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pediatric hypokalemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888815/acute-diarrhoea-induced-by-rotavirus-in-children-hospitalysed-in-provincial-hospital-for-infectious-diseases-in-bydgoszcz-in-2014-year
#1
Beata Smok, Katarzyna Zieniewicz-Cieślik, Ewa Smukalska, Małgorzata Pawłowska
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiology and course of rotavirus infection in children hospitalized at the T. Browicz Provincial Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Bydgoszcz, Poland in 2014 year. INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus infection is responsible for over 2 millions hospitalizations per year among children under 5 year old. Rotavirus gastroenterocolitis is one of the most common cause of severe dehydration, electrolyte disturbances and metabolic acidosis, leading to 400-600 thousand deaths per year in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855062/safety-tolerability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-in-immunocompromised-pediatric-patients
#2
Nita L Seibel, Aziza T Shad, Ihor Bekersky, Andreas H Groll, Corina Gonzalez, Lauren V Wood, Paul Jarosinski, Donald Buell, William W Hope, Thomas J Walsh
The safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of liposomal formulation of amphotericin B (L-AMB) were evaluated in 40 immunocompromised children and adolescents. The protocol was an open-label, sequential-dose-escalation, multidose pharmacokinetic study with 10 to 13 patients in each of the four dosage cohorts. Each cohort received daily dosages of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 or 10 mg of amphotericin B in the form of L-AMB per kg of body weight. Neutropenic patients between ages 1 and 17 years were enrolled to receive empirical antifungal therapy or treatment of documented invasive fungal infections...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807910/glargine-co-administration-with-intravenous-insulin-in-pediatric-diabetic-ketoacidosis-is-safe-and-facilitates-transition-to-a-subcutaneous-regimen
#3
V Sanoe Harrison, Stacy Rustico, Andrew A Palladino, Christine Ferrara, Colin Patrick Hawkes
BACKGROUND: Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common presentation and complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D). While intravenous insulin is typically used to treat acute metabolic abnormalities, the transition from intravenous to subcutaneous treatment can present a challenge. We hypothesize that co-administration of glargine, a subcutaneous long-acting insulin analog, during insulin infusion may facilitate a flexible and safe transition from intravenous to subcutaneous therapy. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the practice of administering subcutaneous glargine during intravenous insulin is associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, or other complications in children with DKA...
November 3, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770618/diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#4
Clarice L S Lopes, Paula Pitta Pinheiro, Luzia S Barberena, Guilherme U Eckert
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of children aged 0-14 years diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and compare the following outcomes between children with prior diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and children without prior diagnosis of DM1: length of hospital stay, severity on admission, insulin dosage, time of continuous insulin use, volume of fluids infused during treatment, and complications. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study with review of medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of a referral hospital from June 2013 to July 2015...
October 19, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542916/acute-kidney-injury-in-hiv-infected-children-comparison-of-patients-according-to-the-use-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#5
Douglas de Sousa Soares, Malena Gadelha Cavalcante, Samille Maria Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rayana Café Leitão, Ana Patrícia Freitas Vieira, Roberto da Justa Pires Neto, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and laboratory data, and acute kidney injury (AKI) in HIV-infected children using and not using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prior to admission. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted with HIV-infected pediatric patients (<16 years). Children who were using and not using HAART prior to admission were compared. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients were included. Mean age was 5.3±4.27 years; 55...
August 16, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362851/decreasing-iv-potassium-in-pediatric-cardiac-intensive-care-quality-improvement-project
#6
Leslie A Rhodes, Kevin M Wall, Staci L Abernathy, Ashley B Moellinger, Santiago Borasino, Jeffrey A Alten
OBJECTIVES: IV potassium supplementation is commonly used in the pediatric cardiovascular ICU. However, concentrated IV potassium chloride doses can lead to life-threatening complications. We report results of a quality improvement project aimed at decreasing concentrated IV potassium chloride exposure. DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation of a quality improvement project aimed at reducing IV potassium chloride exposure. SETTING: Pediatric cardiac ICU...
August 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325428/liddle-syndrome-in-a-turkish-family-with-heterogeneous-phenotypes
#7
Bahar Büyükkaragöz, Aysun Caltik Yilmaz, Deniz Karcaaltincaba, Osman Ozdemir, Michael Ludwig
Liddle syndrome (LS) is a familial disease characterized by early onset hypertension (HT). Although regarded as rare, its incidence may be greater than expected because the classical findings of hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with suppressed renin and aldosterone levels are not consistently present. Herein, we present the case of an adolescent boy and maternal relatives who were followed up with misdiagnosis of essential HT for a long duration. Clinical diagnosis of LS was confirmed on genetic analysis. Despite carrying the same mutation, the index patient and the family members manifested heterogeneous phenotypes of the disease including age at presentation, degree of HT, presence of hypokalemia and renal/cardiac complications...
August 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240665/n-acetylcysteine-in-cleistanthus-collinus-poisoning-a-report-of-two-cases-in-children
#8
Shreya Sharma, Ramachandran Rameshkumar, Subramanian Mahadevan
Cleistanthus collinus, also known as Oduvanthalai in Tamil, is the most commonly encountered plant poison in southern India. The leaves are used for poisoning humans (suicide or homicide) and animals (cattle and fish) and as an abortifacient, especially in rural south India. Although this poisoning is commonly reported in adults, data regarding the use of N-acetylcysteine in pediatric poisoning is lacking. We report two previously healthy male siblings of pediatric age group who ingested the liquid extracted from crushed leaves of this plant given to them by their mother as a means of deliberate harm...
May 29, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27005007/subcutaneous-regular-insulin-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-children
#9
Michal Cohen, Noa Leibovitz, Smadar Shilo, Nehama Zuckerman-Levin, Itai Shavit, Naim Shehadeh
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) treatment protocols vary, however low-dose intravenous administration of regular insulin is the standard care for replacing insulin in most centers. Few studies, the majority in adults, demonstrated subcutaneous injection of rapid-acting insulin every 1-2 hours to be a valid alternative. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous regular insulin administered every 4 hours in pediatric DKA in a clinical setting...
March 23, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997629/an-ectopic-renin-secreting-adrenal-corticoadenoma-in-a-child-with-malignant-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Abraham M Kaslow, Anne Riquier-Brison, Janos Peti-Peterdi, Nick Shillingford, Josephine HaDuong, Rajkumar Venkatramani, Christopher P Gayer
A previously healthy 7-year-old male presented with hypertensive emergency, hypokalemia, and elevated plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels. There was no evidence of virilization or cushingoid features. MRI of the abdomen revealed a large (5 × 5 × 3 cm) peripherally enhancing, heterogeneous mass arising from the left adrenal gland. The patient was treated for a suspected pheochromocytoma. However, his blood pressure was not responsive to alpha-blockade. Blood pressure was controlled with a calcium channel blocker and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor...
March 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869613/hypophosphatemia-hypomagnesemia-and-hypokalemia-in-pediatric-patients-before-and-during-exclusive-individualized-parenteral-nutrition
#11
Taís Daiene Russo Hortencio, Roberto José Negrao Nogueira, Fernando Augusto de Lima Marson, Antonio Fernando Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypokalemia occur in patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN), mainly when the body's stores are depleted due to fasting or inflammation. Although these disorders are potentially fatal, few studies have reported the incidence in the pediatric population. METHODS: This study evaluated, in a historical cohort of pediatric patients, the prevalence of hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesaemia until 48 hours before initiation of PN infusion (P1) and from days 1-4 (P2) and days 5-7 (P3) of PN infusion and investigated if malnutrition, calories, and protein infusion were correlated to these disorders...
April 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655940/safety-of-a-1-day-polyethylene-glycol-3350-bowel-preparation-for-colonoscopy-in-children
#12
Benjamin Sahn, Mei Lin Chen-Lim, Denise Ciavardone, Lisa Farace, Frances Jannelli, Megan Nieberle, Elizabeth Ely, Xuemei Zhang, Judith Kelsen, Anita Puma, Petar Mamula
OBJECTIVES: Electrolyte-free polyethylene glycol powder (PEG-3350) has been widely used for colonoscopy preparation (prep); however, limited safety data on electrolyte changes exists with 1-day prep regimens. The primary aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients with significant serum chemistry abnormalities before and at the time of colonoscopy. Secondary aims included evaluation of prep tolerance and bowel cleansing efficacy. METHODS: We performed a prospective descriptive observational study of pediatric patients scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy who received our standard 1-day, weight-based 4 g/kg PEG-3350 prep with a single stimulant laxative dose and had serum chemistry testing within 60 days before and at the time of colonoscopy...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26459648/mifepristone-treatment-of-cushing-s-syndrome-in-a-pediatric-patient
#13
Ronadip R Banerjee, Neyssa Marina, Laurence Katznelson, Brian J Feldman
Cushing's syndrome (CS) in the pediatric population is challenging to diagnose and treat. Although next-generation medical therapies are emerging for adults with CS, none are currently approved or used in children. Here we describe the first use of mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, to treat CS in a pediatric subject. The patient, a 14-year-old girl with an 18-month history of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma, suffered from fatigue, profound myopathy, irritability, and depression. She was found to have hypertension, hypokalemia, and worsening control of her preexisting type 1 diabetes...
November 2015: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26256980/noninfectious-complications-of-peritoneal-dialysis-in-korean-children-a-26-year-single-center-study
#14
Ji Eun Kim, Se Jin Park, Ji Young Oh, Ji Hong Kim, Jae Seung Lee, Pyung Kil Kim, Jae Il Shin
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate noninfectious complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD), including mechanical and metabolic complications, at a single center in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 60 PD patients aged ≤18 years (40 boys and 20 girls) during the period between 1986 and 2012. The collected data included gender, age, causes of PD, incidence of noninfectious complications, and treatment for the complications. RESULTS: The mean duration of PD therapy was 28...
September 2015: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26041811/blinatumomab-a-first-in-class-bispecific-t-cell-engager-for-precursor-b-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#15
REVIEW
Larry W Buie, Joshua J Pecoraro, Troy Z Horvat, Ryan J Daley
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of blinatumomab for the treatment of pediatric and adult precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). DATA SOURCES: A literature search of EMBASE (1947 to April 2015), Medline (1946 to April 2015), PubMed (1996 to April 2015), the U.S. National Institutes of Health Clinicaltrials.gov, the Food and Drug Administration, and relevant meeting abstracts was conducted using the terms blinatumomab, BiTE, bispecific T-cell engager, MT103, MEDI-538, and Blincyto...
September 2015: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25996195/going-against-the-grain-an-atypical-presentation-of-celiac-disease
#16
Emily Kay Boone, Arun Aggarwal
With the current prevalence of celiac disease, it is important to know the common signs and symptoms of this disease process and to also be aware of atypical presentations. This article describes a toddler who initially presented with recurrent diarrhea and weight loss with a significant secondary hypokalemia. His initial examination included screening for celiac disease, but the serology was negative. After persistent and worsening symptoms, further tests were pursued and a diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed based on an upper endoscopy and histology...
May 2015: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25278985/safety-and-efficacy-of-the-off-label-use-of-milrinone-in-pediatric-patients-with-heart-diseases
#17
Joowon Lee, Gi Beom Kim, Hye Won Kwon, Bo Sang Kwon, Eun Jung Bae, Chung Il Noh, Hong Gook Lim, Woong Han Kim, Jeong Ryul Lee, Yong Jin Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Milrinone is often used in children to treat acute heart failure and prevent low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. Due to the lack of studies on the long-term milrinone use in children, the objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the current patterns of milrinone use for ≥3 days in infants and children with heart diseases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients aged <13 years who received milrinone for ≥3 days from January 2005 to December 2012...
September 2014: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25264948/low-dose-vs-standard-dose-insulin-in-pediatric-diabetic-ketoacidosis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Karthi Nallasamy, Muralidharan Jayashree, Sunit Singhi, Arun Bansal
IMPORTANCE: The standard recommended dose (0.1 U/kg per hour) of insulin in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) guidelines is not backed by strong clinical evidence. Physiologic dose-effect studies have found that even lower doses could adequately normalize ketonemia and acidosis. Lowering the insulin dose may be advantageous in the initial hours of therapy when a gradual decrease in glucose, electrolytes, and resultant osmolality is desired. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of low-dose insulin against the standard dose in children with DKA...
November 2014: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25257509/phase-i-dose-escalation-and-pharmacokinetic-study-of-oral-gefitinib-and-irinotecan-in-children-with-refractory-solid-tumors
#19
R C Brennan, W Furman, S Mao, J Wu, D C Turner, C F Stewart, V Santana, L M McGregor
PURPOSE: This phase I study endeavored to estimate the maximum tolerated dose and describe the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of oral irinotecan with gefitinib in children with refractory solid tumors. METHODS: Oral irinotecan was administered on days 1-5 and 8-12 with oral gefitinib (fixed dose, 150 mg/m(2)/day) on days 1-12 of a 21-day course. The escalation with overdose control method guided irinotecan dose escalation (7 dose levels, range 5-40 mg/m(2)/day)...
December 2014: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25153560/thyrotoxic-hypokalemic-periodic-paralysis-thpp-in-adolescents
#20
Hiba Al-Zubeidi, Carla Demeterco, Kenneth Lee Jones
INTRODUCTION: Periodic paralysis associated with hyperthyroidism and hypokalemia is an uncommon disorder reported primarily in Asian males and rarely in children. We report three Hispanic adolescent males who were seen with Graves' disease (GD) and THPP. METHODS: The method used was chart review. RESULTS: Two of these boys presented with episodes of paralysis and were diagnosed with GD. The third was initially seen with hyperthyroidism and developed weakness and paralysis when his disease progressed because of therapeutic noncompliance...
January 2015: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
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