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colitis microscopic

Maciej Gonciarz, Dawid Szkudłapski, Jerzy Eszyk, Justyna Smagacz, Marek Kopała
Microscopic colitis (MC) is frequent, although still uncommonly diagnosed, cause of chronic diarrhea. The etiopathology of MC is unknown but this disease has strong influence on patient's quality of life (measured by health-related quality of life - HRQoL). MC is characterized by microscopic abnormalities in large bowel's mucosa whereas endoscopic and radiological examination findings are normal. The treatment of MC is an essential social and financial problem due to its frequency in society. Thanks to the results of some controlled research which judged efficiency of some medicines as well as advisory groups recommendations, the MC therapy is nowadays going from empiric to accordance with evidence based medicine...
October 19, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Francesca Palone, Roberta Vitali, Salvatore Cucchiara, Maurizio Mennini, Alessandro Armuzzi, Daniela Pugliese, Renata DʼIncà, Brigida Barberio, Laura Stronati
BACKGROUND: Fecal high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been suggested to be a novel noninvasive biomarker of gut inflammation. We aimed to assess the reliability of fecal HMGB1, compared with fecal calprotectin (FC), in detecting intestinal inflammation in pediatric and adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to evaluate the accuracy of HMGB1 in identifying patients with IBD in clinical and endoscopic remission who still have histologic features of inflammation. METHODS: Stool samples from 85 children with IBD (49 Crohn's disease [CD] and 36 ulcerative colitis [UC] and 119 adults [57 Crohn's disease and 62 ulcerative colitis]) were analyzed for the study...
October 13, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Ernest H Law, Melissa Badowski, Yu-Ting Hung, Kimberly Weems, Angelica Sanchez, Todd A Lee
OBJECTIVE: Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon that is characterized by chronic, watery, nonbloody diarrhea. Concern regarding a potential association between proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) and MC has recently emerged. We sought to systematically review and summarize the evidence for the potential association between PPIs and MC. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Google Scholar using the terms proton-pump inhibitors (omeprazole, lansoprazole, dexlansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, or esomeprazole), microscopic colitis, collagenous colitis, and lymphocytic colitis STUDY SELECTION: Full-text, English-language reports of case reports/series, observational studies, experimental studies, and systematic reviews/meta-analyses published between January 2000 to August 2016 were included...
October 12, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Dilek Özbeyli, Ayşe Cansu Berberoglu, Anıl Özen, Oktay Erkan, Yunus Başar, Tunahan Şen, Akakın Dilek, Yüksel Meral, Kasımay Çakır Özgür
The role of second hand smoke [SHS] exposure on ulcerative colitis is not known. Our aim was to examine the effects of α-lipoic acid (ALA), chronic aerobic [AE] or resistance exercise [RE] on SHS exposed rats with colitis. Sprague-Dawley male rats [150-200g, n=54] were occupied for colitis induction. Among the colitis groups, one group was exposed to SHS [6 days/week, 4 cigarettes/day] and the other was not. SHS group was divided into subgroups as sedentary, AE [swimming; 3 days/week] and RE [climbing with weight; 3 days/week]...
October 8, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Adnan Hassan Tahir, Juan Wan, Manoj Kumar Shah, Habibullah Janyaro, Xiao-Jing Li, Ming-Xing Ding
BACKGROUND: Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is a common condition in many gastrointestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in human and animals. Most studies often induce Crohn's disease/colitis to investigate VH in small experimental animals. Although farm animals commonly suffer from IBDs, their VH has not been investigated so far. Because goats can suffer from Johne's disease, a naturally occurring Crohn's-like disease, they may be suitable to be used for studying the mechanism underlying VH in common intestinal disorders of large animals...
October 6, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Andrew Mitchell, Alexandre Dugas
BACKGROUND: Perforation of the colon occurring during or shortly following colonoscopy or barium enema is a rare complication of collagenous colitis (CC). "Spontaneous" perforation in CC, in which no instigating factor is identified, is even less common, with only five cases reported to date. We report herein an additional case of spontaneous perforation in previously undiagnosed CC and review the clinical and pathological features of previously reported cases. CASE PRESENTATION: An 80 year old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain preceded by approximately one month of frequent non-bloody diarrhea...
October 6, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Helena Shifrin, Dorit Moradov, Corina Bejar, Donna Schorer-Apelbaum, Marta Weinstock
BACKGROUND: In search of safer treatments for inflammatory bowel disease in subjects not responding to, or showing adverse effects to TNF-α antagonists, we tested three novel indoline carbamates in the 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) model of colitis in rats. The compounds have anti-inflammatory activity in other disease models in mice. METHODS: AN827 (3-(2-(methoxy carbonyl) ethyl) indolin-4-ylethyl methyl) carbamate (0.1 or 1mg/kg), AN680 (3-(2-(methoxy carbonyl) ethyl) indolin-6-ylethyl methyl) carbamate (1...
August 31, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Krzysztof Siczek, Hubert Zatorski, Anna Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Magdalena Śmiech, Radzisław Kordek, Leszek Tymczyna, Marcin Banach, Jakub Fichna
The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of newly developed silver nanoparticle aqueous suspensions NanoAg1 and NanoAg2 in the mouse models mimicking ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). NanoAg1 and NanoAg2 were synthesized in aqueous medium with the involvement of tannic acid. To elucidate their anti-inflammatory activity, semi-chronic mouse models of inflammation induced by DSS addition to drinking water and intracolonic (i.c.) administration of TNBS were used. NanoAg1 and NanoAg2 (0...
October 3, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Shunsuke Sekiya, Makoto Murata, Satoshi Arai, Hiroshi Murayama, Atushi Kawasaki, Noriyuki Ashida, Kohki Okada, Masaki Ikemoto
Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9, has been reported to be a useful biomarker in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, the relationship between the fecal level of S100A9 and the extent of inflammation in IBD remains unclear. Our aim was to develop a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rat S100A9, and to investigate whether changes in fecal S100A9 levels reflect the inflammatory conditions in the intestinal tracts of rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Anti-rat S100A9 monoclonal antibodies were raised in mice and used for the development of a novel ELISA for rat S100A9...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
Fernando Magro, Susana Lopes, Rosa Coelho, José Cotter, Francisca Dias de Castro, Helena Tavares de Sousa, Marta Salgado, Patrícia Andrade, Ana Isabel Vieira, Pedro Figueiredo, Paulo Caldeira, A Sousa, Maria A Duarte, Filipa Ávila, João Silva, Joana Moleiro, Sofia Mendes, Sílvia Giestas, Paula Ministro, Paula Sousa, Raquel Gonçalves, Bruno Gonçalves, Ana Oliveira, Cristina Chagas, Joana Torres, Cláudia Camila Dias, Joanne Lopes, Paula Borralho, Joana Afonso, Karel Geboes, Fátima Carneiro
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal healing and histological remission are different targets in patients with ulcerative colitis, but both rely on an invasive endoscopic procedure. This study aimed to assess faecal calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase B-associated lipocalin as biomarkers for disease activity in asymptomatic ulcerative colitis patients. METHODS: This was a multicentric cross-sectional study including 371 patients, who were classified according to their endoscopic and histological scores...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Mathurin Fumery, Mathieu Kohut, Corinne Gower-Rousseau, Alain Duhamel, Franck Brazier, Francoise Thelu, Francis Nagorniewicz, Francois Lamarche, Eric Nguyen-Khac, Charles Sabbagh, Julien Loreau, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Guillaume Savoye, Denis Chatelain, Jean-Louis Dupas
OBJECTIVE: To date, there are no epidemiological data on microscopic colitis (MC) in France. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of MC in the Somme department in Northern France, to evaluate clinical characteristics, and to search for risk factors for both collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC). DESIGN: Between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2007, four pathology units in the Somme department recorded all new cases of MC diagnosed in patients living in the area...
September 22, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Reza Rahimian, Mohammad Reza Zirak, Mojtaba Keshavarz, Nahid Fakhraei, Ahmad Mohammadi-Farani, Hanan Hamdi, Kazem Mousavizadeh
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Tropisetron, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is highly used to counteract chemotherapy-induced emesis. Previous studies revealed the anti-inflammatory properties of this drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) receptor in the protective effect of tropisetron in an animal model of ulcerative colitis. Experimental colitis was induced by a single intra-colonic instillation of 4% (V/V) acetic acid in male rats...
September 20, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Mario Rodriguez-Canales, Ruben Jimenez-Rivas, Maria Margarita Canales-Martinez, Ana Judith Garcia-Lopez, Nelly Rivera-Yañez, Oscar Nieto-Yañez, Yadira Ledesma-Soto, Luvia Enid Sanchez-Torres, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa, Luis Ignacio Terrazas, Marco Aurelio Rodriguez-Monroy
Amphipterygium adstringens is an endemic species in Mexico commonly known as "cuachalalate." Healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer have traditionally used the bark. We investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of A. adstringens (AaEE) in DSS-induced colitis in mice. The protective effect of AaEE was determined at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 days. We determine the effect of AaEE on clinical features (disease activity index), antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities in relation to the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and changes both macroscopic and microscopic of the colonic mucosa...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Marjorie M Walker
Chronic and complex gut syndromes are complex to diagnose and manage, but good clinicopathologic correlation, recognition of new entities, understanding (and understanding the limits) of genetic susceptibility and the importance of the microbiome, dysbiosis and influence of the environmental allows development of new models for diagnosis. An awareness of overlap in chronic gut syndromes has been clarified by the realization that inflammatory pathways involved in chronic gut disease can arise through variable gene expression that is influenced by the environment in susceptible individuals...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Kevin Randall, Neil Henderson, Jaimini Reens, Sonia Eckersley, Ann-Christin Nyström, Marie C South, Clare A Balendran, Gerhard Böttcher, Glen Hughes, Sally A Price
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the colon and is characterized by epithelial damage and barrier dysfunction. Upregulation of the tight junction protein claudin-2 by cytokines is hypothesized to contribute to the dysregulation of the epithelial barrier. New therapeutic agents which block the action of cytokines are being investigated in patients with ulcerative colitis. In order to understand the potential of these therapies, it is important to have reliable assays that can assess downstream endpoints that reflect drug mechanism of action...
2016: PloS One
M L Anzoise, C Marrassini, H Bach, S Gorzalczany
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) is a medicinal plant commonly used in traditional medicine in South America for different pathologies associated with the gastrointestinal tract. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, the activity of the ethanolic extract of P. caerulea on an experimental colitis model related to inflammatory bowel disease has been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of a 2mL of 4% (v/v) acetic acid solution...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Aranzazu Jauregui-Amezaga, Auke Geerits, Yannick Das, Bart Lemmens, Xavier Sagaert, Talat Bessissow, Triana Lobatón, Marc Ferrante, Gert Van Assche, Raf Bisschops, Karel Geboes, Gert De Hertogh, Séverine Vermeire
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The original Geboes Score [OGS] is the most commonly used histological score in ulcerative colitis [UC], but rather complicated to use in daily clinical practice. The aim of this study was to develop a Simplified Geboes Score [SGS] and to compare it with the OGS in patients newly diagnosed with UC. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with UC at a tertiary referral centre between 2005 and 2010, who had serial colonoscopies with biopsies, were retrospectively included...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Xingxing Zhang, Jian Wu, Bo Ye, Qiong Wang, Xiaodong Xie, Hong Shen
BACKGROUND: Curcumin displays a protective role in rat models of intestinal inflammation. However, the mechanism of how curcumin affects on intestinal inflammation is less known. The purpose of the current study is to explore the signal pathway in which the curcumin protecting rat from intestinal inflammation. METHODS: The intestinal inflammation rat models were made by TNBS treatment. Curcumin was added to their diet 5 days before the TNBS instillation. After that, body weight change, score of macroscopic assessment of disease activity and microscopic scoring were utilized to analyse the severity of the induced inflammation...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Rana Rais, Weiwei Jiang, Huihong Zhai, Krystyna M Wozniak, Marigo Stathis, Kristen R Hollinger, Ajit G Thomas, Camilo Rojas, James J Vornov, Michael Marohn, Xuhang Li, Barbara S Slusher
Recent gene-profiling analyses showed significant upregulation of the folate hydrolase (FOLH1) gene in the affected intestinal mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The FOLH1 gene encodes a type II transmembrane glycoprotein termed glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII). To establish that the previously reported increased gene expression was functional, we quantified the glutamate carboxypeptidase enzymatic activity in 31 surgical specimens and report a robust 2.8- to 41-fold increase in enzymatic activity in the affected intestinal mucosa of IBD patients compared with an uninvolved area in the same patients or intestinal mucosa from healthy controls...
August 4, 2016: JCI Insight
Rebecca Jane Anderson, Richard Makins
A 50-year-old woman with treatment-refractory lymphocytic colitis was diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis. She was started on adalimumab injections which significantly improved her stool frequency and consistency and, consequently, her quality of life.
2016: BMJ Case Reports
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