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Total body irradiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922655/zymosan-a-protects-the-hematopoietic-system-from-radiation-induced-damage-by-targeting-tlr2-signaling-pathway
#1
Jicong Du, Ying Cheng, Suhe Dong, Pei Zhang, Jiaming Guo, Jiaqi Han, Fu Gao, Hainan Zhao, Ding Sun, Jianguo Cui, Jianming Cai, Cong Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The hematopoietic system is vulnerable to ionizing radiation and is often severely damaged by radiation. Molecules affecting radioresistance include Toll-like receptor 2. We investigated whether Zymosan-A, a novel TLR2 agonist, can protect the hematopoietic system from radiation-induced damage after total body irradiation. METHODS: Mice were exposed to total body radiation after treatment with Zymosan-A or normal saline, and their survival was recorded...
September 1, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901730/reduced-toxicity-alternate-donor-stem-cell-transplantation-with-posttransplant-cyclophosphamide-for-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders
#2
Neha Rastogi, Satyendra Katewa, Dhwanee Thakkar, Shruti Kohli, Sagar Nivargi, Satya Prakash Yadav
We describe here the outcomes of reduced-toxicity alternate-donor stem cell transplant (SCT) with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) in eight children (haploidentical-seven and matched unrelated donor-one). The conditioning was with serotherapy (alemtuzumab-3/rabbit-anti-thymoglobulin-5); fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and total body irradiation-5 (additional thiotepa-3); fludarabine and treosulfan-2; and fludarabine and busulfan-1. All received PTCy 50 mg/kg on days 3 and 4 as graft versus host disease prophylaxis along with tacrolimus and mycophenolate...
September 13, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891987/total-body-irradiation-mitigates-inflammation-and-extends-the-therapeutic-time-window-for-anti-ricin-antibody-treatment-against-pulmonary-ricinosis-in-mice
#3
Yoav Gal, Anita Sapoznikov, Reut Falach, Sharon Ehrlich, Moshe Aftalion, Chanoch Kronman, Tamar Sabo
Ricin, a highly toxic plant-derived toxin, is considered a potential weapon in biowarfare and bioterrorism due to its pronounced toxicity, high availability, and ease of preparation. Pulmonary exposure to ricin results in the generation of an acute edematous inflammation followed by respiratory insufficiency and death. Massive neutrophil recruitment to the lungs may contribute significantly to ricin-mediated morbidity. In this study, total body irradiation (TBI) served as a non-pharmacological tool to decrease the potential neutrophil-induced lung injury...
September 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891355/fertility-challenges-for-women-with-sickle-cell-disease
#4
Djamila L Ghafuri, Sarah-Jo Stimpson, Melissa E Day, Andra James, Michael R DeBaun, Deva Sharma
Sickle cell disease (SCD) represents one of the most common monogenic blood disorders worldwide, with an incidence of over 300,000 newborns affected per year. Reproductive challenges for men and women with SCD have been previously reviewed; however, evidence-based strategies to prevent and manage infertility and increase fecundity are lacking in women with SCD, which is one of the most important factors for quality of life. Areas covered: This review article summarizes the known risk factors for infertility, low fecundity, and premature menopause related to SCD...
September 11, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873069/fred-a-gpu-accelerated-fast-monte-carlo-code-for-rapid-treatment-plan-recalculation-in-ion-beam-therapy
#5
A Schiavi, M Senzacqua, S Pioli, A Mairani, G Magro, S Molinelli, M Ciocca, G Battistoni, V Patera
Ion beam therapy is a rapidly growing technique for tumor radiation therapy. Ions allow for a high dose deposition in the tumor region, while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. For this reason, the highest possible accuracy in the calculation of dose and its spatial distribution is required in treatment planning. On one hand, commonly used treatment planning software solutions adopt a simplified beam-body interaction model by remapping pre-calculated dose distributions into a 3D water-equivalent representation of the patient morphology...
September 5, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870778/outcome-analysis-of-pediatric-all-patients-treated-with-tbi-free-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-comparison-of-patients-with-and-without-central-nervous-system-involvement
#6
Amir Ali Hamidieh, Seyed Mostafa Monzavi, Maryam Kaboutari, Maryam Behfar, Mohsen Esfandbod
Conditioning regimens excluding total body irradiation (TBI) following by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have been shown to be feasible in treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, it is commonly believed that for extramedullary involvements of ALL in sanctuary sites such as central nervous system (CNS), TBI shall not be abandoned. In this study, the outcomes of pediatric ALL patients with (CNS(+)) and without CNS involvement (CNS(-)) treated with a TBI-free allogeneic HSCT were retrospectively compared...
September 1, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865761/predicting-severe-hematologic-toxicity-from-extended-field-chemoradiation-of-para-aortic-nodal-metastases-from-cervical-cancer
#7
Kevin Yan, Ezequiel Ramirez, Xian-Jin Xie, Xuejun Gu, Yin Xi, Kevin Albuquerque
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine factors predictive for severe hematologic toxicity (HT) in cervical cancer patients with para-aortic lymph node metastasis treated with concurrent cisplatin chemoradiation to an extended field (EFCRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-eight patients with cervical cancer and para-aortic lymph node metastasis who underwent EFCRT were analyzed. Active bone marrow was defined as the region within irradiated total bone marrow (BMTOT) with a standard uptake value on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography greater than the mean standard uptake value for BMTOT...
July 8, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844947/outcome-of-second-transplantation-using-umbilical-cord-blood-for-graft-failure-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-aplastic-anemia
#8
Yasushi Onishi, Takehiko Mori, Shinichi Kako, Hideo Koh, Naoyuki Uchida, Tadakazu Kondo, Takeshi Kobayashi, Hiromasa Yabe, Toshihiro Miyamoto, Koji Kato, Ritsuro Suzuki, Shinji Nakao, Hirohito Yamazaki
Graft failure (GF) is the most critical life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for aplastic anemia, for which a second transplantation would be the only effective treatment. However, optimal transplant procedures have not been established for the second transplantation in this setting. The outcome of 22 patients with aplastic anemia, aged ≥16 years, who underwent umbilical cord blood transplantation for GF after the first HSCT, was retrospectively analyzed using the registry database of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation...
August 24, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840382/new-photobiomodulation-protocol-prevents-oral-mucositis-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients-a-retrospective-study
#9
Camila Weissheimer, Marina Curra, Lauro J Gregianin, Liane E Daudt, Vivian P Wagner, Marco Antonio T Martins, Manoela D Martins
Oral mucositis (OM) is an adverse side effect among hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the preventive effect of photobiomodulation (PBM) applied three times per week versus seven times per week in patients undergoing HSCT. The risk factors related to the incidence and severity of OM were also assessed. This was a retrospective study that evaluated 99 HSCT recipients who received different PBM protocols. Group I received three sessions per week, and group II received daily treatment...
August 24, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829672/growth-differentiation-factor-11-does-not-mitigate-the-lethal-effects-of-total-abdominal-irradiation
#10
Sara Duhachek-Muggy, Kruttika Bhat, Erina Vlashi, Frank Pajonk
Total-body exposure to radiation causes widespread tissue injury. Damage to the hematopoietic and intestinal stem cell compartments is particularly lethal and mitigators of this damage are critical in providing effective treatment. Parabiosis radiation experiments, in which the vasculatures of two rodents are anastomosed prior to irradiation of one of the animals, have shown that there is a circulating factor that protects mice from radiation-induced intestinal death. Recently reported studies have suggested that growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is responsible for the rejuvenation of stem cells observed in parabiosis experiments involving aging mice...
August 22, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828900/advances-in-fertility-preservation-of-female-patients-with-hematological-malignancies
#11
Mahmoud Salama, Vladimir Isachenko, Evgenia Isachenko, Gohar Rahimi, Peter Mallmann
The most common forms of hematological malignancies that occur in female reproductive years are lymphoma and leukemia. Areas covered: Several aggressive gonadotoxic regimens such as alkylating chemotherapy and total body irradiation are used frequently in treatment of lymphoma and leukemia leading to subsequent iatrogenic premature ovarian failure and fertility loss. In such cases, female fertility preservation options should be offered in advance. Expert commentary: In order to preserve fertility of young women and girls with lymphoma and leukemia, several established, experimental, and debatable options can be offered before starting chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
August 22, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808931/robotic-total-pelvic-exenteration-video-illustrated-technique
#12
Ioannis T Konstantinidis, William Chu, Federico Tozzi, Clayton Lau, Mark Wakabayashi, Kevin Chan, Byrne Lee
BACKGROUND: Robotic-assisted total pelvic exenteration (TPE) can offer a minimally invasive approach to a major multi-organ operation. METHODS: In this video, we summarize a stepwise approach to robotic TPE in a 70 year-old female Jehovah's witness with a history of cervical cancer post-chemoradiation and radical hysterectomy who experienced local recurrence at the vaginal cuff involving the rectum and bladder. RESULTS: The patient was placed in the lithotomy position...
August 14, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807769/reduced-intensity-haploidentical-bone-marrow-transplantation-with-post-transplant-cyclophosphamide-for-solid-tumors-in-pediatric-and-young-adult-patients
#13
Nicolas J Llosa, Kenneth R Cooke, Allen Chen, Christopher Gamper, Orly Klein, Elias Zambidis, Brandon Luber, Gary Rosner, Nicholas Siegel, Mary Jo Holuba, Nancy Robey, Masanori Hayashi, Richard J Jones, Ephraim Fuchs, Matthias Holdhoff, David M Loeb, Heather J Symons
High-risk, recurrent, or refractory solid tumors in pediatric, adolescent, and young adult (AYA) patients have an extremely poor prognosis despite current intensive treatment regimens. We piloted an allogeneic bone marrow transplant platform using reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and partially HLA-mismatched (haploidentical) related donors for this population of pediatric and AYA solid tumor patients. Sixteen patients received fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, melphalan, and low-dose total body irradiation RIC haploidentical BMT (haploBMT) followed by post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy), mycophenolate mofetil, and sirolimus...
August 12, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782442/whole-body-proton-irradiation-causes-acute-damage-to-bone-marrow-hematopoietic-progenitor-and-stem-cells-in-mice
#14
Jianhui Chang, Yingying Wang, Rupak Pathak, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Tamako Jones, Xiao Wen Mao, Gregory Nelson, Marjan Boerma, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Daohong Zhou, Lijian Shao
PURPOSE: Exposure to proton irradiation during missions in deep space can lead to bone marrow injury. The acute effects of proton irradiation on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells remain undefined and thus were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We exposed male C57BL/6 mice to 0.5 and 1.0 Gy proton total body irradiation (proton-TBI, 150 MeV) and examined changes in peripheral blood cells and bone marrow (BM) progenitors and LSK cells 2 weeks after exposure...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771181/ghrelin-therapy-decreases-incidents-of-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-mice-after-whole-body-ionizing-irradiation-combined-with-burn-trauma
#15
Nikolai V Gorbunov, Juliann G Kiang
Nuclear industrial accidents and the detonation of nuclear devices cause a variety of damaging factors which, when their impacts are combined, produce complicated injuries challenging for medical treatment. Thus, trauma following acute ionizing irradiation (IR) can deteriorate the IR-induced secondary reactive metabolic and inflammatory impacts to dose-limiting tissues, such as bone marrow/lymphatic, gastrointestinal tissues, and vascular endothelial tissues, exacerbating the severity of the primary injury and decreasing survival from the exposure...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771086/exposure-to-low-dose-x-ray-radiation-alters-bone-progenitor-cells-and-bone-microarchitecture
#16
Florence Lima, Joshua M Swift, Elisabeth S Greene, Matthew R Allen, David A Cunningham, Leslie A Braby, Susan A Bloomfield
Exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation during medical treatment exerts well-documented deleterious effects on bone health, reducing bone density and contributing to bone growth retardation in young patients and spontaneous fracture in postmenopausal women. However, the majority of human radiation exposures occur in a much lower dose range than that used in the radiation oncology clinic. Furthermore, very few studies have examined the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on bone integrity and results have been inconsistent...
August 3, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763347/ex-vivo-induction-of-multiple-myeloma-specific-immune-responses-by-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-following-stimulation-by-whole-tumor-antigen-of-autologous-myeloma-cells
#17
Spyridoula Vasileiou, Ioannis Baltadakis, Sosanna Delimpasi, Maria-Helena Karatza, Konstantinos Liapis, Maria Garofalaki, Eirini Tziotziou, Zoe Poulopoulou, Dimitri Karakasis, Nicholas Harhalakis
The introduction of novel agents has significantly expanded treatment options for multiple myeloma (MM), albeit long-term disease control cannot be achieved in the majority of patients. Vaccination with MM antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) represents an alternative strategy that is currently being explored. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenic potential of ex vivo-generated monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), following stimulation with the whole-antigen array of autologous myeloma cells (AMC). MoDCs were loaded with antigens of myeloma cells by 2 different methods: phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies from γ-irradiated AMC, or transfection with AMC total RNA by square-wave electroporation...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757529/inhibition-of-adipogenesis-is-involved-in-the-protective-effects-of-1-25-dihydroxy-vitamin-d3-on-the-radiation-injured-bone-marrow-microenvironment-in-mice
#18
Zhao Zhou, Xiao-Yu Chen, Ai-Zhen Zhu, Cheng-Cheng Liu, Jin-Can Zhu, Ge-Xiu Liu
To explore the protective effects of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) on the bone marrow microenvironment in mice after irradiation and the underlying molecular mechanisms, a total of 150 7-wk-old male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into a normal group, an irradiation (IR) group and an irradiation+1,25-(OH)2D3 (IR+VD3) group. The mice in the IR+VD3 group were treated with 6.0 Gy (60)Coγ rays, and 1,25-(OH)2D3 (dissolved in DMSO, 2.5 μg/kg) was administered once per day from 2 d before to 8 d after irradiation...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752258/allogeneic-reduced-intensity-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-chronic-granulomatous-disease-a-single-center-prospective-trial
#19
Mark Parta, Corin Kelly, Nana Kwatemaa, Narda Theobald, Diane Hilligoss, Jing Qin, Douglas B Kuhns, Christa Zerbe, Steven M Holland, Harry Malech, Elizabeth M Kang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate engraftment and adverse events with a conditioning and prophylactic regimen intended to achieve high rates of engraftment with minimal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in allogeneic transplantation for chronic granulomatous disease in a single center. METHODS: Forty patients, 37 male, with chronic granulomatous disease were transplanted. Transplant products were matched sibling peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) in four and matched unrelated donor (MUD) bone marrow in three, and one patient received mismatched unrelated PBSCs...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749171/prospective-evaluation-of-a-specific-technique-of-sexual-function-preservation-in-external-beam-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#20
Hamza Samlali, Corina Udrescu, Ariane Lapierre, Ciprian Enachescu, Alain Ruffion, Patrice Jalade, Olivier Chapet
OBJECTIVES: Sexual preservation is an important issue in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. A technique of irradiation was developed to better preserve this function and has been evaluated. METHODS: Eleven patients, with no erectile dysfunction (ED), were treated with daily IMRTIGRT (total dose: 76-78 Gy). The pudendal arteries, penile bulb and cavernous body were delineated on the planning CT scan. The doses to these structures (with a 5 mm margin) were optimized to be as low as possible...
July 27, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
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