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Veterinary chronic pain

Ubedullah Kaka, Bullo Saifullah, Adamu Abdul Abubakar, Yong Meng Goh, Sharida Fakurazi, Asmatullah Kaka, Atique Ahmed Behan, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Hui Cheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Central sensitization is a potential severe consequence of invasive surgical procedures. It results in postoperative and potentially chronic pain enhancement. It results in postoperative pain enhancement; clinically manifested as hyperalgesia and allodynia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays a crucial role in the mechanism of central sensitisation. Ketamine is most commonly used NMDA-antagonist in human and veterinary practice. However, the antinociceptive serum concentration of ketamine is not yet properly established in dogs...
September 9, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Eloise Cj Carr, Emma V Briggs, Michelle Briggs, Nick Allcock, Pauline Black, Derek Jones
BACKGROUND: Studies in Europe, North America and Australasia suggest that one in five adults suffer from pain. There is increasing recognition that pain, particularly chronic pain, represents a global health burden. Many studies, including two national surveys exploring the content of undergraduate curricula for pain education, identify that documented pain education in curricula was limited and fragmentary. METHODS: The study design used a questionnaire which included an open text comment box for respondents to add 'further comments' as part of larger study previously published...
May 2016: British Journal of Pain
S Sanchis-Mora, L Pelligand, C L Thomas, H A Volk, S M Abeyesinghe, D C Brodbelt, D B Church, P C Thomson, P D McGreevy, D G O'Neill
Chiari-like malformation/syringomyelia (CM/SM) in dogs describes a developmental disorder that can cause pain and reduced quality of life. This retrospective study aimed to report the period prevalence, clinical signs and risk factors for diagnosis of symptomatic CM/SM in the veterinary primary-care setting using a cross-sectional design. The study population included all dogs within the VetCompass Programme (September 1, 2009-June 13, 2014). Overall, the period prevalence of symptomatic CM/SM was 0.05 per cent (95 per cent CI 0...
October 29, 2016: Veterinary Record
Dorothy Cimino Brown
Control of chronic pain is frequently inadequate or can be associated with debilitating side effects. Ablation of certain nociceptive neurons, while retaining all other sensory modalities and motor function, represents a new therapeutic approach to controlling severe pain while avoiding off-target side effects. transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) is a calcium permeable nonselective cation channel expressed on the peripheral and central terminals of small-diameter sensory neurons...
August 11, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
Jad A Dandashi, Damir Nizamutdinov, Samantha Dayawansa, Ekokobe Fonkem, Jason H Huang
Today, Lyme disease is the most commonly reported tick-borne disease in the United States and Europe. The culprits behind Lyme disease are the Borrelia species of bacteria. In the USA, Borrelia burgdorferi causes the majority of cases, while in Europe and Asia Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii carry the greatest burden of disease. The clinical manifestations of Lyme disease have been identified as early localized, early disseminated, and late chronic. The neurological effects of Lyme disease include both peripheral and central nervous systems involvement, including focal nerve abnormalities, cranial neuropathies, painful radiculoneuritis, meningitis, and/or toxic metabolic encephalopathy, known as Lyme encephalopathy...
June 2016: Journal of Neuroinfectious Diseases
Johann Burgstaller, Johann Kofler
A five month old Brown Swiss heifer calf (212 kg body mass) with severe left hind limb lameness, caused by a wound of the lateral digit was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital. The calf showed a score 4 of 5 lameness on the left hind limb. A scarified skin lesion with a fistula formation and purulent exudate was observed at the level of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIJ) of the lateral digit of the left hind. The PIJ region and the lateral digit were severely swollen and painful. Ultrasonography showed a moderate anechoic effusion of the lateral digital flexor tendon sheet (DFTS) and a severe heterogeneous hypoechoic effusion with some small hyperechoic areas of the plantar and dorsal pouch of the PIJ...
March 2016: Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift
Sarah A Moore
Disorders of the somatosensory system such as neuropathic pain are common in people with chronic neurologic and musculoskeletal diseases, yet these conditions remain an underappreciated morbidity in veterinary patients. This is likely because assessment of neuropathic pain in people relies heavily on self-reporting, something our veterinary patients are not able to do. The development of neuropathic pain is a complex phenomenon, and concepts related to it are frequently not addressed in the standard veterinary medical curriculum such that veterinarians may not recognize this as a potential problem in patients...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Francis Mutebi, Jürgen Krücken, Hermann Feldmeier, Charles Waiswa, Norbert Mencke, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna
BACKGROUND: Tunga penetrans (Insecta, Siphonaptera, Tungidae) causes severe morbidity among heavily infected humans and animals in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. The clinical pathology of tungiasis in animals has never been studied systematically. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between January to March 2015, aimed at describing tungiasis-associated clinical pathology in 121 and 20 T. penetrans-infected pigs and dogs, living in nine and five endemic rural villages respectively located in Bugiri District, Busoga, Uganda...
January 27, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Nicole M Scherrer, Mary Lassaline, William W Miller
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of four horses with severe corneal edema caused by suspected endothelial disease treated with a superficial keratectomy and Gundersen inlay flap and to determine whether this procedure (i) reduces corneal edema, (ii) reduces ocular pain, (iii) eliminates recurrent corneal ulceration, and (iv) improves vision in these horses. ANIMALS STUDIED: Four horses met inclusion criterion of (i) diagnosis with endothelial disease by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist and (ii) surgical treatment with a superficial keratectomy and Gundersen inlay flap...
January 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
F H Regan Nee Ashley, J Hockenhull, J C Pritchard, A E Waterman-Pearson, H R Whay
INTRODUCTIONS: Working donkeys are at risk of developing multiple, acute and chronic health problems. The ability to recognise and assess pain in donkeys associated with these health problems is important for people responsible for their care and treatment, including owners and veterinary or animal health workers. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were firstly to quantify the prevalence of a range of clinical abnormalities within a sample of working donkeys; and secondly to find out whether these abnormalities were associated with potential behavioural indicators of pain...
2015: Veterinary Record Open
A J Kortum, E J Best
A two-year-old Jack Russell terrier presented with a chronic history of weight loss and the recent development of a discharging wound in the left inguinal region that was confirmed by ultrasound and contrast radiography to be an enterocutaneous fistula. One day following admission the dog displayed signs of abdominal pain and the general condition deteriorated. At exploratory coeliotomy there was evidence of septic peritonitis and a segment of jejunum was found firmly adhered to the left inguinal canal. The affected jejunal segment was excised and an end-to-end anastomosis performed...
March 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Assaf Lerer, Stephanie G Nykamp, Alexandra B Harriss, Thomas W G Gibson, Thomas G Koch, Stephen H M Brown
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Human studies have revealed a link between muscle degeneration and low back pain, although the cause and effect of this relationship is not clear. Dogs provide a naturally developing model of intervertebral disc (IVD)-related low back pain that may provide insight into relationships between IVD and muscle degeneration. PURPOSE: This study aimed to quantify, via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the magnitude and location of fatty infiltration in spine muscles of chondrodystrophic (CD) and non-chondrodystrophic (NCD) dogs suffering from both intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) and non-disc-related spinal disorders, and relate this to intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD)...
November 1, 2015: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
R Morgan, J Keen, C McGowan
Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS)...
August 15, 2015: Veterinary Record
S Boal, L Miguel Carreira
Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a progressive, chronic joint disease with an inflammatory component promoting an acute phase protein (APP) response. C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the most important APPs, used as an inflammation marker in human, but not veterinary medicine. The study was developed in a sample of 48 dogs (n = 48) with DJD and aimed to: 1) identify and quantify the synovial fluid CRP (SFCRP) in these specimens using a validated ELISA test for serum CRP (SCRP) detection and quantification; and 2) to study the possible relationship between SCRP and SFCRP levels variations in DJD patients evaluating the influence of some physical parameters such as gender, body weight, pain level, DJD grade, and the physical activity (PA) of the patients...
September 2015: Veterinary Research Communications
Isabella Merola, Daniel S Mills
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to review systematically the range of assessment tools used in cats to detect the behavioural expression of pain and the evidence of their quality; and to examine behavioural metrics (considering both the sensory and affective domains) used to assess pain. METHODS: A search of PubMed and ScienceDirect, alongside articles known to the authors, from 2000 onwards, for papers in English was performed. This was followed by a manual search of the references within the primary data sources...
February 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
H R Herd, M M Sula, L A Starkey, R J Panciera, E M Johnson, T A Snider, T C Holbrook
This report describes 2 genetically related paint mares, case Nos. 1 and 2, presented to the Oklahoma State University Boren Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for chronic weight loss and abnormal gait, respectively. Notable findings in both cases included marked persistent eosinophilia and multiple intramuscular lateral thoracic masses. Histologic examination of masses revealed eosinophilic, centrally necrotic granulomas and marked eosinophilic myositis. Granulomas in case No. 1 also contained intralesional Sarcocystis sp material, and adjacent muscle fibers contained intact protozoal cysts...
November 2015: Veterinary Pathology
Mark E Epstein, Ilona Rodanm, Gregg Griffenhagen, Jamie Kadrlik, Michael C Petty, Sheilah A Robertson, Wendy Simpson
RATIONALE: The robust advances in pain management for companion animals underlie the decision of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) and American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) to expand on the information provided in the 2007 AAHA/AAFP Pain Management Guidelines. The 2015 Guidelines summarize and offer a discriminating review of much of this new knowledge. RELEVANCE: Pain management is central to veterinary practice, alleviating pain, improving patient outcomes, and enhancing both quality of life and the veterinarian-client-patient relationship...
March 2015: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
P Watson
Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas, is commonly seen in dogs and cats and presents a spectrum of disease severities from acute to chronic and mild to severe. It is usually sterile, but the causes and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. The acute end of the disease spectrum is associated with a high mortality but the potential for complete recovery of organ structure and function if the animal survives. At the other end of the spectrum, chronic pancreatitis in either species can cause refractory pain and reduce quality of life...
January 2015: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Judi Stella, Candace Croney, Tony Buffington
Feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) is a chronic pain syndrome of domestic cats. Cats with FIC have chronic, recurrent lower urinary tract signs (LUTS) and other comorbid disorders that are exacerbated by stressors. The aim of this study was to evaluate behavioral and physiological responses of healthy cats and cats diagnosed with FIC after exposure to a five day stressor. Ten healthy cats and 18 cats with FIC were housed at The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center (OSUVMC) vivarium. All cats were housed in enriched cages for at least one year prior to the experiment...
January 31, 2013: Applied Animal Behaviour Science
Lisa Corti
A nonpharmaceutical approach to managing pain is one that does not employ a medication. The use of such approaches, in conjunction with pharmaceuticals as part of multimodal methods to managing pain, is becoming more popular as evidence is emerging to support their use. Cold therapy, for one, is used to reduce the inflammation and tissue damage seen in acute injuries and can be very effective at reducing acute pain. Incorporating the use of superficial heat therapy when treating pain associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions is often employed as heat increases blood flow, oxygen delivery, and tissue extensibility...
March 2014: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
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