOD: An online questionnaire was used to explore turnover and attrition intentions in 293 Australian speech-language pathologists...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Aaron T Beck, Robyn Himelstein, Keith Bredemeier, Steven M Silverstein, Paul Grant
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive deficits are often seen as core features of schizophrenia, and as primary determinants of poor functioning. Yet, our clinical observations suggest that individuals who score within the impaired range on standardized tests can reliably perform better in complex real-world situations, especially when performance is embedded within a positive socio-affective context. METHODS: We analyzed literature on the influence of non-neurocognitive factors on test performance in order to clarify their contributions...
March 4, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Marco Del Giudice, Steven W Gangestad
Behavioral researchers have increasingly become interested in the idea that chronic, low-grade inflammation is a pathway through which social and behavioral variables exert long-term effects on health. Much research in the area employs putative inflammatory biomarkers to infer an underlying state of inflammation. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP, whose production is stimulated by IL-6) are arguably the two most commonly assayed biomarkers. Yet, in contrast with near-universal assumptions in the field, discoveries in immunology over the past two decades show that neither IL-6 nor CRP are unambiguous inflammatory markers...
February 27, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Jie Yu, Changxi Wang, Qi Kong, Xiaxia Wu, Jin-Jian Lu, Xiuping Chen
BACKGROUND: As an anthracycline antibiotic, doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most potent and widely used chemotherapeutic agents for various types of solid tumors. Unfortunately, clinical application of this drug results in severe side effects of cardiotoxicity. PURPOSE: We aim to review the research focused on elimination or reduction of DOX cardiotoxicity without affecting its anticancer efficacy by natural products. METHODS: This study is based on pertinent papers that were retrieved by a selective search using relevant keywords in PubMed and ScienceDirect...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Andrea Pezzuolo, Marcella Guarino, Luigi Sartori, Francesco Marinello
Frequent checks on livestock's body growth can help reducing problems related to cow infertility or other welfare implications, and recognizing health's anomalies. In the last ten years, optical methods have been proposed to extract information on various parameters while avoiding direct contact with animals' body, generally causes stress. This research aims to evaluate a new monitoring system, which is suitable to frequently check calves and cow's growth through a three-dimensional analysis of their bodies' portions...
February 24, 2018: Sensors
Xiao-Ping Zhao, Yun-Ru Yu, Xue Li, Qing Shao, Yi-Min Wang, Tao Zhao, Chao Zhao, Bu-Chang Zhao, Yue-Fei Wang, Yi Wang
The Concurrent treatment of the brain and heart (CTBH) theory is proposed based on traditional Chinese medical theory and clinical practice. In this study, a framework for the pharmacological research platform was established to investigate the principles of concurrent treatment of the brain and heart. The platform for CTBH includes several key techniques for network modeling, discovery of active substances, dissecting mechanism of action and investigation of pharmacokinetic property of TCM. Taking network modeling of CTBH as an example, using database search, literature mining, network construction and module analysis, the that network modules closely associated with the pathological progress of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were identified, while further functional enrichment analysis of these modules indicated that the key biological processes included oxidative stress, metabolism and inflammation...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Samantha Lai, Siti Maryam Yaakub, Tricia S M Poh, Tjeerd J Bouma, Peter A Todd
The dispersal of seagrasses is important to promoting the resilience and long-term survival of populations. Most of the research on long-distance dispersal to date has focused on sexual propagules while the dispersal of vegetative fragments has been largely overlooked, despite the important role this mechanism might play. In this study, we proposed a conceptual model that categorizes vegetative fragment dispersal into seven fundamental steps: i.e., (i) fragment formation, (ii) transport, (iii) decay, (iv) substrate contact, (v) settlement, (vi) establishment, and (vii) dislodgement...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bianca Acevedo, Elaine Aron, Sarah Pospos, Dana Jessen
During the past decade, research on the biological basis of sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)-a genetically based trait associated with greater sensitivity and responsivity to environmental and social stimuli-has burgeoned. As researchers try to characterize this trait, it is still unclear how SPS is distinct from seemingly related clinical disorders that have overlapping symptoms, such as sensitivity to the environment and hyper-responsiveness to incoming stimuli. Thus, in this review, we compare the neural regions implicated in SPS with those found in fMRI studies of-Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Schizophrenia (SZ) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) to elucidate the neural markers and cardinal features of SPS versus these seemingly related clinical disorders...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Tomasz Wenta, Dorota Zurawa-Janicka, Michal Rychlowski, Miroslaw Jarzab, Przemyslaw Glaza, Andrea Lipinska, Krystyna Bienkowska-Szewczyk, Anna Herman-Antosiewicz, Joanna Skorko-Glonek, Barbara Lipinska
The human HtrA3 protease is involved in placentation, mitochondrial homeostasis, stimulation of apoptosis and proposed to be a tumor suppressor. Molecular mechanisms of the HtrA3 functions are poorly understood and knowledge concerning its cellular targets is very limited. There are two HtrA3 isoforms, the long (HtrA3L) and short (HtrA3S). Upon stress, their N-terminal domains are removed, resulting in the more active ΔN-HtrA3. By pull down and mass spectrometry techniques, we identified a panel of putative ΔN-HtrA3L/S substrates...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
S I S Pinto, J B L M Campos, E Azevedo, C F Castro, L C Sousa
The definition of a suitable mesh to simulate blood flow in the human carotid bifurcation has been investigated. In this research, a novel mesh generation method is proposed: hexahedral cells at the centre of the vessel and a fine grid of tetrahedral cells near the artery wall, in order to correctly simulate the large blood velocity gradients associated with specific locations. The selected numerical examples to show the pertinence of the novel generation method are supported by carotid ultrasound (US) image data of a patient-specific case...
February 22, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
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