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Lucy P Allen, Jorge Baez, Mary Elizabeth C Stern, Ken Takahashi, Frank George
Although some countries have reduced asbestos consumption and instituted bans, other countries continue to produce and consume asbestos even as asbestos-related deaths mount and the associated societal costs are high. Asbestos production and consumption has declined globally; the number of bans has increased; and the speed at which countries have tapered off consumption has increased. Using country-level data, we study the economic impact of historical changes in the production and use of asbestos. We compare changes in gross domestic product (GDP) following the enactment of asbestos bans...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yalda B Naeini, Ramir Arcega, Sharon Hirschowitz, Nagesh Rao, Haodong Xu
Malignant mesotheliomas are rather uncommon neoplasms associated primarily with asbestos exposure; however, they may also arise as second primary malignancies after radiation therapy, with a latency period of 15-25 years. Numerous studies have reported an association between pleural malignant mesothelioma and chest radiation performed for other malignancies; on the other hand, post-irradiation mesotheliomas of the pericardium have been reported in only a few published cases to date, and no homozygous deletion of 9p21 has been described in such cases...
February 2018: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Rafael E de la Hoz, Jonathan Weber, Dongming Xu, John T Doucette, Xiaoyu Liu, Deborah A Carson, Juan C Celedón
We examined the chest CT scans of 1,453 WTC responders using the International Classification of High-resolution CT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases. Univariate and bivariate analyses of potential work-related pleural abnormalities were performed with pre-WTC and WTC-related occupational exposure data, spirometry, demographics and quantitative CT measurements. Logistic regression was used to evaluate occupational predictors of those abnormalities. Chest CT scans were performed first at a median of 6...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Clare Gilham, Christine Rake, John Hodgson, Andrew Darnton, Garry Burdett, James Peto Wild, Michelle Newton, Andrew G Nicholson, Leslie Davidson, Mike Shires, Tom Treasure, Julian Peto
Background: Occupational and environmental airborne asbestos concentrations are too low and variable for lifetime exposures to be estimated reliably, and building workers and occupants may suffer higher exposure when asbestos in older buildings is disturbed or removed. Mesothelioma risks from current asbestos exposures are therefore not known. Methods: We interviewed and measured asbestos levels in lung samples from 257 patients treated for pneumothorax and 262 with resected lung cancer, recruited in England and Wales...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Amanda J McCambridge, Andrea Napolitano, Aaron S Mansfield, Dean A Fennell, Yoshitaka Sekido, Anna K Nowak, Thanyanan Reungwetwattana, Weimin Mao, Harvey I Pass, Michele Carbone, Haining Yang, Tobias Peikert
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an uncommon, almost universally fatal, asbestos-induced malignancy. New and effective strategies for diagnosis, prognostication and treatment are urgently needed. Herein we review the advances in MPM achieved in 2017. While recent epidemiological data demonstrated that the incidence of MPM-related death continued to increase in United States between 2009 and 2015, new insight into the molecular pathogenesis and the immunological tumor microenvironment of MPM, for example, regarding the role of BRCA1 associated protein 1 (BAP1) and the expression programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1), are highlighting new potential therapeutic strategies...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
E Casalone, A Allione, C Viberti, B Pardini, S Guarrera, M Betti, I Dianzani, E Aldieri, G Matullo
Occupational and environmental asbestos exposure is the main determinant of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), however, the mechanisms by which its fibres contribute to cell toxicity and transformation are not completely clear. Aberrant DNA methylation is a common event in cancer but epigenetic modifications involved specifically in MPM carcinogenesis need to be better clarified. To investigate asbestos-induced DNA methylation and gene expression changes, we treated Met5A mesothelial cells with different concentrations of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos (0...
March 9, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Alenka Franko, Nika Kotnik, Katja Goricar, Viljem Kovac, Metoda Dodic-Fikfak, Vita Dolzan
Background: Malignant mesothelioma is a rare cancer with poor outcome, associated with asbestos exposure. Reactive oxygen species may play an important role in the mechanism of carcinogenesis; therefore, genetic variability in antioxidative defence may modify an individual's susceptibility to this cancer. This study investigated the influence of functional polymorphisms of NQO1 , CAT , SOD2 and hOGG1 genes, gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions on malignant mesothelioma risk...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Arnaud Scherpereel, Frederic Wallyn, Steven M Albelda, Camille Munck
Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare cancer that is typically associated with exposure to asbestos. Patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma have poor outcomes with suboptimal therapeutic options and currently no treatment is curative. The standard frontline treatment, cisplatin plus pemetrexed chemotherapy, has only short and insufficient efficacy, and no validated treatment beyond first-line therapy is available. New therapeutic strategies are therefore needed. The addition of bevacizumab (an anti-VEGF antibody) combined with cisplatin plus pemetrexed has shown some promise...
March 2018: Lancet Oncology
Elisabetta Chellini, Francesca Battisti, Alfonso Cristaudo, Pietro Sartorelli, Piergiuseppe Calà
Asbestos-related diseases usually have a long latency since first exposure and this legitimates a health surveillance programme addressed to asbestos workers after the cessation of their occupational exposure. After a brief history of health surveillance initiatives performed in Italy as well as in other countries, we describe a regional programme for former asbestos-exposed workers, focusing on organizational features. A regional group of experts defined its operational and economical aspects. The Regional Council supported the whole programme, making it free of charge for all subjects who fulfil the predefined enrolment criteria (being resident in the region, being younger than 80 years old with cessation of occupational asbestos exposure within the last 30 years)...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Rudy Foddis, Alessandra Bonotti, Stefano Landi, Poupak Fallahi, Giovanni Guglielmi, Alfonso Cristaudo
Although in most developed countries the use of asbestos is banned, there is still a consistent portion of the world where asbestos extraction, trading and manufacturing of asbestos-made products is largely diffuse. Worldwide, hundreds of millions of people are at risk of developing an asbestos caused disease because of occupational, environmental or domestic exposure. The WHO estimates that asbestos is responsible for more than 100,000 deaths yearly. This scenario has prompted the research on biomarkers potentially useful for early diagnosis, prognosis and preventive programs on exposed population as well...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Alfonso Cristaudo, Alessandra Bonotti, Giovanni Guglielmi, Poupak Fallahi, Rudy Foddis
In the last decade there is been much interest in noninvasive, economic and well-accepted diagnostic tests for screening of subjects exposed to asbestos, and in patients with malignant pleuric mesothelioma (MPM) for diagnosis or monitoring response to treatment. Several biomarkers have been suggested as tools for screening and early diagnosis of MPM. Currently, in patients with MPM, have been reported high levels of soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRP), plasmatic osteopontin (pOPN), vimentin, fibulin-3 and many others as promising marker for diagnosis, even their use in prevention monitoring is still discussed...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Rossella Bruno, Greta Alì, Gabriella Fontanini
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor associated with asbestos exposure. Histopathological analysis of pleural tissues is the gold standard for diagnosis; however, it can be difficult to differentiate malignant from benign pleural lesions. The purpose of this review is to describe the most important biomarkers and new diagnostic tools suggested for this differential diagnosis. There are many studies concerning the separation between MPM and benign pleural proliferations from both pleural tissues or effusions; most of them are based on the evaluation of one or few biomarkers by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), whereas others focused on the identification of MPM signatures given by microRNA (miRNA) or gene expression profiles as well as on the combination of molecular data and classification algorithms...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Greta Alì, Rossella Bruno, Gabriella Fontanini
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), an asbestos-induced tumor, represents significant diagnostic challenges for pathologists. Its histological diagnosis is stepwise and should be based on morphological assessment, supported by clinical and radiological findings, and supplemented with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and, more recently, molecular tests. The main diagnostic dilemmas are the differential diagnoses with benign mesothelial proliferations and other pleural malignant tumors. The present review is an update regarding the morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features with respect to MPM diagnosis...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Paolo Ceruti, Sara Lonni, Francesca Baglivo, Giampietro Marchetti
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an asbestos-related aggressive tumor, that requires proper diagnosis and management. Symptoms are nonspecific and chest computed tomography (CT) and chest ultrasound (US) are important radiological tools in the initial workup to identify early pathological signs. Performing a medical thoracoscopy (MT) is essential for a definitive diagnosis of MPM. The procedure, integrated with a prior US, allows a global evaluation of the pleural cavity and the execution of multiple targeted biopsies, with low risk of complications...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Fabio Falaschi, Chiara Romei, Sara Fiorini, Marco Lucchi
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in an uncommon neoplasia with high mortality rate, mostly related to professional asbestos exposure. Clinical manifestations are not specific so that diagnosis is performed at advanced stage and screening protocols are not feasible now. On the other hand, asbestos-exposed workers have a high incidence of developing lung cancer. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is a volumetric acquisition technique with high spatial resolution and a low dose exposure; it is used in many trials to detect lung tumours at an early stage in screening protocols, reducing mortality rate in smoker subjects...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Andrea Bianco, Tullio Valente, Maria Luisa De Rimini, Giacomo Sica, Alfonso Fiorelli
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a tumour which, despite progress in diagnostic procedures and biomolecular research, has poor prognosis. Symptoms reflect extension of disease and include shortness of breath and chest pain. Unexplained pleural effusion and pleural pain in patients exposed to asbestos should raise the suspicion of MPM. MPM diagnosis requires imaging procedures X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scans; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) better defines the extension of the tumor while PET scanning provides additional information on metabolic activity, metastases, and response to treatment...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Ombretta Melaiu, Federica Gemignani, Stefano Landi
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a cancer of the pleural cavity whose main risk factor is exposure to asbestos. However, it has been shown that only a minority of exposed people develops MPM. In fact, the incidence among professionally exposed workers was shown to vary between 0.5% and 18.0%. Various hints suggested that other important cofactors could play a role, in particular the genetic susceptibility. Impressive is the case of Cappadocians families exposed to erionite and affected by an "epidemic" of MPM with about half of the inhabitants dying for the disease...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Enrico Pira, Francesca Donato, Luisa Maida, Gianluigi Discalzi
This paper summarises the past, present and future of asbestos exposure. The future scenarios as to the mesothelioma incidence in countries, where asbestos has been banned, are discussed.
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Alessandro Marinaccio, Alessandra Binazzi, Michela Bonafede, Davide Di Marzio, Alberto Scarselli
Background: As a legacy of the large asbestos consumption until the definitive ban in 1992, Italy is currently suffering a severe epidemic of asbestos related diseases. The aim of this paper is to describe the surveillance system for mesothelioma incidence and to provide evidences regarding the occurrence of the disease in Italy and the circumstances of asbestos exposure. Methods: Italian National Register of Malignant Mesotheliomas (ReNaM) is a permanent surveillance system of mesothelioma incidence, with Regional Operating Centres (CORs) active in each Italian region, identifying incident malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases from health care structures...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Hubert Rehrauer, Licun Wu, Walter Blum, Lazslo Pecze, Thomas Henzi, Véronique Serre-Beinier, Catherine Aquino, Bart Vrugt, Marc de Perrot, Beat Schwaller, Emanuela Felley-Bosco
Chronic exposure to intraperitoneal asbestos triggered a marked response in the mesothelium well before tumor development. Macrophages, mesothelial precursor cells, cytokines, and growth factors accumulated in the peritoneal lavage. Transcriptome profiling revealed YAP/TAZ activation in inflamed mesothelium with further activation in tumors, paralleled by increased levels of cells with nuclear YAP/TAZ. Arg1 was one of the highest upregulated genes in inflamed tissue and tumor. Inflamed tissue showed increased levels of single-nucleotide variations, with an RNA-editing signature, which were even higher in the tumor samples...
March 6, 2018: Oncogene
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