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Research Proposal on stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101914/prenatal-stress-exposure-generates-higher-early-survival-and-smaller-size-without-impacting-developmental-rate-in-a-pacific-salmon
#1
Pauline M Capelle, Christina A D Semeniuk, Natalie M Sopinka, John W Heath, Oliver P Love
Prenatal exposure to elevated glucocorticoids can act as a signal of environmental stress, resulting in modifications to offspring phenotype. While "negative" phenotypic effects (i.e., smaller size, slower growth) are often reported, recent research coupling phenotype with other fitness-related traits has suggested positive impacts of prenatal stress. Using captive Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), we treated eggs with biologically relevant cortisol levels-low (300 ng mL(-1) ), high (1,000 ng mL(-1) ), or control (0 ng mL(-1) )-to examine the early-life impacts of maternally transferred stress hormones on offspring...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093021/altering-ethanol-pharmacokinetics-to-treat-alcohol-use-disorder-can-you-teach-an-old-dog-new-tricks
#2
Carolina L Haass-Koffler, Fatemeh Akhlaghi, Robert M Swift, Lorenzo Leggio
Disulfiram was the first pharmacotherapy approved to treat alcohol use disorder in the 1950s. Disulfiram alters ethanol pharmacokinetics and causes uncomfortable reactions (e.g. headache, tachycardia, nausea, flushing and hypotension) when alcohol is consumed. Subsequently, a better understanding of the neurobiological pathways involved in alcohol use disorder led to the development of other medications (e.g. naltrexone and acamprosate). These neurobiological-based medications act on alcohol use disorder-related phenotypes including craving, stress, and/or withdrawal...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092210/the-insights-of-health-and-welfare-professionals-on-hurdles-that-impede-economic-evaluations-of-welfare-interventions
#3
J Schepers, J Plaete, I De Bourdeaudhuij, L Annemans, S Simoens
OBJECTIVES: Four hurdles associated with economic evaluations in welfare interventions were identified and discussed in a previous published literature review. These hurdles include (i) 'Ignoring the impact of condition-specific outcomes', (ii) 'Ignoring the impact of QoL externalities', (iii) 'Calculation of costs from a too narrow perspective' and (iv) 'The lack of well-described & standardized interventions'. This study aims to determine how healthcare providers and social workers experience and deal with these hurdles in practice and what solutions or new insights they would suggest...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086798/genome-wide-association-analysis-of-seedling-traits-in-diverse-sorghum-germplasm-under-thermal-stress
#4
Ratan Chopra, Gloria Burow, John J Burke, Nicholas Gladman, Zhanguo Xin
BACKGROUND: Climate variability due to fluctuation in temperature is a worldwide concern that imperils crop production. The need to understand how the germplasm variation in major crops can be utilized to aid in discovering and developing breeding lines that can withstand and adapt to temperature fluctuations is more necessary than ever. Here, we analyzed the genetic variation associated with responses to thermal stresses in a sorghum association panel (SAP) representing major races and working groups to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with resilience to temperature stress in a major cereal crop...
January 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081280/evaluation-on-the-germplasm-of-maize-zea-mays-l-landraces-from-southwest-china
#5
F B Chen, Q L Yao, H F Liu, P Fang
Because of their local adaptation and economic factors that limit the adoption of commercial hybrids, farmer-saved maize landraces are still grown over a considerable area concentrated in southwest China. To evaluate the potential of using maize landraces, the germplasm characteristics of 96 landraces from southwest China were evaluated at phenotypic, cellular, and molecular levels. The existence of high phenotypic variation and elite germplasm tolerant to low-N, low-P, as well as drought stress was observed...
December 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077245/a-systematic-review-of-adrenarche-as-a-sensitive-period-in-neurobiological-development-and-mental-health
#6
REVIEW
Michelle L Byrne, Sarah Whittle, Nandita Vijayakumar, Meg Dennison, Julian G Simmons, Nicholas B Allen
Substantial hormonal and neurobiological changes occur during puberty, and are widely argued to render this period of life a sensitive period in terms of risk for mental health problems. However, there is a paucity of research focusing on adrenarche, the earlier phase of pubertal development. Furthermore, there is a limited understanding of the association between adrenarche and neural development during this phase of life. We systematically reviewed research examining human adrenarcheal development as operationalized by hormonal levels of DHEA and DHEA-S, in relation to indices of mental health (Systematic Review 1)...
December 21, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074666/association-between-posttraumatic-stress-and-acceptance-of-social-changes-findings-from-a-general-population-study-and-proposal-of-a-new-concept
#7
Evaldas Kazlauskas, Paulina Zelviene
BACKGROUND: There is a growing understanding of the importance of the social factors of posttraumatic stress disorder. AIMS: This study expands research on association between posttraumatic stress and social factors by introducing the measure of the acceptance of social changes and evaluating possible links between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and acceptance of social changes. METHODS: A general population sample ( n = 778) aged from 18 to 89 years ( M = 40...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072410/pre-trauma-methylphenidate-in-rats-reduces-ptsd-like-reactions-one-month-later
#8
G Ritov, G Richter-Levin
In basic research, the etiology of fear-related pathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is conceptualized using fear-conditioning protocols that pair environmental stimuli (that is, a conditioned stimulus-CS) with an aversive, unconditioned stimulus (US) to elicit an assessable conditioned fear response. Although pathophysiological models agree that regulatory dysfunctions in this associative process may instigate fear-related pathology, current opinions differ in regard to the nature of these dysfunctions...
January 10, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047405/su-f-j-86-method-to-include-tissue-dose-response-effect-in-deformable-image-registration
#9
J Zhu, J Liang, S Chen, A Qin, D Yan
PURPOSE: Organ changes shape and size during radiation treatment due to both mechanical stress and radiation dose response. However, the dose response induced deformation has not been considered in conventional deformable image registration (DIR). A novel DIR approach is proposed to include both tissue elasticity and radiation dose induced organ deformation. METHODS: Assuming that organ sub-volume shrinkage was proportional to the radiation dose induced cell killing/absorption, the dose induced organ volume change was simulated applying virtual temperature on each sub-volume...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043053/the-decay-of-redox-stress-response-capacity-is-a-substantive-characteristic-of-aging-revising-the-redox-theory-of-aging
#10
Jiao Meng, Zhenyu Lv, Xinhua Qiao, Xiaopeng Li, Yazi Li, Yuying Zhang, Chang Chen
Aging is tightly associated with redox events. The free radical theory of aging indicates that redox imbalance may be an important factor in the aging process. Most studies about redox and aging focused on the static status of oxidative stress levels, there has been little research investigating differential responses to redox challenge during aging. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans and human fibroblasts as models to compare differential responses to oxidative stress challenge in young and old individuals...
December 28, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042394/network-approaches-to-substance-use-and-hiv-hepatitis-c-risk-among-homeless-youth-and-adult-women-in-the-united-states-a-review
#11
Kirk Dombrowski, Kelley Sittner, Devan Crawford, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Patrick Habecker, Bilal Khan
During the United States economic recession of 2008-2011, the number of homeless and unstably housed people in the United States increased considerably. Homeless adult women and unaccompanied homeless youth make up the most marginal segments of this population. Because homeless individuals are a hard to reach population, research into these marginal groups has traditionally been a challenge for researchers interested in substance abuse and mental health. Network analysis techniques and research strategies offer means for dealing with traditional challenges such as missing sampling frames, variation in definitions of homelessness and study inclusion criteria, and enumeration/population estimation procedures...
September 2016: Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033658/multiple-exposures-to-environmental-pollutants-and-oxidative-stress-is-there-a-sex-specific-risk-of-developmental-complications-for-fetuses
#12
REVIEW
Kaïs H Al-Gubory
Medically assisted procreation significantly contributes to an increase in twin pregnancies. One of the major factors contributing to more twin births is the use of fertility treatments. Twin pregnancy is not without a risk for fetal organ development and the health outcome of new-borns, children, and adults. Multiple pregnancies are associated with an increased risk of developmental complications, such as perinatal mortality, premature births, and low birth weight. Oxidative stress is involved in pregnancy disorders such as abortion, intrauterine growth retardation, and prenatal mortality...
December 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010924/upregulation-of-nrf2-through-autophagy-erk-1-2-ameliorates-ionizing-radiation-induced-cell-death-of-human-osteosarcoma-u-2-os
#13
Ni Chen, Rui Zhang, Teruaki Konishi, Jun Wang
The antioxidative response mediated by transcription factor NRF2 is thought to be a pivotal cellular defense system against various extrinsic stresses. It has been reported that activation of the NRF2 pathway confers cells with resistance to ionizing radiation-induced damage. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the current research, it was found that α-particle radiation has the ability to stimulate NRF2 expression in human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells. Knockdown of cellular NRF2 level by shRNA-mediated gene silencing decreased the survival rate, increased the micronucleus formation rate and apoptosis rate in irradiated cells...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006716/biomolecular-aspects-of-depression-a-retrospective-analysis
#14
Brandon N Peacock, David J Scheiderer, Gottfried H Kellermann
OBJECTIVE: The effects of psychological stress, oxidative stress, and chronic low grade inflammation on the neuro-immune connection have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. Thus, in the recent past, there has been a growing effort in determining the mechanism of this pathogenesis. While attempting to map out, this mechanism researchers and clinicians have searched for clinically relevant biomarkers for use in the diagnosis and for the assessment of those suffering from depression...
November 10, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003197/elucidation-of-antibacterial-mechanism-of-405%C3%A2-5-nm-light-emitting-diode-against-salmonella-spp-at-refrigeration-temperature
#15
Min-Jeong Kim, Hyun-Gyun Yuk
: The aim of this study was to elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of 405±5 nm light-emitting diode (LED) illumination against Salmonella at 4 °C in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by determining endogenous coproporphyrin content, DNA oxidation, damage to membrane function, and morphological change. Gene expression levels, including oxyR, recA, rpoS, sodA, and soxR, were also examined to understand the response of Salmonella to LED illumination. Results showed that Salmonella spp...
December 21, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003016/stochastic-modelling-of-infectious-diseases-for-heterogeneous-populations
#16
Rui-Xing Ming, Ji-Ming Liu, William K W Cheung, Xiang Wan
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases such as SARS and H1N1 can significantly impact people's lives and cause severe social and economic damages. Recent outbreaks have stressed the urgency of effective research on the dynamics of infectious disease spread. However, it is difficult to predict when and where outbreaks may emerge and how infectious diseases spread because many factors affect their transmission, and some of them may be unknown. METHODS: One feasible means to promptly detect an outbreak and track the progress of disease spread is to implement surveillance systems in regional or national health and medical centres...
December 22, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999307/autonomous-aeromagnetic-surveys-using-a-fluxgate-magnetometer
#17
Douglas G Macharet, Héctor I A Perez-Imaz, Paulo A F Rezeck, Guilherme A Potje, Luiz C C Benyosef, André Wiermann, Gustavo M Freitas, Luis G U Garcia, Mario F M Campos
Recent advances in the research of autonomous vehicles have showed a vast range of applications, such as exploration, surveillance and environmental monitoring. Considering the mining industry, it is possible to use such vehicles in the prospection of minerals of commercial interest beneath the ground. However, tasks such as geophysical surveys are highly dependent on specific sensors, which mostly are not designed to be used in these new range of autonomous vehicles. In this work, we propose a novel magnetic survey pipeline that aims to increase versatility, speed and robustness by using autonomous rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)...
December 17, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998878/developing-an-unguided-internet-delivered-intervention-for-emotional-distress-in-primary-care-patients-applying-common-factor-and-person-based-approaches
#18
Adam Wa Geraghty, Ricardo F Muñoz, Lucy Yardley, Jennifer Mc Sharry, Paul Little, Michael Moore
BACKGROUND: Developing effective, unguided Internet interventions for mental health represents a challenge. Without structured human guidance, engagement with these interventions is often limited and the effectiveness reduced. If their effectiveness can be increased, they have great potential for broad, low-cost dissemination. Improving unguided Internet interventions for mental health requires a renewed focus on the proposed underlying mechanisms of symptom improvement and the involvement of target users from the outset...
December 20, 2016: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994910/resveratrol-protects-sepsis-induced-oxidative-dna-damage-in-liver-and-kidney-of-rats
#19
Sevtap Aydın, Tevfik Tolga Şahin, Merve Bacanlı, Gökçe Taner, Arif Ahmet Başaran, Mehtap Aydın, Nurşen Başaran
BACKGROUND: The increases of free radicals have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis, which leads to multiple-organ dysfunction syndromes. The uses of antioxidants as a complementary tool in the medical care of oxidative stress-related diseases have attracted attention of researchers. Resveratrol (RV) has suggested being antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects in various experimental models and clinical settings. AIMS: This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of RV on oxidative DNA damage induced by sepsis in the liver and kidney tissues of Wistar albino rats...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993603/the-neural-diathesis-stress-model-of-schizophrenia-revisited-an-update-on-recent-findings-considering-illness-stage-and-neurobiological-and-methodological-complexities
#20
REVIEW
Marita Pruessner, Alexis E Cullen, Monica Aas, Elaine F Walker
Over the past decade, our understanding of the role of stress in serious mental illness has become more sophisticated. In this paper, we revisit the neural diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia that was initially proposed in 1997 and updated in 2008. In light of cumulative research findings, we must now encompass evidence on the premorbid periods of psychosis, and our more nuanced understanding of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and its association with neurodevelopmental, epigenetic, neurotransmitter, and inflammatory processes, as well as brain structure and function...
December 16, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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