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Bianca Hemmingsen, David Peick Sonne, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether insulin secretagogues (sulphonylureas and meglitinide analogues) are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin secretagogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Magdalena Walicka, Jacek Jóźwiak, Jacek Rzeszotarski, Grażyna Zarzycka-Lindner, Anna Zonenberg, Paweł Bijoś, Małgorzata Masierek, Edward Franek
INTRODUCTION: Insulin analogues have gained widespread popularity. However, in many countries the use of these drugs is limited by their relatively high cost, so there is still a need for more cost-effective human insulin therapies. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of the premixed recombinant human insulin (rhuI) Gensulin M30 in a real-life setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 4257 patients (2196 female, 2061 male) with type 2 diabetes, aged 63...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Keisuke Mori, Yoshio Yamashita, Noriyoshi Teramoto
The effects of ZD0947, a novel ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (KATP channel) opener, on the activity of reconstituted KATP channels were investigated using cell-attached recordings. KATP channels were studied in HEK 293 cells by co-expression of inwardly rectifying-6 family K(+) channel subunits (Kir6.x: Kir6.1 and Kir6.2) with 3 different types of sulphonylurea receptors (SUR.x: SUR1, SUR2A and SUR2B). ZD0947 (100 µM) activated SUR2B/Kir6.2 channels in a concentration-dependent manner, but caused only weak activation of SUR1/Kir6...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Ahmed A K Hassoun, Monira Al-Arouj, Mohamed Ibrahim
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of vildagliptin relative to sulfonylurea (SU) on hypoglycemic events, in Muslim patients from the Middle East with type 2 diabetes who fast during Ramadan. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with at least one hypoglycemic event (HE) during the fasting period. Secondary endpoints included change in weight, HbA1c levels, treatment adherence and overall safety. DESIGN AND METHODS: This multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study enrolled Muslim adult T2DM patients from Middle Eastern countries who received treatment with vildagliptin or SU as add on to metformin or monotherapy...
October 14, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Barbara Piccini, Rosangela Artuso, Lorenzo Lenzi, Monica Guasti, Giulia Braccesi, Federica Barni, Emilio Casalini, Sabrina Giglio, Sonia Toni
Correct diagnosis of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is based on genetic tests requiring an appropriate subject selection by clinicians. Mutations in the insulin (INS) gene rarely occur in patients with MODY. This study is aimed at determining the genetic background and clinical phenotype in patients with suspected MODY. 34 patients with suspected MODY, negative for mutations in the GCK, HNF1α, HNF4α, HNF1β and PDX1 genes, were screened by next generation sequencing (NGS). A heterozygous INS mutation was identified in 4 members of the same family...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Yao-Yao Zhou, Gui-Qi Zhu, Tian Liu, Ji-Na Zheng, Zhang Cheng, Tian-Tian Zou, Martin Braddock, Shen-Wen Fu, Ming-Hua Zheng
Antidiabetic medication may modify the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to compare the use of different antidiabetic strategies and the incidence of HCC. PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to 31 October 2015 and randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies or case-control studies were included for our analyses. A total of thirteen studies enrolling 481358 participants with 240678 HCC cases who received at least two different strategies were retrieved in this analysis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Preeti Datta-Nemdharry, Andrew Thomson, Julie Beynon, Katherine Donegan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to characterise how Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is treated in England and Wales and whether this adheres to 2009 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance on management of T2DM. METHODS: Data for T2DM patients aged 18+ years prescribed at least one anti-diabetic drug between 01/01/2000-30/06/2012 were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We examined the sequences in which anti-diabetic drugs were prescribed and, for patients on the most common anti-diabetic drug pathways, evaluated average HbA1c values at treatment initiation and at progression to a second or third-line anti-diabetic drug class, including insulin...
September 19, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Rimke C Vos, Mariëlle Jp van Avendonk, Hanneke Jansen, Alexander N Goudswaard, Maureen van den Donk, Kees Gorter, Anneloes Kerssen, Guy Ehm Rutten
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether people with type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin monotherapy who do not achieve adequate glycaemic control should continue insulin as monotherapy or can benefit from adding oral glucose-lowering agents to the insulin therapy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin monotherapy compared with the addition of oral glucose-lowering agents to insulin monotherapy for people with type 2 diabetes already on insulin therapy and inadequate glycaemic control...
September 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mark M Smits, Lennart Tonneijck, Marcel H A Muskiet, Mark H H Kramer, Petra J W Pouwels, Indra C Pieters-van den Bos, Trynke Hoekstra, Michaela Diamant, Daniël H van Raalte, Djuna L Cahen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1-based therapies have been suggested to improve hepatic steatosis. We assessed the effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide and the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this 12 week, parallel, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, performed at the VU University Medical Center between July 2013 and August 2015, 52 overweight patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and/or sulphonylurea agent ([mean ± SD] age 62...
September 15, 2016: Diabetologia
Aleš Linhart, Jan Bělohlávek
UNLABELLED: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a substantial increase in the risk of development of heart failure. The mechanisms causing this complication are complex and include coronary heart disease, myocardial changes induced by hypertension, increased aortic stiffness, arrhythmias, renal failure and last but not least by direct metabolic alterations causing diabetic cardiomyopathy. The heart failure could be induced by several drugs used for diabetes therapy. This review debates the current evidence of harms and benefits of diabetes treatment related to heart failure in the light of results of recent randomized trials...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
H W Rodbard, B W Bode, S B Harris, L Rose, L Lehmann, H Jarlov, J Thurman
AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of insulin degludec/liraglutide (IDegLira), a novel combination product, as add-on therapy for people with Type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on sulphonylurea therapy. METHODS: In this 26-week, double-blind trial, adults with Type 2 diabetes [HbA1c 53-75 mmol/mol (7.0-9.0%)] were randomized to IDegLira (n = 289) or placebo (n = 146) as add-on to pre-trial sulphonylurea ± metformin, titrating to a fasting glycaemic target of 4...
September 2, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Irene Romera, Francisco Javier Ampudia-Blasco, Antonio Pérez, Bernat Ariño, Egon Pfarr, Sanja Giljanovic Kis, Ebrahim Naderali
INTRODUCTION: To analyze the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin combined with other oral hypoglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Pooled analysis of three phase III trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=1,801) who received placebo or empagliflozin 10 or 25mg once daily for 24 weeks, in combination with metformin, metformin+sulphonylurea or pioglitazone ± metformin. RESULTS: Empagliflozin significantly decreased HbA1c (adjusted mean reduction vs placebo with empagliflozin 10mg: -0...
August 28, 2016: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
Danielle Crawley, Hans Garmo, Sarah Rudman, Pär Stattin, Christel Häggström, Björn Zethelius, Lars Holmberg, Jan Adolfsson, Mieke Van Hemelrijck
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) increases risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM); however the association between types and duration of ADT has not been fully elucidated. We examined how type and duration of ADT affects risk of T2DM. Using data from Prostate Cancer database Sweden (PCBaSe) we investigated risk of T2DM in a cohort of 34,031 men with PCa on ADT; i.e., anti-androgens (AA), orchiectomy, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists compared to an age-matched, PCa-free comparison cohort (n = 167,205) using multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Rachel E J Besser, Sarah E Flanagan, Deborah G J Mackay, I K Temple, Maggie H Shepherd, Beverley M Shields, Sian Ellard, Andrew T Hattersley
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia in premature infants is usually thought to reflect inadequate pancreatic development rather than monogenic neonatal diabetes. No studies, to our knowledge, have investigated the prevalence of monogenic forms of diabetes in preterm infants. METHODS: We studied 750 patients with diabetes diagnosed before 6 months of age. We compared the genetic etiology and clinical characteristics of 146 preterm patients born <37 weeks and compared them with 604 born ≥37 weeks...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Michael Tanner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Nicholas Carlson, Kristine Hommel, Jonas B Olesen, Thomas A Gerds, Anne-Merete Soja, Tina Vilsbøll, Anne-Lise Kamper, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Gunnar Gislason
Recent guidelines governing anti-diabetic medications increasingly advocate metformin as first-line therapy in all patients with type 2 diabetes. However, metformin could be associated with increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI), acute dialysis and lactate acidosis in marginal patients. In a retrospective nationwide cohort study, a total of 168 443 drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes ≥50 years, initiating treatment with either metformin or sulphonyl in Denmark between 2000 and 2012 were included in this study (70...
August 18, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
R T Grimes, K Bennett, H Hoey, L Tilson, M C Henman
AIM: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in young adults is increasing, yet little is known about medication use in this population. This study aimed to describe hypoglycaemic and cardiovascular treatment patterns in young adults newly treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study from 2008-2011 was conducted using the Irish national pharmacy claims database. Subjects aged 15-39 years were analysed for use of hypoglycaemic therapy, subsequent regimen changes, and any co-prescription of cardiovascular agents 1 year after treatment initiation...
August 17, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
N Inagaki, E Araki, T Oura, A Matsui, M Takeuchi, Y Tanizawa
The efficacy and safety of once weekly dulaglutide 0.75 mg in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) were evaluated by subgroups defined by concomitant oral hypoglycaemic agents. This exploratory analysis included data from a randomized, open-label, phase III study that compared dulaglutide with insulin glargine (glargine) (N = 361). The three subgroups were dulaglutide or glargine in combination with sulphonylurea (SU) alone, biguanide (BG) alone, or SU and BG combined. There were no clinically relevant differences in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) changes among the three subgroups in the dulaglutide group; in the glargine group, a numerically greater reduction was observed in combination with BG alone compared to the other two groups (SU alone and SU+BG)...
August 3, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Philip M S Evans, Stephen C Bain
INTRODUCTION: The estimated global prevalence of diabetes mellitus for adults aged 20-70 in 2015 was 415 million with approximately 90% of diagnosed cases being Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Improvements in lifestyle and effective therapies are key to management but due to the progressive nature of T2DM, pharmacotherapy is typically required. Whilst the initial therapy will usually be with metformin, thereafter treatment should be individualised, with consideration of several different second line options...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
S E Andersen, M Christensen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The risk of hypoglycaemia may differ among sulphonylureas (SUs), but evidence from head-to-head comparisons is sparse. Performing a network meta-analysis to use indirect evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), we compared the relative risk of hypoglycaemia with newer generation SUs when added to metformin. METHODS: A systematic review identified RCTs lasting 12-52 weeks and evaluating SUs added to inadequate metformin monotherapy (≥1000 mg/day) in type 2 diabetes...
July 18, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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