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Total body irradiation

Hannah K Choe, Usama Gergis, Sebastian A Mayer, Himanshu Nagar, Adrienne A Phillips, Tsiporah B Shore, Michael J Smith, Koen van Besien
BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence indicates that the addition of low dose TBI (2-4 Gy) to reduced intensity conditioning may reduce the rate of relapse in allogeneic stem cell transplants. In very high risk patients receiving combination haploidentical-single unit cord blood transplants, we have added 4 Gy TBI to the widely used fludarabine, melphalan conditioning regimen, in hopes of reducing relapse and decreasing graft rejection. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the posttransplant outcomes of patients who underwent haplo-cord SCT between May 2013 and March 2015 and who received fludarabine 30mg/m2 D-7 to -3, melphalan 140mg/m2 D-2, and 2 Gy TBI D-4 and -3...
October 19, 2016: Transplantation
David B Hanbury, Ann M Peiffer, Greg Dugan, Rachel N Andrews, J Mark Cline
In this study, the effects of a potentially lethal radiation exposure on the brain for long-term cognitive sequelae were investigated, using Rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) adopted from other facilities after analysis of acute radiation response via the Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCR) network. Fifty-nine animals were given the opportunity to participate in cognitive cage-side testing. The animals that received single-dose gamma irradiation were significantly less likely to engage in cognitive testing than the controls, suggesting that irradiated animals may have differences in cognitive ability...
October 14, 2016: Radiation Research
Ryo Ishida, Akira Shimizu, Takashi Kitani, Mayumi Nakata, Noriyoshi Ota, Hiroshi Kado, Yayoi Shiotsu, Mami Ishida, Keiichi Tamagaki
A 30-year-old woman with myelodysplastic syndrome underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) derived from her HLA-matched sister six years previously. She received preconditioning total body irradiation with renal shielding and was subsequently administered cyclosporin A (CyA) as prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Four months after HSCT, asymptomatic proteinuria and glomerular hematuria developed during CyA tapering without obvious extrarenal involvements of GVHD, and persisted for six years...
2016: Internal Medicine
Margaret L Barlow, Ryan J Cummings, Alice P Pentland, Tanzy M T Love, Constantine G Haidaris, Julie L Ryan, Edith M Lord, Scott A Gerber
Exposure to radiation, particularly a large or total-body dose, weakens the immune system through loss of bone marrow precursor cells, as well as diminished populations of circulating and tissue-resident immune cells. One such population is the skin-resident immune cells. Changes in the skin environment can be of particular importance as the skin is also host to a number of commensal organisms, including Candida albicans , a species of fungus that causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients...
October 6, 2016: Radiation Research
Ying Xu, Dongming Wu, Yuanchun Fan, Peigeng Li, Hongfei Du, Jiao Shi, Dan Wang, Xiaoping Zhou
The recombinant protein flagellin A (FlaA) N/C, derived from the flagellin protein of Legionella pneumophila, has been shown to increase the expression of cytoprotective cytokines, activate the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, and increase the survival of mice following total body irradiation. Determi ning whether FlaA N/C has a sensitizing effect on tumor radiation or a direct tumoricidal effect is critical for its application as an effective radiation protection agent. The present study investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the tumor radiosensitivity of FlaA N/C...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Philippe Foubert, Melanie Doyle-Eisele, Andreina Gonzalez, Felipe Berard, Waylon Weber, Diana Zafra, Zeni Alfonso, Sherry Zhao, Mayer Tenenhaus, John K Fraser
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to develop an approach that models the cutaneous healing that occurs in a patient with full thickness thermal burn injury complicated by total body radiation exposure sufficient to induce sub-lethal prodromal symptoms. An assessment of the effects of an autologous cell therapy on wound healing on thermal burn injury with concomitant radiation exposure was used to validate the utility of the model. METHODS: Göttingen minipigs were subjected to a 1...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
W C M Viana, D Lambertz, E S Borges, A M O Neto, K M F T Lambertz, A Amaral
Among the radiotherapeutics' modalities, total body irradiation (TBI) is used as treatment for certain hematological, oncological and immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose TBI on plasma concentration of total protein and albumin using prematurely and undernourished rats as animal model. For this, four groups with 9 animals each were formed: Normal nourished (N); Malnourished (M); Irradiated Normal nourished (IN); Irradiated Malnourished (IM). At the age of 28 days, rats of the IN and IM groups underwent total body gamma irradiation with a source of cobalt-60...
September 20, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
L Casagranda, M Oriol, F Freycon, D Frappaz, Y Bertrand, C Bergeron, D Plantaz, J L Stephan, C Freycon, F Gomez, C Berger, B Trombert-Paviot
From a population-based cohort of cases of first cancers diagnosed between 1987 and 2004, before the patient's age of 15 years, the authors conducted a nested case-control study, matching 64 patients who experienced a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) with 190 controls. SMNs comprised 10 leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes, 5 lymphomas induced by Epstein-Barr virus after allograft, and 49 solid tumors, including mainly 25 carcinomas (17 of the thyroid), 9 bone sarcomas, and 7 central nervous system (CNS) tumors...
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Sebastian Giebel, Myriam Labopin, Gerard Socie', Dietrich Beelen, Paul Browne, Liisa Volin, Slawomira Kyrcz-Krzemien, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Mahmoud Aljurf, Depei Wu, Mauricette Michallet, Renate Arnold, Mohamad Mohty, Arnon Nagler
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is widely used to treat adults with high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the results changed over time and to identify prognostic factors. Adult patients treated between year 1993 and 2012 with myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from HLA matched sibling (n=2681) or unrelated donors (n=2178) in first complete remission were included. For transplantations from sibling donors performed between 2008-2012, the following two-year probabilities of the overall survival were obtained: 76% (18-25 years old group), 69% (26-35 and 36-45 years old groups) and 60% (46-55 years old group)...
September 29, 2016: Haematologica
Jianlin Qiao, Lan Ding, Jinyu Fu, Haina Yao, Xiaoli Li, Chao Chen, Na Yang, Hongling Mi, Yun Liu, Peipei Chu, Yuan Xia, Xi Zhang, Kailin Xu, Lingyu Zeng
Engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is a pre-requisite for the success of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Fetal blood cell (FBC)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are known to facilitate HSC reconstitution in the early phase. However, longer term effects on HSCs remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of EPCs on the quality of transplanted hematopoietic stem cells in mouse HSCT model. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, namely, control, total body irradiation only, HSCT, and HSCT + EPCs (with infusion of 5 × 10(5) EPCs)...
September 30, 2016: Annals of Hematology
Olivera Kosovac, Nada Santrac, Ivan Markovic, Dusica Gavrilovic, Aleksandar Martinovic, Marko Jevric, Igor Spurnic, Radan Dzodic
PURPOSE: To evaluate the adverse outcomes after delayed breast reconstruction (DBR) by abdominal advancement flap (AAF) and permanent prosthesis in patients treated with mastectomy due to unilateral breast carcinoma, as well as to determine which factors are predictive for their occurrence. METHODS: The study included 155 patients operated at the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia from 1996 to 2010. All patients had total mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection, followed by specific oncological treatment...
July 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Miao Zhang, Nan Qin, Xun Jia, Wei J Zou, Atif Khan, Ning J Yue
This work investigated the possibility of using proton beam for total body irradia-tion (TBI). We hypothesized the broad-slow-rising entrance dose from a monoen-ergetic proton beam can deliver a uniform dose to patient with varied thickness. Comparing to photon-based TBI, it would not require any patient-specific com-pensator or beam spoiler. The hypothesis was first tested by simulating 250 MeV, 275 MeV, and 300 MeV protons irradiating a wedge-shaped water phantom in a paired opposing arrangement using Monte Carlo (MC) method...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Taiki Magome, Akihiro Haga, Yutaka Takahashi, Keiichi Nakagawa, Kathryn E Dusenbery, Susanta K Hui
PURPOSE: Megavoltage computed tomographic (MVCT) imaging has been widely used for the 3-dimensional (3-D) setup of patients treated with helical tomotherapy (HT). One drawback of MVCT is its very long imaging time, the result of slow couch speeds of approximately 1 mm/s, which can be difficult for the patient to tolerate. We sought to develop an MVCT imaging method allowing faster couch speeds and to assess its accuracy for image guidance for HT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Three cadavers were scanned 4 times with couch speeds of 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm/s...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Taiki Magome, Jerry Froelich, Yutaka Takahashi, Luke Arentsen, Shernan Holtan, Michael R Verneris, Keenan Brown, Akihiro Haga, Keiichi Nakagawa, Jennifer L Holter Chakrabarty, Sebastian Giebel, Jeffrey Wong, Kathryn Dusenbery, Guy Storme, Susanta K Hui
PURPOSE: To develop an imaging method to characterize and map marrow composition in the entire skeletal system, and to simulate differential targeted marrow irradiation based on marrow composition. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Whole-body dual energy computed tomography (DECT) images of cadavers and leukemia patients were acquired, segmented to separate bone marrow components, namely, bone, red marrow (RM), and yellow marrow (YM). DECT-derived marrow fat fraction was validated using histology of lumbar vertebrae obtained from cadavers...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jeff Chang, Scott S Graves, Tiffany Butts-Miwongtum, George E Sale, Rainer Storb, David W Mathes
BACKGROUND: The development of safe and reliable protocols for the transplantation of the face and hands may be accomplished with animal modeling of transplantation of vascularized composite allografts (VCA). Previously, we demonstrated that tolerance to a VCA could be achieved after canine recipients were simultaneously given marrow from a dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) identical donor. In the present study, we extend those findings across a DLA mismatched barrier. METHODS: Eight Recipient dogs received total body irradiation (4...
September 27, 2016: Transplantation
J L Grow, B Stea, E Katsanis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
N C Koch, D Jacqmin, C Mart, M Fugal, M Ashenafi, K N Vanek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
M Epperly, T Krainz, X Zhang, S Li, P Wipf, J S Greenberger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
A Kim, R P Ermoian, J Zeng, M B Spraker, L Jordan, G M Kane, E C Ford, M Nyflot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
S A Tisseverasinghe, R Samant, M Sabloff, Y Xu, C Bredeson, L Huebsch, P R Genest
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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