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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773412/athlete-s-heart-is-the-morganroth-hypothesis-obsolete
#1
Mark J Haykowsky, T Jake Samuel, Michael D Nelson, Andre La Gerche
In 1975, Morganroth and colleagues reported that the increased left ventricular (LV) mass in highly trained endurance athletes versus nonathletes was primarily due to increased end-diastolic volume while the increased LV mass in resistance trained athletes was solely due to an increased LV wall thickness. Based on the divergent remodelling patterns observed, Morganroth and colleagues hypothesised that the increased "volume" load during endurance exercise may be similar to that which occurs in patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation while the "pressure" load associated with performing a Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) during resistance exercise may mimic the stress imposed on the heart by systemic hypertension or aortic stenosis...
May 1, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767189/covalent-layer-by-layer-films-chemistry-design-and-multidisciplinary-applications
#2
REVIEW
Qi An, Tao Huang, Feng Shi
Covalent layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is a powerful method used to construct functional ultrathin films that enables nanoscopic structural precision, componential diversity, and flexible design. Compared with conventional LbL films built using multiple noncovalent interactions, LbL films prepared using covalent crosslinking offer the following distinctive characteristics: (i) enhanced film endurance or rigidity; (ii) improved componential diversity when uncharged species or small molecules are stably built into the films by forming covalent bonds; and (iii) increased structural diversity when covalent crosslinking is employed in componential, spacial, or temporal (labile bonds) selective manners...
May 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765698/the-epidemiology-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-pakistan-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#3
Zaina Al Kanaani, Sarwat Mahmud, Silva P Kouyoumjian, Laith J Abu-Raddad
To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology in Pakistan and estimate the pooled mean HCV antibody prevalence in different risk populations, we systematically reviewed all available records of HCV incidence and/or prevalence from 1989 to 2016, as informed by the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. This systematic review was reported following the PRISMA guidelines. Populations were classified into six categories based on the risk of exposure to HCV infection. Meta-analyses were performed using DerSimonian and Laird random-effects models with inverse variance weighting...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765327/cardiovascular-adaptive-homeostasis-in-exercise
#4
Kelvin J A Davies
Adaptive Homeostasis has been defined as, "The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events." (Davies, 2016). I propose that one of the most significant examples of adaptive homeostasis may be the adaptation of the cardiovascular system to exercise training. In particular, endurance type training involves the generation of increased levels of free radicals such as ubisemiquinone, superoxide, nitric oxide, and other (non-radical) reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), in a repetitive manner, typically several times per week...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762540/the-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-and-their-transcriptional-coactivators-gene-variations-in-human-trainability-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Miroslav Petr, Petr Stastny, Adam Zajac, James J Tufano, Agnieszka Maciejewska-Skrendo
BACKGROUND: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ( PPARA , PPARG , PPARD ) and their transcriptional coactivators' ( PPARGC1A , PPARGC1B ) gene polymorphisms have been associated with muscle morphology, oxygen uptake, power output and endurance performance. The purpose of this review is to determine whether the PPARs and/or their coactivators' polymorphisms can predict the training response to specific training stimuli. METHODS: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses, a literature review has been run for a combination of PPARs and physical activity key words...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760853/emergency-physicians-at-war
#6
REVIEW
Andrew E Muck, Melissa Givens, Vikhyat S Bebarta, Phillip E Mason, Craig Goolsby
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs) fully participated as an integrated part of the military's health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM) training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units...
May 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756568/aporphines-and-alzheimer-s-disease-towards-a-medical-approach-facing-the-future
#7
Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Eugenio Uriarte, Luca Rastrelli, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sanchez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is reducing progressively the part cognitive inside the Central Nervous System (CNS) and that affects the memories and emotions of the patients who endure this disease. Many drugs have been assessed in patients with different evolutionary grades of the disease, having diverse results, depending on the used compound. Some of them afford dependence and many others with side effects that affect the emotional part and the economic cost of the treatment...
May 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755403/has-the-time-come-to-stratify-and-score-sudep-risk-to-inform-people-with-epilepsy-of-their-changes-in-safety
#8
Rohit Shankar, Craig Newman, Alistair Gales, Brendan N McLean, Jane Hanna, Samantha Ashby, Matthew C Walker, Josemir W Sander
Recent publication of the American Academy of Neurology SUDEP guidance highlighted the importance to American clinicians of making people with epilepsy aware of SUDEP risk. It is the first guideline to do this in the United States. It follows precedent set out in the UK by National Institute of Clinical Excellence in 2004. While a significant achievement, the lack of clarity of how to deliver this guidance in an enduring and person-centered manner, raises concerns on how its long-term effectiveness in risk mitigation...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753336/an-important-milestone-in-parasitology-celebrating-a-hundred-volumes-of-advances-in-parasitology
#9
J Russell Stothard, David Rollinson
Beginning in 1963, the founding rationale of Advances in Parasitology was to provide authentic, well-documented reviews by leading experts, about the progress being made in their area of specialism to inform the wider cadre of parasitologists, disseminating this information across allied disciplines and all users. Some 55 years later, the Series has accumulated over 667 published articles, with just over 650 authors contributing either alone or in collaboration, and has successfully served the parasitological needs of medical, veterinary and wildlife scientific communities with equity, notwithstanding treatises on vectors or intermediate hosts, as well as 'honorary parasites' such as viruses, bacteria and fungi...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750586/bonding-and-bridging-social-capital-in-the-recovery-of-severe-mental-illness-a-synthesis-of-qualitative-research
#10
Asiyeh Salehi, Carolyn Ehrlich, Elizabeth Kendall, Adem Sav
BACKGROUND: Social networks are known to have a major influence on the recovery journey of people with severe mental illness (SMI). AIMS: To understand the role of bonding and bridging social capital in the recovery process following SMI and to identify the barriers that prevent social networks from being mobilized. METHOD: A review of major electronic databases for qualitative studies from 2006 to 2015 (41 papers) was undertaken for thematic synthesis...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744271/dna-as-a-digital-information-storage-device-hope-or-hype
#11
REVIEW
Darshan Panda, Kutubuddin Ali Molla, Mirza Jainul Baig, Alaka Swain, Deeptirekha Behera, Manaswini Dash
The total digital information today amounts to 3.52 × 1022 bits globally, and at its consistent exponential rate of growth is expected to reach 3 × 1024 bits by 2040. Data storage density of silicon chips is limited, and magnetic tapes used to maintain large-scale permanent archives begin to deteriorate within 20 years. Since silicon has limited data storage ability and serious limitations, such as human health hazards and environmental pollution, researchers across the world are intently searching for an appropriate alternative...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743266/biodiversity-and-socioeconomics-in-the-city-a-review-of-the-luxury-effect
#12
REVIEW
Misha Leong, Robert R Dunn, Michelle D Trautwein
The ecological dynamics of cities are influenced not only by geophysical and biological factors, but also by aspects of human society. In cities around the world, a pattern of higher biodiversity in affluent neighbourhoods has been termed 'the luxury effect'. The luxury effect has been found globally regarding plant diversity and canopy or vegetative cover. Fewer studies have considered the luxury effect and animals, yet it has been recognized in the distributions of birds, bats, lizards and indoor arthropods...
May 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740570/influence-of-sex-on-gestational-complications-fetal-to-neonatal-transition-and-postnatal-adaptation
#13
REVIEW
Sheila Lorente-Pozo, Anna Parra-Llorca, Begoña Torres, Isabel Torres-Cuevas, Antonio Nuñez-Ramiro, María Cernada, Ana García-Robles, Maximo Vento
Fetal sex is associated with striking differences during in utero development, fetal-to-neonatal transition, and postnatal morbidity and mortality. Male sex fetuses are apparently protected while in utero resulting in a higher secondary sex rate for males than for females. However, during fetal-to-neonatal transition and thereafter in the newborn period, female exhibits a greater degree of maturation that translates into a better capacity to stabilize, less incidence of prematurity and prematurity-associated morbidities, and better long-term outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738744/a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-of-mindful-exercises-on-rehabilitative-outcomes-among-post-stroke-patients
#14
REVIEW
Liye Zou, Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Nan Zeng, Chaoyi Wang, Li Sun
OBJECTIVE: To critically evaluate the rehabilitative effects of mindful exercises for post-stroke patients. DATA SOURCES: Six databases (PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Wanfang, and CNKI) and reference lists of relevant articles were searched. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of mindful exercises on rehabilitative outcomes such as sensorimotor function, gait speed, leg strength, aerobic endurance, cognitive function, and overall motor function)...
May 5, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738444/the-effects-of-trauma-with-or-without-ptsd-on-the-transgenerational-dna-methylation-alterations-in-human-offsprings
#15
REVIEW
Nagy A Youssef, Laura Lockwood, Shaoyong Su, Guang Hao, Bart P F Rutten
Exposure to psychological trauma is a strong risk factor for several debilitating disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Besides the impact on mental well-being and behavior in the exposed individuals, it has been suggested that psychological trauma can affect the biology of the individuals, and even have biological and behavioral consequences on the offspring of exposed individuals. While knowledge of possible epigenetic underpinnings of the association between exposure to trauma and risk of PTSD has been discussed in several reviews, it remains to be established whether trauma-induced epigenetic modifications can be passed from traumatized individuals to subsequent generations of offspring...
May 8, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737228/are-coffee-s-alleged-health-protective-effects-real-or-artifact-the-enduring-disjunction-between-relevant-experimental-and-observational-evidence
#16
Jack E James
BACKGROUND: There is a large corpus of observational evidence claiming that coffee is health protective and a similarly large corpus of experimental psychopharmacological evidence to suggest that habitual caffeine consumption may be harmful to health. AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the disjunction between observational and experimental findings with specific reference to the implications of coffee/caffeine consumption for elevated blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and neurodegenerative disease...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736820/microbial-co-culturing-systems-butanol-production-from-organic-wastes-through-consolidated-bioprocessing
#17
REVIEW
Yujia Jiang, Ting Zhang, Jiasheng Lu, Peter Dürre, Wenming Zhang, Weiliang Dong, Jie Zhou, Min Jiang, Fengxue Xin
Biobutanol can be indigenously synthesized by solventogenic Clostridium species; however, these microorganisms possess inferior capability of utilizing abundant and renewable organic wastes, such as starch, lignocellulose, and even syngas. The common strategy to achieve direct butanol production from these organic wastes is through genetic modification of wild-type strains. However, due to the complex of butanol synthetic and hydrolytic enzymes expression systems, the recombinants show unsatisfactory results...
May 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735874/-effectiveness-of-non-pharmacologic-interventions-in-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Pok Ja Oh, You Lim Kim
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of non-pharmacologic interventions in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library CENTRAL, EMBASE, CINAHL, and several Korean databases (Until August 2017) were searched. The main search strategy combined terms for peripheral neuropathy and presence of neoplasms. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane's Risk of Bias tool for randomized studies and the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for non-randomized studies...
April 2018: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730785/may-the-force-be-with-you-why-resistance-training-is-essential-for-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-without-complications
#19
REVIEW
Roberto Codella, Marta Ialacqua, Ileana Terruzzi, Livio Luzi
Physical activity, together with diet and pharmacological therapy, represents one of the three cornerstones in type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment and care. The therapeutic appeal of regular physical activity stems from: (i) its non-pharmacological nature; (ii) its beneficial effects on the metabolic risk factors associated with diabetes complications; (iii) its low costs. Evidence accumulated in the last years suggests that aerobic training-endurance training-constitutes a safe modality of intervention, achievable, and effective in diabetes treatment, whenever it is not limited by comorbidities...
May 5, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727608/medical-management-of-functional-impairment-in-peripheral-artery-disease-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Mary M McDermott
Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) now affects 200 million people worldwide and is a major cause of disability. Cilostazol is the only Federal Drug Administration approved medication for PAD-related ischemic symptoms that is recommended by clinical practice guidelines. Supervised treadmill exercise significantly improves treadmill walking performance in PAD. Recent evidence shows that home-based exercise interventions that include occasional medical center visits and incorporate behavioral change techniques also significantly improve walking endurance in PAD...
March 28, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
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