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Sulphonylurea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896444/is-all-hypoglycaemia-treated-as-equal-an-observational-study-of-how-the-type-of-diabetes-and-treatment-prescribed-prior-to-admission-influences-quality-of-treatment-of-inpatient-hypoglycaemia
#1
Gregory C Jones, Jansher Khan, Christopher A R Sainsbury
AIMS: Inpatient hypoglycaemia is common and associated with adverse outcomes. There is often increased vigilance of hypoglycaemia in inpatients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) compared to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We aimed to investigate this apparent discrepancy, utilising the time to repeat (TTR) capillary blood glucose (CBG) measurement as a surrogate for engagement with guidelines stating that CBG should be rechecked following intervention within 15 min of an initial CBG of <4 mmol/L...
November 28, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890548/use-of-glucose-lowering-drugs-and-risk-of-fracture-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#2
Jakob Starup-Linde, Søren Gregersen, Morten Frost, Peter Vestergaard
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. The aim of this cohort study was to investigate whether glucose-lowering drugs influence the risk of hip fracture in patients with incident diabetes. METHODS: A study was performed on a cohort of patients with incident type 2 diabetes. Diabetes diagnosis was defined using information from the Danish National Patient Registry and reimbursement information of glucose-lowering drugs from the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics...
November 23, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882918/hyperglycaemia-induces-metabolic-dysfunction-and-glycogen-accumulation-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#3
Melissa F Brereton, Maria Rohm, Kenju Shimomura, Christian Holland, Sharona Tornovsky-Babeay, Daniela Dadon, Michaela Iberl, Margarita V Chibalina, Sheena Lee, Benjamin Glaser, Yuval Dor, Patrik Rorsman, Anne Clark, Frances M Ashcroft
Insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is impaired in all forms of diabetes. The resultant hyperglycaemia has deleterious effects on many tissues, including β-cells. Here we show that chronic hyperglycaemia impairs glucose metabolism and alters expression of metabolic genes in pancreatic islets. In a mouse model of human neonatal diabetes, hyperglycaemia results in marked glycogen accumulation, and increased apoptosis in β-cells. Sulphonylurea therapy rapidly normalizes blood glucose levels, dissipates glycogen stores, increases autophagy and restores β-cell metabolism...
November 24, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835680/benefits-and-harms-of-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Heidi Storgaard, Lise L Gluud, Cathy Bennett, Magnus F Grøndahl, Mikkel B Christensen, Filip K Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
OBJECTIVE: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) are a novel drug class for the treatment of diabetes. We aimed at describing the maximal benefits and risks associated with SGLT2-i for patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: We included double-blinded, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating SGLT2-i administered in the highest approved therapeutic doses (canagliflozin 300 mg/day, dapagliflozin 10 mg/day, and empagliflozin 25 mg/day) for ≥12 weeks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816305/the-contributions-of-fasting-and-postprandial-blood-glucose-increments-to-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-dyslipidemic-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-stable-ischemic-heart-disease
#5
Boris Djindjic, Tomislav Kostic, Zoran Radovanovic, Natasa Djindjic, Marko Lazovic, Misko Zivic, Zoran Perisic, Nebojsa Krstic
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Contributions of fasting and postprandial blood glucose increments on level of inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (IHD) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) was evaluated. METHODOLOGY: Ninety T2DM patients (60 with IHD and 30 without IHD) treated with metformin and/or sulphonylurea were enrolled in cross-sectional nested case-control clinical study. The areas under the six-point daily glucose curve above the fasting glucose concentrations (AUCpp) and over 5...
October 31, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796819/sulfonylurea-poisoning-in-a-healthy-toddler
#6
Suresh Kumar, Abhijit Choudhary, Mahammad Ali, Vipul Gupta, Jayashree Muralidharan, Sunit C Singhi
Ingestion of sulfonylureas is life-threatening in toddlers and children due to its strong and prolonged hypoglycemic effect. The authors present a 15-mo-old boy with accidental ingestion of Glipizide who presented with encephalopathy, seizure and severe hypoglycemia. The management included parenteral dextrose and octreotide administration to maintain euglycemia, followed by complete neurological recovery within 24 h. Sulphonylurea intoxication should be considered in previously healthy toddlers and children presenting with hypoglycemia especially if any caregiver is on sulfonylurea drugs...
October 31, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792213/insulin-treatment-may-not-be-associated-with-worse-prognosis-in-acute-heart-failure-diabetic-patients
#7
Filipe M Cunha, Pedro Marques, Joana Pereira, Maria J Pinto, Pedro Rodrigues, Helena Moreira, Patrícia Lourenço, Paulo Bettencourt
BACKGROUND: Diabetic patients with heart failure (HF) treated with insulin appear to have a worse prognosis compared to oral anti-diabetic (OAD) agents. Whether insulin is a risk factor or a marker of disease severity is unknown. We studied the prognostic impact of insulin treatment in an acute HF diabetic population. METHODS: From a prospectively recruited population of hospital-admitted acute HF patients we retrospectively selected a convenience sample. Pair-matched analysis: each insulin-treated patient was matched with a diabetic patient with similar glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c±0...
October 28, 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770555/prospective-study-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-anti-diabetic-drugs-and-risk-of-prostate-cancer
#8
Christel Häggström, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Björn Zethelius, David Robinson, Birgitta Grundmark, Lars Holmberg, Soffia Gudbjörnsdottir, Hans Garmo, Pär Stattin
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has consistently been associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer, however, if this decrease is related to the use of anti-diabetic drugs is unknown. We prospectively studied men in the comparison cohort in the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) 3.0, with data on T2DM, use of metformin, sulphonylurea, and insulin retrieved from national health care registers and demographic databases. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prostate cancer, adjusted for confounders...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765999/hydrophobic-resorufamine-derivatives-potent-and-selective-red-fluorescent-probes-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-of-mammalian-cells
#9
Sahishna Phaniraj, Zhe Gao, Digamber Rane, Blake R Peterson
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells plays critical roles in the processing of secreted and transmembrane proteins. Defects in these functions are associated with a wide range of pathologies. To image this organelle, cells are often treated with fluorescent ER-Tracker dyes. Although these compounds are selective, existing red fluorescent probes of the ER are costly glibenclamide derivatives that inhibit ER-associated sulphonylurea receptors. To provide simpler and more cost-effective red fluorescent probes of the ER, we synthesized amino analogues of the fluorophore resorufin...
December 2016: Dyes and Pigments: An International Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762096/beneficial-effect-of-lixisenatide-after-76-weeks-of-treatment-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-meta-analysis-from-the-getgoal-program
#10
Fabio Broglio, Edoardo Mannucci, Raffaele Napoli, Antonio Nicolucci, Francesco Purrello, Elena Nikonova, William Stager, Roberto Trevisan
AIMS: To evaluate long term efficacy and safety of lixisenatide, a short-acting, prandial GLP-1 RA (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists) as add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A meta-analysis of 76-week results of five placebo-controlled clinical trials from the GetGoal program was performed including 3,000 inadequately controlled adult diabetic patients where lixisenatide 20 µg once-daily was administered in combination with metformin (GetGoal-M and GetGoal-F1), sulphonylurea ± metformin (GetGoal-S), basal insulin ± metformin (GetGoal-L) or pioglitazone ± metformin (GetGoal-P)...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749986/insulin-secretagogues-for-prevention-or-delay-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-its-associated-complications-in-persons-at-increased-risk-for-the-development-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
Bianca Hemmingsen, David Peick Sonne, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether insulin secretagogues (sulphonylureas and meglitinide analogues) are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin secretagogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695488/progens-hba1c-study-safety-and-effectiveness-of-premixed-recombinant-human-insulin-gensulin-m30
#12
Magdalena Walicka, Jacek Jóźwiak, Jacek Rzeszotarski, Grażyna Zarzycka-Lindner, Anna Zonenberg, Paweł Bijoś, Małgorzata Masierek, Edward Franek
INTRODUCTION: Insulin analogues have gained widespread popularity. However, in many countries the use of these drugs is limited by their relatively high cost, so there is still a need for more cost-effective human insulin therapies. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of the premixed recombinant human insulin (rhuI) Gensulin M30 in a real-life setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 4257 patients (2196 female, 2061 male) with type 2 diabetes, aged 63...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693800/effects-of-zd0947-a-novel-and-potent-atp-sensitive-k-channel-opener-on-smooth-muscle-type-atp-sensitive-k-channels
#13
Keisuke Mori, Yoshio Yamashita, Noriyoshi Teramoto
The effects of ZD0947, a novel ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (KATP channel) opener, on the activity of reconstituted KATP channels were investigated using cell-attached recordings. KATP channels were studied in HEK 293 cells by co-expression of inwardly rectifying-6 family K(+) channel subunits (Kir6.x: Kir6.1 and Kir6.2) with 3 different types of sulphonylurea receptors (SUR.x: SUR1, SUR2A and SUR2B). ZD0947 (100 µM) activated SUR2B/Kir6.2 channels in a concentration-dependent manner, but caused only weak activation of SUR1/Kir6...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684469/the-effect-of-vildagliptin-relative-to-sulfonylurea-as-dual-therapy-with-metformin-or-as-monotherapy-in-muslim-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-fasting-during-ramadan-in-the-middle-east-the-virtue-study
#14
Ahmed A K Hassoun, Monira Al-Arouj, Mohamed Ibrahim
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of vildagliptin relative to sulfonylurea (SU) on hypoglycemic events, in Muslim patients from the Middle East with type 2 diabetes who fast during Ramadan. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with at least one hypoglycemic event (HE) during the fasting period. Secondary endpoints included change in weight, HbA1c levels, treatment adherence and overall safety. DESIGN AND METHODS: This multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study enrolled Muslim adult T2DM patients from Middle Eastern countries who received treatment with vildagliptin or SU as add on to metformin or monotherapy...
October 14, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659712/clinical-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-ins-mutation-identified-in-patients-with-mody-phenotype
#15
Barbara Piccini, Rosangela Artuso, Lorenzo Lenzi, Monica Guasti, Giulia Braccesi, Federica Barni, Emilio Casalini, Sabrina Giglio, Sonia Toni
Correct diagnosis of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is based on genetic tests requiring an appropriate subject selection by clinicians. Mutations in the insulin (INS) gene rarely occur in patients with MODY. This study is aimed at determining the genetic background and clinical phenotype in patients with suspected MODY. 34 patients with suspected MODY, negative for mutations in the GCK, HNF1α, HNF4α, HNF1β and PDX1 genes, were screened by next generation sequencing (NGS). A heterozygous INS mutation was identified in 4 members of the same family...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642100/systematic-review-with-network-meta-analysis-antidiabetic-medication-and-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Yao-Yao Zhou, Gui-Qi Zhu, Tian Liu, Ji-Na Zheng, Zhang Cheng, Tian-Tian Zou, Martin Braddock, Shen-Wen Fu, Ming-Hua Zheng
Antidiabetic medication may modify the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to compare the use of different antidiabetic strategies and the incidence of HCC. PubMed, Embase.com and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to 31 October 2015 and randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies or case-control studies were included for our analyses. A total of thirteen studies enrolling 481358 participants with 240678 HCC cases who received at least two different strategies were retrieved in this analysis...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642000/patterns-of-anti-diabetic-medication-use-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-england-and-wales
#17
Preeti Datta-Nemdharry, Andrew Thomson, Julie Beynon, Katherine Donegan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to characterise how Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is treated in England and Wales and whether this adheres to 2009 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance on management of T2DM. METHODS: Data for T2DM patients aged 18+ years prescribed at least one anti-diabetic drug between 01/01/2000-30/06/2012 were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We examined the sequences in which anti-diabetic drugs were prescribed and, for patients on the most common anti-diabetic drug pathways, evaluated average HbA1c values at treatment initiation and at progression to a second or third-line anti-diabetic drug class, including insulin...
September 19, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640062/insulin-monotherapy-compared-with-the-addition-of-oral-glucose-lowering-agents-to-insulin-for-people-with-type-2-diabetes-already-on-insulin-therapy-and-inadequate-glycaemic-control
#18
REVIEW
Rimke C Vos, Mariëlle Jp van Avendonk, Hanneke Jansen, Alexander N Goudswaard, Maureen van den Donk, Kees Gorter, Anneloes Kerssen, Guy Ehm Rutten
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether people with type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin monotherapy who do not achieve adequate glycaemic control should continue insulin as monotherapy or can benefit from adding oral glucose-lowering agents to the insulin therapy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin monotherapy compared with the addition of oral glucose-lowering agents to insulin monotherapy for people with type 2 diabetes already on insulin therapy and inadequate glycaemic control...
September 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627981/twelve-week-liraglutide-or-sitagliptin-does-not-affect-hepatic-fat-in-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Mark M Smits, Lennart Tonneijck, Marcel H A Muskiet, Mark H H Kramer, Petra J W Pouwels, Indra C Pieters-van den Bos, Trynke Hoekstra, Michaela Diamant, Daniël H van Raalte, Djuna L Cahen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1-based therapies have been suggested to improve hepatic steatosis. We assessed the effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide and the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this 12 week, parallel, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, performed at the VU University Medical Center between July 2013 and August 2015, 52 overweight patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and/or sulphonylurea agent ([mean ± SD] age 62...
September 15, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627083/-type-2%C3%A2-diabetes-mellitus-and-heart-failure
#20
Aleš Linhart, Jan Bělohlávek
UNLABELLED: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a substantial increase in the risk of development of heart failure. The mechanisms causing this complication are complex and include coronary heart disease, myocardial changes induced by hypertension, increased aortic stiffness, arrhythmias, renal failure and last but not least by direct metabolic alterations causing diabetic cardiomyopathy. The heart failure could be induced by several drugs used for diabetes therapy. This review debates the current evidence of harms and benefits of diabetes treatment related to heart failure in the light of results of recent randomized trials...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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