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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783922/lethal-phlegmonous-colitis
#1
John D Gilbert, Roger W Byard
A 52-year-old man died soon after admission to hospital with a severe metabolic acidosis and likely sepsis. He had a past history of alcohol abuse with withdrawal seizures. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed thickened bowel loops but no obvious ischaemic changes, and a blood culture yielded a pure growth of Escherichia coli. At autopsy, the liver showed well-established micro-nodular cirrhosis with steatosis. The peritoneal cavity contained 200 mL of turbid yellow-brown fluid, and the caecum and ascending colon were unusually thickened...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764253/anti-inflammatory-local-effect-of-hydroxytyrosol-combined-with-pectin-alginate-and-olive-oil-on-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid-induced-colitis-in-wistar-rats
#2
A Voltes, A Bermúdez, G Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, M L Reyes, C Olano, J Fernández-Bolaños, F de la Portilla
PURPOSE: Evaluate the efficacy of hydroxytyrosol in the local treatment of inflammatory colitis. Currently, the existing treatments for inflammatory bowel diseases does not cure the disease and it is associated with high rates of side effects and complications. Hydroxytyrosol is a phenyl-ethyl-alcohol derived from the hydrolysis of oleuropein and present in olive oil, previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect of dietary hydroxytyrosol supplement, with no toxicity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751345/facile-fabrication-of-bowl-shaped-microparticles-for-oral-curcumin-delivery-to-ulcerative-colitis-tissue
#3
Qiubing Chen, Shuangquan Gou, Yamei Huang, Xin Zhou, Qian Li, Moon Kwon Han, Yuejun Kang, Bo Xiao
Oral microparticles (MPs) have been considered as promising drug carriers in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Here, a facile strategy based on a conventional emulsion-solvent evaporation technique was used to fabricate bowl-shaped MPs (BMPs), and these MPs loaded with anti-inflammatory drug (curcumin, CUR) during the fabrication process. The physicochemical properties of the resultant BMPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope, confocal laser scanning microscope and X-ray diffraction as well as contact angle goniometer...
May 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742325/microscopic-colitis-a-population-based-case-series-over-a-nine-year-period-in-northern-ireland
#4
Michelle Moore, Helen G Coleman, Patrick B Allen, Maurice B Loughrey
AIM: We report clinicopathological experience of microscopic colitis in a population-based case series in Northern Ireland, over a nine year period. METHOD: The pathology laboratory information system within a large teaching centre serving two healthcare trusts was interrogated for cases coded between 2008 and 2016 as collagenous colitis (CC) or lymphocytic colitis (LC). Demographic, clinical and follow up information was collected from healthcare records. RESULTS: A total of 326 new diagnoses of MC were identified, an average annual incidence of 6...
May 9, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710854/frondanol-a-nutraceutical-extract-from-cucumaria-frondosa-attenuates-colonic-inflammation-in-a-dss-induced-colitis-model-in-mice
#5
Sandeep B Subramanya, Sanjana Chandran, Saeeda Almarzooqi, Vishnu Raj, Aisha Salem Al Zahmi, Radeya Ahmed Al Katheeri, Samira Ali Al Zadjali, Peter D Collin, Thomas E Adrian
Frondanol is a nutraceutical lipid extract of the intestine of the edible Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, with potent anti-inflammatory effects. In the current study, we investigated Frondanol as a putative anti-inflammatory compound in an experimental model of colonic inflammation. C57BL/6J male black mice (C57BL/6J) were given 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days to induce colitis. The colitis group received oral Frondanol (100 mg/kg body weight/per day by gavage) and were compared with a control group and the DSS group...
April 30, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704005/multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-aggravates-inflammatory-responses-in-murine-chronic-colitis
#6
Eliane von Klitzing, Ira Ekmekciu, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
The World Health Organization has rated multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Psae) as serious threat to human health. We here addressed whether chronic murine gut inflammation facilitates intestinal MDR Psae colonization and whether bacterial infection subsequently worsens colonic immunopathology. Converse to wildtype counterparts, Psae colonized the intestines of IL-10-/- mice with chronic colitis following peroral challenge, but did not lead to changes in intestinal microbiota composition...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688465/low-incidence-of-dysplasia-and-colorectal-cancer-observed-among-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-with-prolonged-colonic-diversion
#7
Weston Bettner, Anthony Rizzo, Steven Brant, Sharon Dudley-Brown, Jonathan Efron, Sandy Fang, Susan Gearhart, Michael Marohn, Alyssa Parian, Maryam Kherad Pezhouh, Joanna Melia, Bashar Safar, Brindusa Truta, Elizabeth Wick, Mark Lazarev
Background: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), many scenarios call for fecal diversion, leaving behind defunctionalized bowel. The theoretical risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in this segment is frequently cited as a reason for resection. To date, no studies have characterized the incidence of neoplasia in the diverted colorectal segments of IBD patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted for IBD patients identified through a tertiary care center pathology database...
April 23, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673364/colorectal-dysplasia-and-adenocarcinoma-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-an-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#8
Naila Younus, Mariam Abid, Atif Ali Hashmi, Saher Aijaz, Muhammad Muzzammil Edhi, Ahmareen Khalid Sheikh, Amir Khan
BACKGROUND: The rationale behind this study was to find out the frequency of dysplasia and colorectal cancer (CRC) in young patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) using histopathological examination. This facilitated early detection of dysplasia and CRC by regular endoscopic biopsies and also guided physicians on appropriate surveillance and management, thus improved outcome. METHODS: It was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Pathology, PIMS, Islamabad...
April 19, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661024/surface-engineered-lipid-nanoparticle-mediated-site-specific-drug-delivery-system-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Gurpreet Kaur Sinhmar, Neel N Shah, Shruti U Rawal, Nimitt V Chokshi, Hiren N Khatri, Bhoomika M Patel, Mayur M Patel
The major challenge for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the incompetence to deliver the drug molecule selectively at the site of inflammation. Taking this into consideration, we proposed development of mannosylated nanostructured lipid carrier system (Mn-NLCs) for active targeting and site-specific delivery of budesonide to the inflamed tissues. The developed Mn-NLCs were characterized for particle size and size distribution, zeta potential, %entrapment efficiency, FTIR and TEM analysis...
April 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656366/sodium-selenite-ameliorates-both-intestinal-and-extra-intestinal-changes-in-acetic-acid-induced-colitis-in-rats
#10
Samar M Soliman, Walaa Wadie, Samia A Shouman, Afaf A Ainshoka
Selenium and its derivatives including sodium selenite (sod sel) belong to the group of essential trace elements needed for proper health and nutrition. They are fairly safe and possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of present investigation was to elucidate the effect of sod sel on experimental colitis model in rats. Colitis was induced by intrarectal instillation of 4% (v/v) acetic acid. Two hours later, sod sel was given to rats on a daily basis for 15 consecutive days. Clinical symptoms, colon mass index, spleen weight inflammatory markers, hematological, biochemical, macroscopic, and histological changes were determined...
April 14, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626646/cirrhosis-induced-by-bile-duct-ligation-alleviates-acetic-acid-intestinal-damages-in-rats-involvements-of-nitrergic-and-opioidergic-systems
#11
Nastaran Rahimi, Mahsa Hassanipour, Narges Sistany Allahabadi, Fatemeh Sabbaghziarani, Maryam Yazdanparast, Ahmadreza Dehpour
BACKGROUND: Colitis, a colonic inflammatory condition, showed a linkage with hepatobiliary disorders such as cirrhosis. It has been reported that both endogenous opioids and nitric oxide (NO) play critical roles in colitis pathogenesis. Moreover, opioid and NO levels showed elevation in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cirrhosis on the experimental model of colitis and the possible involvement of opioidergic/nitrergic systems in rats. METHODS: Colitis was induced by acetic acid 28 days after bile duct ligation (BDL)...
November 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610757/the-subtypes-of-microscopic-colitis-from-a-pathologist-s-perspective-past-present-and-future
#12
Peter Johan Heiberg Engel, Anne-Marie Kanstrup Fiehn, Lars Kristian Munck, Martin Kristensson
Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease, encompassing a triad of chronic diarrhea, normal endoscopy and characteristic histological findings. MC embraces two histological subtypes described as lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC). The diagnostic criteria of MC were established several years ago and the histological description of LC and CC was based almost exclusively on heamatoxylin-eosin (HE) stained sections. Since the establishment of the diagnostic criteria, important changes have occurred in the concept and diagnostic methods of MC: the emergence of the entity "microscopic colitis incomplete" (MCi), comprising collagenous colitis incomplete (CCi) and lymphocytic colitis incomplete (LCi) and pathologists' increasing use of special stains in everyday diagnostics...
February 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610731/microscopic-colitis-microbiome-barrier-function-and-associated-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Saskia van Hemert, Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Igor Loniewski, Piotr Szredzki, Wojciech Marlicz
Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with little in terms of endoscopic abnormalities and is frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases. The peak incidence of the disease is in middle aged or older populations, mostly females. The pathogenesis of MC is complex, multifactorial and poorly understood. Current concepts revolve around innate immunity or microbiome alterations as well as gut barrier dysfunction, all of which lead to the development of subtle inflammatory lesions in gut mucosa...
February 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610496/pembrolizumab-induced-microscopic-colitis
#14
Monjur Ahmed, Gloria Francis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603881/decreased-risk-for-microscopic-colitis-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-among-patients-with-reflux-disease
#15
Amnon Sonnenberg, Kevin O Turner, Robert M Genta
BACKGROUND: Previous studies found an increased risk for microscopic colitis (MC) associated with proton pump inhibitors. In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD), proton pump inhibitors have been associated with an increased risk for IBD flares and impaired outcomes. AIMS: To test the epidemiologic associations between gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and MC, UC or CD in a large database. METHOD: The Miraca Life Sciences Database is a national electronic repository of histopathological records of patients distributed throughout the entire US...
March 31, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603368/oral-budesonide-in-gastrointestinal-and-liver-disease-a-practical-guide-for-the-clinician
#16
REVIEW
Stephan Miehlke, Manuel Barreiro-de Acosta, Gerd Bouma, Daniel Carpio, Fernando Magro, Tom Moreels, Chris Probert
Oral budesonide is a second- generation steroid which allows local, selective treatment of the gastrointestinal tract and the liver, minimizing systemic exposure. The results of randomized trials comparing budesonide versus placebo or active comparators have led to expert recommendations that budesonide be used to treat mild or moderate active ileocecal Crohn's disease, microscopic colitis (including both collagenous and lymphocytic colitis), ulcerative colitis and non-cirrhotic autoimmune hepatitis. The mechanism of budesonide action obviates the need for dose tapering due to safety reasons after induction therapy...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599347/morphological-classification-of-corrupted-colonic-crypts-in-ulcerative-colitis
#17
Carlos A Rubio, Peter T Schmidt
BACKGROUND/AIM: In ulcerative colitis (UC) the colonic mucosa shows, in addition to a high number of inflammatory cells, crypts with architectural distortions, called corrupted colonic crypts (CCC). Here we classify the histologic repertoire and assess the frequency of CCC in UC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five-hundred and sixteen histologic sections from 29 colectomy specimens with UC (24 having adenocarcinoma and five, high-grade dysplasia, HGD) were reviewed. RESULTS: The vast majority of the colonic mucosa portrayed countless crypts with normal shapes (CNS) lined with normal epithelium, except for 45 CNS: 28 showed inconclusive-suspected cellular changes (ISCC), and 17, high-grade dysplasia (HGD)...
April 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596895/microscopic-ileitis-in-diverted-and-non-diverted-enteric-segments-an-under-recognized-condition-with-a-multifactorial-etiology
#18
Chunlai Zuo, Zhiyan Fu, Edward C Lee, Llewellyn Foulke, Gloria Q Young, David Cubero Rego, Hwajeong Lee
Microscopic ileitis has been infrequently reported in the literature with the few reported cases usually associated with concurrent microscopic colitis. Having encountered a case of collagenous ileitis involving the diverted distal limb of a loop ileostomy and sparing the proximal limb, we examined additional cases of loop ileostomy, end ileostomy, colostomy, and the accompanying diverted colorectal segment for features of microscopic ileitis and colitis. A total of 101 cases of diverted and non-diverted enteric segments were examined from 37 loop ileostomies, 16 end ileostomies and 12 colostomies status post Hartmann's procedure...
March 26, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582208/update-on-bile-acid-malabsorption-finally-ready-for-prime-time
#19
REVIEW
Priya Vijayvargiya, Michael Camilleri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the prevalence, pathophysiology, disease associations, and treatment options for bile acid malabsorption (BAM). RECENT FINDINGS: •Molecular mechanisms-BAs prevent water reabsorption and increase water secretion by intracellular mediators, increasing aquaporin channels and intracellular permeability. •Inflammatory bowel disease-new molecular mechanisms of BAM are identified in patients without ileal disease, including changes in expression of ileal BA transporter and nuclear receptors involved in BA homeostasis...
March 26, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567541/epiisopiloturine-an-imidazole-alkaloid-reverses-inflammation-and-lipid-peroxidation-parameters-in-the-crohn-disease-model-induced-by-trinitrobenzenosulfonic-acid-in-wistar-rats
#20
Lucas Rodrigues de Carvalho, Tarcisio Vieira de Brito, José Simião da C Júnior, Genilson José Dias Júnior, Diva de Aguiar Magalhãres, Stefany Guimarães Sousa, Renan Oliveira Silva, Felipe Rodolfo Pereira da Silva, Daniel Fernando Pereira Vasconcelos, Leiz Maria Costa Véras, José Roberto de Sousa de Almeida Leite, Dainesy Santos Martins, Conceição da Silva Martins, Jefferson Soares de Oliveira, André Luiz Dos Reis Barbosa
Epiisopiloturine (EPI) is an important imidazole alkaloid because of its pharmacological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of epiisopiloturine on inflammatory parameters of the colonic mucosa in a rat model of Crohn's disease (CD). For this, we induced colitis using trinitrobenzenosulfonic acid and determined myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin 1 β (IL-1β), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the intestinal mucosa. The location and expression of the inflammatory markers in the colon were investigated by immunohistochemistry for NO synthase induced (iNOS), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and western blotting (iNOS and COX-2), respectively...
June 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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