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Total body irradiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327469/total-body-irradiation-with-a-compensator-fabricated-using-a-3d-optical-scanner-and-a-3d-printer
#1
So-Yeon Park, Jung-In Kim, Yoon Ha Joo, Jung Chan Lee, Jong Min Park
We propose bilateral total body irradiation (TBI) utilizing a 3D printer and a 3D optical scanner. We acquired surface information of an anthropomorphic phantom with the 3D scanner and fabricated the 3D compensator with the 3D printer, which could continuously compensate for the lateral missing tissue of an entire body from the beam's eye view. To test the system's performance, we measured doses with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) as well as EBT3 films with the anthropomorphic phantom during TBI without a compensator, conventional bilateral TBI, and TBI with the 3D compensator (3D TBI)...
March 22, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324120/-biological-mechanisms-of-radiation-effects
#2
S Gruber, W Dörr
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes is inevitable in modern medicine. The therapeutic application of irradiation is highly effective against cancer; however, this implies exposure of normal tissue structures to significant doses of radiation. Diagnostic or therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation can result in tissue changes and tumor induction in the long term. Knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying these effects is essential for individualization of the application...
March 21, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323577/mitigation-of-radiation-induced-epithelial-damage-by-the-tlr5-agonist-entolimod-in-a-mouse-model-of-fractionated-head-and-neck-irradiation
#3
Ilia A Toshkov, Anatoli S Gleiberman, Vadim L Mett, Alan D Hutson, Anurag K Singh, Andrei V Gudkov, Lyudmila G Burdelya
Radiation treatment of head and neck cancer frequently causes severe collateral damage to normal tissues including mouth mucosa, salivary glands and skin. This toxicity limits the radiation dose that can be delivered and affects the patient's quality of life. Previous studies in mice and nonhuman primates showed that entolimod, a toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist derived from bacterial flagellin, effectively reduced radiation damage to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal tissues in both total-body and local irradiation scenarios, with no protection of tumors...
March 21, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319634/late-onset-bexarotene-induced-cd4-lymphopenia-in-a-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-patient
#4
Karin Eshagh, Laura S Romero, Jessica K So, Xianfeng Frank Zhao
Various infections, autoimmune diseases, medications, and total-body irradiation are known factors associated with CD4 lymphopenia, defined as a CD4 T-cell count below 300 cells/mL or less than 20% of total lymphocytes. We report a rare case of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) who developed profound CD4 lymphopenia in the setting of long-term bexarotene therapy. Bexarotene is a third-generation retinoid that inhibits epithelial cell proliferation and is approved for treatment of advanced CTCL (stages IIB-IVB) in adult patients who have failed at least 1 prior systemic therapy...
February 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319565/bone-marrow-graft-versus-host-disease-in-major-histocompatibility-complex-matched-murine-reduced-intensity-allogeneic-hemopoietic-cell-transplantation
#5
Kifah Shahin, Zamil Mattar, Pablo Silveira, Wei-Hsun Hsu, Linda Bendall, Derek Hart, Kenneth F Bradstock
BACKGROUND: Most clinical allogeneic hemopoietic cell transplants (alloHCT) are now performed using reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) instead of myeloablative (MAC) conditioning, however, the biology underlying this treatment remains incompletely understood. METHODS: We investigated a murine model of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched multiple minor histocompatibility antigen mismatched alloHCT, using bone marrow (BM) cells and splenocytes from B6 (H-2) donor mice transplanted into BALB...
March 18, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300368/reduction-in-stray-radiation-dose-using-a-body-shielding-device-during-external-radiation-therapy
#6
Shuxu Zhang, Shaohui Jiang, Quanbin Zhang, Shengqu Lin, Ruihao Wang, Xiang Zhou, Guoqian Zhang, Huaiyu Lei, Hui Yu
With the purpose of reducing stray radiation dose (SRD) in out-of-field region (OFR) during radiotherapy with 6 MV intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), a body-shielding device (BSD) was prepared according to the measurements obtained in experimental testing. In experimental testing, optimal shielding conditions, such as 1 mm lead, 2 mm lead, and 1 mm lead plus 10 mm bolus, were investigated along the medial axis of a phantom using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The SRDs at distances from field edge were then measured and analyzed for a clinical IMRT treatment plan for nasopharyngeal carcinoma before and after shielding using the BSD...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297425/investigation-on-using-high-energy-proton-beam-for-total-body-irradiation-tbi
#7
Miao Zhang, Nan Qin, Xun Jia, Wei J Zou, Atif Khan, Ning J Yue
This work investigated the possibility of using proton beam for total body irradiation (TBI). We hypothesized the broad-slow-rising entrance dose from a monoenergetic proton beam can deliver a uniform dose to patient with varied thickness. Comparing to photon-based TBI, it would not require any patient-specific compensator or beam spoiler. The hypothesis was first tested by simulating 250 MeV, 275 MeV, and 300 MeV protons irradiating a wedge-shaped water phantom in a paired opposing arrangement using Monte Carlo (MC) method...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297336/effect-of-electron-contamination-on-in-vivo-dosimetry-for-lung-block-shielding-during-tbi
#8
Ganesh Narayanasamy, Wilbert Cruz, Daniel L Saenz, Sotirios Stathakis, Niko Papanikolaou, Neil Kirby
Our institution performs in vivo verification measurement for each of our total body irradiation (TBI) patients with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLD). The lung block verification measurements were commonly higher than expected. The aim of this work is to understand this discrepancy and improve the accuracy of these lung block verification measurements. Initially, the thickness of the lung block was increased to provide adequate lung sparing. Further tests revealed the increase was due to electron contamination dose emanating from the lung block...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288712/the-role-of-stem-cell-transplantation-in-the-treatment-of-marginal-zone-lymphoma
#9
REVIEW
Avichai Shimoni
High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is standard therapy in relapsed/refractory aggressive lymphoma. The optimal therapy of relapsed/refractory disseminated marginal-zone lymphoma (MZL) has not been defined. Limited data on ASCT in this setting suggests outcomes are similar to what is expected in follicular lymphoma. International guidelines suggest that ASCT should be considered in follicular lymphoma in second or subsequent remission, in particular in high-risk disease, or following disease transformation...
March 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286617/allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-adult-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-results-from-a-single-center-1993-2011
#10
Ipek Yonal-Hindilerden, Sevgi Kalayoglu-Besisik, Nuray Gurses-Koc, Fehmi Hindilerden, Deniz Sargin
Background: For adult ALL patients, the indications and appropriate timing of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) continue to be debated. The primary aim of this single-institution study was to compare the results of our adult ALL patients that had been allografted with those reported in the current literature. Subjects and Methods: This study included 53 consecutive adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) with myeloablative (92%) and reduced-intensity (8%) conditioning between 1993 and 2011...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279220/short-course-rapamycin-treatment-enables-engraftment-of-immunogenic-gene-engineered-bone-marrow-under-low-dose-irradiation-to-permit-long-term-immunological-tolerance
#11
Kunal H Bhatt, Rajeev Rudraraju, Jeremy F Brooks, Ji-Won Jung, Ryan Galea, James W Wells, Raymond J Steptoe
BACKGROUND: Application of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells is increasingly mooted as a clinically relevant approach to protein replacement therapy, immune tolerance induction or conditions where both outcomes may be helpful. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC)-mediated gene therapy often requires highly toxic pretransfer recipient conditioning to provide a 'niche' so that transferred HSPCs can engraft effectively and to prevent immune rejection of neoantigen-expressing engineered HSPCs...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278166/the-demanding-attention-of-tuberculosis-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients-high-incidence-compared-with-general-population
#12
Hyo-Jin Lee, Dong-Gun Lee, Su-Mi Choi, Sun Hee Park, Sung-Yeon Cho, Jae-Ki Choi, Si-Hyun Kim, Jung-Hyun Choi, Jin-Hong Yoo, Byung-Sik Cho, Ki-Seong Eom, Seok Lee, Yoo-Jin Kim, Hee-Je Kim, Chang-Ki Min, Dong-Wook Kim, Jong-Wook Lee, Woo-Sung Min, Jung Im Jung
BACKGROUND: The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients is expected to be relatively high in an intermediate TB burden country. This single-center retrospective study was conducted to investigate risk factors and the incidence of TB after allogeneic HSCT. METHODS: From January 2004 to March 2011, 845 adult patients were enrolled. Starting April 2009, patients were given isoniazid (INH) prophylaxis based on interferon-γ release assay results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274393/low-dose-cranial-boost-in-high-risk-adult-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-patients-undergoing-bone-marrow-transplant
#13
William Su, Marcher Thompson, Ren-Dih Sheu, Amir Steinberg, Luis Isola, Richard Stock, Richard L Bakst
PURPOSE: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has a predilection for CNS involvement. Patients with high-risk ALL are often managed with transplant using a radiation-based conditioning regimen. Historically, a high-dose prophylactic cranial boost (CB) of ≥12 Gy was given to reduce risk of central nervous system (CNS) recurrence. However, the use of CB has fallen out of favor because of toxicity concerns. In high-risk adults undergoing transplant at our institution, we have used a low-dose 6 Gy CB to reduce toxicity while conditioning adults with fully developed brains...
March 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265236/long-term-outcomes-of-high-dose-treatment-and-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-in-follicular-and-mantle-cell-lymphomas-a-single-centre-experience
#14
Lucka Boltezar, Karlo Pintaric, Jože Pretnar, Maja Pohar Perme, Barbara Jezersek Novakovic
BACKGROUND: Advanced follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are incurable diseases with conventional treatment. The high dose treatment (HDT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), however, offers a certain proportion of these patients the prospect of a prolonged disease-free and overall survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with FL and MCL treated with ASCT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with FL and 29 patients with MCL were included, 15 of them were transplanted to consolidate the response to second line treatment and 24 to consolidate their first remission, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262584/accelerated-partial-breast-irradiation-using-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-versus-whole-breast-irradiation-health-related-quality-of-life-final-analysis-from-the-florence-phase-3-trial
#15
Icro Meattini, Calogero Saieva, Guido Miccinesi, Isacco Desideri, Giulio Francolini, Vieri Scotti, Livia Marrazzo, Stefania Pallotta, Fiammetta Meacci, Cristina Muntoni, Benedetta Bendinelli, Luis Jose Sanchez, Marco Bernini, Lorenzo Orzalesi, Jacopo Nori, Simonetta Bianchi, Lorenzo Livi
BACKGROUND: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) represents a valid option for selected early breast cancer (BC). We recently published the 5-year results of the APBI-IMRT-Florence phase 3 randomised trial (NCT02104895), showing a very low rate of disease failure, with acute and early-late toxicity in favour of APBI. We present the early and 2-year follow-up health-related quality of life (HRQoL) results. METHODS: Eligible patients were women aged more than 40 years with early BC suitable for breast-conserving surgery...
March 2, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250910/optimizing-the-microscopy-time-schedule-for-chromosomal-dosimetry-of-high-dose-and-partial-body-irradiations
#16
Volodymyr A Vinnikov
The methodology of cytogenetic triage can be improved by optimizing a schedule of microscopy for different exposure scenarios. Chromosome aberrations were quantified by microscopy in human blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro to ~2, 4, and 12 Gy acute (60)Co γ-rays mixed with the unirradiated blood simulating 10%, 50%, 90%, and 100% exposure and in along with a sample from a homogeneous exposure to ~20 Gy. Biodosimetry workload was statistically modeled assuming that 0.5, 1, 5, or 25 h was available for scoring one case or for analysis of up to 1000 cells or 100 dicentrics plus centric rings by one operator...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249542/prophylaxis-of-radiation-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Wing S Li, Joanne M van der Velden, Vithusha Ganesh, Sherlyn Vuong, Srinivas Raman, Marko Popovic, Henry Lam, Kam H Wong, Roger K Ngan, J P Maarten Burbach, Carlo DeAngelis, Rachel McDonald Xxxx, Edward Chow
BACKGROUND: The aim of this article was to systematically review the efficacy and safety of various antiemetics in prophylaxis of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV). METHODS: A literature search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy of prophylaxis for RINV in patients receiving radiotherapy to abdomen/pelvis, including total body irradiation (TBI). Primary endpoints were complete control of nausea and complete control of vomiting during acute and delayed phases...
January 9, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243358/hydrogen-rich-water-ameliorates-total-body-irradiation-induced-hematopoietic-stem-cell-injury-by-reducing-hydroxyl-radical
#18
Junling Zhang, Xiaolei Xue, Xiaodan Han, Yuan Li, Lu Lu, Deguan Li, Saijun Fan
We examined whether consumption of hydrogen-rich water (HW) could ameliorate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) injury in mice with total body irradiation (TBI). The results indicated that HW alleviated TBI-induced HSC injury with respect to cell number alteration and to the self-renewal and differentiation of HSCs. HW specifically decreased hydroxyl radical ((∙)OH) levels in the c-kit(+) cells of 4 Gy irradiated mice. Proliferative bone marrow cells (BMCs) increased and apoptotic c-kit(+) cells decreased in irradiated mice uptaken with HW...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238121/leukocyte-inos-is-required-for-inflammation-and-pathological-remodeling-in-ischemic-heart-failure
#19
Justin R Kingery, Tariq Hamid, Robert K Lewis, Mohamed Ameen Ismahil, Shyam S Bansal, Gregg Rokosh, Tim M Townes, Suzanne T Ildstad, Steven P Jones, Sumanth D Prabhu
In the failing heart, iNOS is expressed by both macrophages and cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that inflammatory cell-localized iNOS exacerbates left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice underwent total body irradiation and reconstitution with bone marrow from iNOS(-/-) mice (iNOS(-/-)c) or WT mice (WTc). Chimeric mice underwent coronary ligation to induce large infarction and ischemic heart failure (HF), or sham surgery. After 28 days, as compared with WTc sham mice, WTc HF mice exhibited significant (p < 0...
March 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231148/potential-use-of-gamma-irradiated-ethnic-ready-to-eat-foods-to-improve-the-nutritional-status-of-landslide-victims
#20
REVIEW
Zubaidah Irawati Koenari, Carmen M Siagian, Bona Simanungkalit, Asti Nilatany, Indra Mustika Pratama, Deudeu Lasmawati, Cecep M Nurcahya
The safety and high quality of ethnic ready-to-eat foods as a source of nourishment and food supplies chain to the remote areas become particularly important. Consuming healthy and balanced nutritional foods means eating better quality foods in proper quantities. Such foods can be developed through a preservation technique by using ionizing radiation. Although implementation of the technology for certain foodstuffs has been implemented in some countries, application of the process to a complete set of meals for selected target groups is still very limited...
July 26, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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