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Total body irradiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211939/allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-for-primary-refractory-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-a-report-from-the-acute-leukemia-working-party-of-the-ebmt
#1
Jiří Pavlů, Myriam Labopin, Anna K Zoellner, Ioanna Sakellari, Matthias Stelljes, Jürgen Finke, Renato Fanin, Gernot Stuhler, Boris V Afanasyev, Adrian J Bloor, Achilles Anagnostopoulos, Mohamad Mohty, Sebastian Giebel, Arnon Nagler
BACKGROUND: Patients with primary refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (PREF ALL) who fail to achieve a complete remission (CR) after ≥2 courses of chemotherapy have a dismal prognosis without undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). To the authors' knowledge, there currently are no data regarding factors influencing transplantation outcomes. METHODS: The authors retrospectively studied outcomes of transplantation for cases of PREF ALL reported to European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry...
February 17, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194655/practical-time-considerations-for-optically-stimulated-luminescent-dosimetry-osld-in-total-body-irradiation
#2
Martin Butson, Mamoon Haque, Leon Smith, Ethan Butson, David Odgers, Dane Pope, Tina Gorjiana, May Whitaker, Johnny Morales, Angela Hong, Robin Hill
Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are used to treat the whole body in preparation for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy in 6 fraction, bi-daily technique using 6 MV X-rays at an extended Source-to-Surface distance (SSD) of 300 cm. Utilizing these characteristics, the beam dose rate is reduced below 7 cGy/min as is standard for TBI treatment. Dose received by the patient is monitored using optically stimulated luminescent dosimetry (OSLD)...
February 13, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193241/present-state-and-issues-in-iort-physics
#3
REVIEW
Frank W Hensley
Literature was reviewed to assess the physical aspects governing the present and emerging technologies used in intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). Three major technologies were identified: treatment with electrons, treatment with external generators of kV X-rays and electronic brachytherapy. Although also used in IORT, literature on brachytherapy with radioactive sources is not systematically reviewed since an extensive own body of specialized literature and reviews exists in this field. A comparison with radioactive sources is made in the use of balloon catheters for partial breast irradiation where these are applied in almost an identical applicator technique as used with kV X-ray sources...
January 27, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187014/delayed-donor-bone-marrow-infusion-induces-liver-transplant-tolerance
#4
Yan Xie, Yang Wu, Kang Xin, Jiao-Jing Wang, Hong Xu, Suzanne T Ildstad, Joseph Leventhal, Guang-Yu Yang, Zheng Zhang, Josh Levitsky
BACKGROUND: Nonmyeloablative conditioning followed by donor bone marrow infusion (BMI) to induce tolerance has not been robustly tested in liver transplantation (LT) and may be unsafe at the time of LT. We hypothesized T cell depleted BMI is effective in inducing tolerance when delayed after LT, resulting in potentially safer future clinical applications. METHODS: Nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic (Lewis to Lewis) and allogeneic (ACI to Lewis) rat LT transplants were initially performed as controls...
February 10, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170314/heart-disease-mortality-in-the-life-span-study-1950-2008
#5
Ikuno Takahashi, Yukiko Shimizu, Eric J Grant, John Cologne, Kotaro Ozasa, Kazunori Kodama
Based on the findings from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's studies of the cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, it has been reported that total-body irradiation at 0.5-1.0 Gy could be responsible for increased rates of mortality from broad-based categories of cardiovascular disease (CVD), i.e., stroke and heart disease. However, CVD consists of various subtypes that have potentially different radiation dose responses, as well as subtype-specific risks that have not been fully evaluated. Potential problems with changes in the coding rules for the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the underlying causes and trends in CVD mortality in Japan also need to be considered...
February 7, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145510/pharmacologic-atm-but-not-atr-kinase-inhibition-abrogates-p21-dependent-g1-arrest-and-promotes-gastrointestinal-syndrome-after-total-body-irradiation
#6
Frank P Vendetti, Brian J Leibowitz, Jennifer Barnes, Sandy Schamus, Brian F Kiesel, Shira Abberbock, Thomas Conrads, David Andy Clump, Elaine Cadogan, Mark J O'Connor, Jian Yu, Jan H Beumer, Christopher J Bakkenist
We show that ATM kinase inhibition using AZ31 prior to 9 or 9.25 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) reduced median time to moribund in mice to 8 days. ATR kinase inhibition using AZD6738 prior to TBI did not reduce median time to moribund. The striking finding associated with ATM inhibition prior to TBI was increased crypt loss within the intestine epithelium. ATM inhibition reduced upregulation of p21, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, and blocked G1 arrest after TBI thereby increasing the number of S phase cells in crypts in wild-type but not Cdkn1a(p21(CIP/WAF1))-/- mice...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145432/succinate-ester-derivative-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-enhances-the-protective-effects-against-60-co-%C3%AE-ray-induced-hematopoietic-injury-through-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-induction-in-mice
#7
Zhong-Tang Li, Li-Mei Wang, Li-Rong Yi, Chao Jia, Fan Bai, Ren-Jun Peng, Zu-Yin Yu, Guo-Lin Xiong, Shuang Xing, Ya-Jun Shan, Ri-Fang Yang, Jun-Xing Dong, Yu-Wen Cong
α-tocopherol succinate (α-TOS), γ-tocotrienol (GT3) and δ-tocotrienol (DT3) have drawn large attention due to their efficacy as radioprotective agents. α-TOS has been shown to act superior to α-tocopherol (α-TOH) in mice by reducing lethality following total body irradiation (TBI). Because α-TOS has been shown to act superior to α-tocopherol (α-TOH) in mice by reducing lethality following total body irradiation (TBI), we hypothesized succinate may be contribute to the radioprotection of α-TOS. To study the contributions of succinate and to identify stronger radioprotective agents, we synthesized α-, γ- and δ-TOS...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143501/safe-and-successful-birth-following-pelvic-radiotherapy-for-rectal-mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-a-case-report
#8
Yoshiomi Hatayama, Masahiko Aoki, Hideo Kawaguchi, Katsumi Hirose, Mariko Sato, Hiroyoshi Akimoto, Mitsuki Tanaka, Ichitaro Fujioka, Shuichi Ono, Yoshihiro Takai
BACKGROUND: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas can occur in various parts of the body, and half of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas occur in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is the most common lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract and primary rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is very rare. Because of the high radiosensitivity of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, this condition can be controlled with radiotherapy of approximately 30 Gy alone...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130393/irradiation-affects-germ-and-somatic-cells-in-prepubertal-monkey-testis-xenografts
#9
I Tröndle, B Westernströer, J Wistuba, N Terwort, S Schlatt, N Neuhaus
STUDY QUESTION: Does irradiation evoke adverse effects in germ and somatic cells in testis xenografts from prepubertal monkeys? SUMMARY ANSWER: In addition to the expected depletion of germ cells, a dose-dependent effect of irradiation was observed at the mRNA and protein level in Sertoli and peritubular myoid cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Testicular irradiation studies in monkeys have focused on the dose-dependent effects on germ cells. Previous studies using intact animals or xenografts reported that germ cells are highly sensitive to irradiation...
January 27, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129972/on-the-use-of-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-for-single-fraction-thoracic-vertebral-metastases-stereotactic-body-radiosurgery
#10
Damodar Pokhrel, Sumit Sood, Christopher McClinton, Xinglei Shen, Rajeev Badkul, Hongyu Jiang, Matthew Mallory, Mellissa Mitchell, Fen Wang, Christopher Lominska
To retrospectively evaluate quality, efficiency, and delivery accuracy of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for single-fraction treatment of thoracic vertebral metastases using image-guided stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRS) after RTOG 0631 dosimetric compliance criteria. After obtaining credentialing for MD Anderson spine phantom irradiation validation, 10 previously treated patients with thoracic vertebral metastases with noncoplanar hybrid arcs using 1 to 2 3D-conformal partial arcs plus 7 to 9 intensity-modulated radiation therapy beams were retrospectively re-optimized with VMAT using 3 full coplanar arcs...
January 24, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121725/the-pseudo-pelger-hu%C3%A3-t-cell-a-new-permanent-radiation-biomarker
#11
Ronald E Goans, Carol J Iddins, Natalia I Ossetrova, Patrick H Ney, Nicholas Dainiak
Using archival peripheral blood slides obtained from patients in the 1958 Y-12 criticality accident, the authors have recently described the pseudo-Pelger Huët anomaly (PHA) in neutrophils as a new radiation-induced biomarker. The current work provides additional evidence that PHA is also a permanent biomarker, potentially useful in retrospective dosimetry. In the Y-12 cohort, the high dose group (n = 5, 2.98-4.61 Gy-Eq) exhibited 13.0 ± 0.85 % Pelger Huët cells (mean ± SEM) in the neutrophil population compared to 6...
March 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121342/clinical-applications-of-haploidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-severe-aplastic-anemia
#12
P Zhang, K Feng, Y Xue, C-X Zhang, Y Wang, X-L Li
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of haploidentical allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) and prophylaxis of complications involved. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 8 patients with clinically diagnosed SAA (5 cases of SAA-I and 3 cases of SAA-II) were recruited, with the parents as the donors of hemopoietic stem cells. The conditioning regimen before HSCT included cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, pig anti-human lymphocyte immune globulin (p-ALG) and/or total body irradiation (TBI)...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118115/multivariate-analysis-of-radiation-responsive-proteins-to-predict-radiation-exposure-in-total-body-irradiation-and-partial-body-irradiation-models
#13
Mary Sproull, Tamalee Kramp, Anita Tandle, Uma Shankavaram, Kevin Camphausen
In the event of a radiological or nuclear attack, advanced clinical countermeasures are needed for screening and medical management of the exposed population. In such a scenario, minimally invasive biomarkers that can accurately quantify radiation exposure would be useful for triage management by first responders. In this murine study, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel combination of radiation responsive proteins, Flt3 ligand (FL), serum amyloid A (SAA), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), fibrinogen beta (FGB) and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) to predict the received dose after whole- or partial-body irradiation...
January 24, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118112/development-of-a-novel-murine-model-of-combined-radiation-and-peripheral-tissue-trauma-injuries
#14
Vlado Antonic, Isabel L Jackson, Gurung Ganga, Terez Shea-Donohue, Zeljko Vujaskovic
Detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear bomb in an urban setting would result in >1 million casualties, the majority of which would present with combined injuries. Combined injuries, such as peripheral tissue trauma and radiation exposure, trigger inflammatory events that lead to multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) and death, with gastrointestinal (GI) and pulmonary involvement playing crucial roles. The objective of this study was to develop an animal model of combined injuries, peripheral tissue trauma (TBX animal model) combined with total body irradiation with 5% bone marrow shielding (TBI/BM5) to investigate if peripheral tissue trauma contributes to reduced survival...
January 24, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117817/detection-of-inter-chromosomal-stable-aberrations-by-multiple-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-mfish-and-spectral-karyotyping-sky-in-irradiated-mice
#15
Rupak Pathak, Igor Koturbash, Martin Hauer-Jensen
Ionizing radiation (IR) induces numerous stable and unstable chromosomal aberrations. Unstable aberrations, where chromosome morphology is substantially compromised, can easily be identified by conventional chromosome staining techniques. However, detection of stable aberrations, which involve exchange or translocation of genetic materials without considerable modification in the chromosome morphology, requires sophisticated chromosome painting techniques that rely on in situ hybridization of fluorescently labeled DNA probes, a chromosome painting technique popularly known as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115123/degradation-of-indomethacin-in-river-water-under-stress-and-non-stress-laboratory-conditions-degradation-products-long-term-evolution-and-adsorption-to-sediment
#16
Juan J Jiménez, María I Sánchez, Rafael Pardo, Beatriz E Muñoz
The pharmaceutical compound indomethacin is not totally removed in wastewater treatment plants, whose effluents flow into aquatic environments; concentrations in the 0.1-100ng/L range are commonly found in surface waters, and its fate is unknown. Here, biological, photochemical and thermal degradation assays were conducted under stress and non-stress conditions to estimate its degradation rate in river water and establish its degradation products over time. The results revealed that direct sunlight irradiation promoted the complete degradation of indomethacin (2μg/L) in less than 6hr, but indomethacin was detected over a period of 4months when water was kept under the natural day-night cycle and the exposure to sunlight was partially limited, as occurs inside a body of water...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115023/astaxanthin-attenuates-total-body-irradiation-induced-hematopoietic-system-injury-in-mice-via-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#17
Xiao-Lei Xue, Xiao-Dan Han, Yuan Li, Xiao-Fei Chu, Wei-Min Miao, Jun-Ling Zhang, Sai-Jun Fan
BACKGROUND: The hematopoietic system is especially sensitive to total body irradiation (TBI), and myelosuppression is one of the major effects of TBI. Astaxanthin (ATX) is a powerful natural anti-oxidant with low toxicity. In this study, the effect of ATX on hematopoietic system injury after TBI was investigated. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), expression of cytochrome C, cell apoptosis, and NRF2-related proteins...
January 23, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114130/identifying-cardiovascular-risk-in-survivors-of-childhood-leukaemia-treated-with-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-and-total-body-irradiation%C3%A2
#18
Christina Wei, Linda Hunt, Rachel Cox, Karin Bradley, Ruth Elson, Julian Shield, Michael Stevens, Elizabeth Crowne
BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and total body irradiation (HSCT/TBI) have an increased cardiometabolic risk without overt obesity. AIM: To describe cardiometabolic risk in HSCT/TBI survivors and identify anthropometric measurements of adiposity representative of cardiometabolic risks in HSCT/TBI survivors. METHOD: Childhood leukaemia survivors treated with HSCT/TBI (n = 21, 11 males) were compared with chemotherapy-only (n = 31) and obese non-leukaemic controls (n = 30)...
January 23, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110075/tlr9-mediated-regulatory-b10-cell-amplification-following-sub-total-body-irradiation-implications-in-attenuating-eae
#19
Jinsheng Hong, Jie Fang, Ruilong Lan, Qi Tan, Yeping Tian, Mei Zhang, Paul Okunieff, Lurong Zhang, Jianhua Lin, Deping Han
Autoimmunity and inflammation are controlled in part by regulatory B (Breg) cells, including the recently identified IL-10-competent B10 cell subset that represents 1%-3% of mouse spleen B cells. In this study, the influence of irradiation on Breg/B10 cell generation and IL-10 production mediated by TLR9 signaling pathways was investigated. Spleen and peritoneal cavity Breg/B10 cell frequencies were significantly expanded three weeks after sub-total body irradiation (sub-TBI, 5Gy or 10Gy) in adult male wild type (WT) C57BL/6(B6) mice but not in TLR9(-/-) mice...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108271/comparative-effectiveness-of-busulfan-and-fludarabine-versus-fludarabine-and-400-cgy-total-body-irradiation-conditioning-regimens-for-aml-mds
#20
Moaath Mustafa Ali, Donna M Abounader, Lisa A Rybicki, Melissa A Yurch, Jamie Starn, Christina Ferraro, Victoria Winslow, Betty K Hamilton, Aaron T Gerds, Hien Liu, Robert Dean, Brian T Hill, Brad Pohlman, Steven Andresen, Rabi Hanna, Matt Kalaycio, Brian J Bolwell, Navneet S Majhail, Ronald Sobecks
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) conditioning regimen intensity has varied for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). A comparative effectiveness analysis was performed to assess outcomes of busulfan and fludarabine (BuFlu) versus fludarabine and 400 cGy total body irradiation (FluTBI) conditioning. Thirty-three subjects received BuFlu and 38 had FluTBI. The BuFlu group received more red blood cell transfusions (P=0.02) and had a longer time to platelet recovery (P=0...
January 17, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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