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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815023/antibiotic-resistance-ability-to-form-biofilm-and-susceptibility-to-copper-alloys-of-selected-staphylococcal-strains-isolated-from-touch-surfaces-in-polish-hospital-wards
#1
Anna Różańska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Dorota Romaniszyn, Małgorzata Bulanda, Monika Walkowicz, Piotr Osuch, Tadeusz Knych
BACKGROUND: Despite the employment of sanitary regimes, contact transmission of the aetiological agents of hospital infections is still exceedingly common. The issue of microbe transmission becomes particularly important when facing multidrug-resistant microorganisms such as methicillin-resistant staphylococci. In the case of deficiencies in cleaning and disinfection procedures, hospital equipment made of copper alloys can play an important role, complementing traditional hospital hygiene procedures...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813410/identification-of-cmtm6-and-cmtm4-as-pd-l1-protein-regulators
#2
Riccardo Mezzadra, Chong Sun, Lucas T Jae, Raquel Gomez-Eerland, Evert de Vries, Wei Wu, Meike E W Logtenberg, Maarten Slagter, Elisa A Rozeman, Ingrid Hofland, Annegien Broeks, Hugo M Horlings, Lodewyk F A Wessels, Christian U Blank, Yanling Xiao, Albert J R Heck, Jannie Borst, Thijn R Brummelkamp, Ton N M Schumacher
The clinical benefit for patients with diverse types of metastatic cancers that has been observed upon blockade of the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 has highlighted the importance of this inhibitory axis in the suppression of tumour-specific T-cell responses. Notwithstanding the key role of PD-L1 expression by cells within the tumour micro-environment, our understanding of the regulation of the PD-L1 protein is limited. Here we identify, using a haploid genetic screen, CMTM6, a type-3 transmembrane protein of previously unknown function, as a regulator of the PD-L1 protein...
August 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808592/a-case-of-fulminant-meningococcemia-it-is-all-in-the-complement
#3
Kellie L Hawkins, Mariah Hoffman, Sonia Okuyama, Sarah E Rowan
Eculizumab is a novel monoclonal antibody that inhibits complement-mediated hemolysis in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Complement deficiency is a well-known risk factor for meningococcal infection. We describe a case of a young patient with PNH treated with eculizumab who presented with a life-threatening case of nongroupable meningococcemia. As this new biologic agent becomes more widely prescribed, providers should be aware of the increased risk of meningococcemia. In addition to vaccination, providers may consider the use of oral penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis against Neisseria meningitidis in these cases of functional complement deficiency...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806402/multi-functional-mechanisms-of-immune-evasion-by-the-streptococcal-complement-inhibitor-c5a-peptidase
#4
Nicola N Lynskey, Mark Reglinski, Damien Calay, Matthew K Siggins, Justin C Mason, Marina Botto, Shiranee Sriskandan
The complement cascade is crucial for clearance and control of invading pathogens, and as such is a key target for pathogen mediated host modulation. C3 is the central molecule of the complement cascade, and plays a vital role in opsonization of bacteria and recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. Streptococcal species have evolved multiple mechanisms to disrupt complement-mediated innate immunity, among which ScpA (C5a peptidase), a C5a inactivating enzyme, is widely conserved. Here we demonstrate for the first time that pyogenic streptococcal species are capable of cleaving C3, and identify C3 and C3a as novel substrates for the streptococcal ScpA, which are functionally inactivated as a result of cleavage 7 amino acids upstream of the natural C3 convertase...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805355/sensing-mg-2-contributes-to-the-resistance-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-to-complement-mediated-opsonophagocytosis
#5
Mohammad Qadi, Sofía Izquierdo-Rabassa, Margalida Mateu Borrás, Antonio Doménech-Sánchez, Carlos Juan, Joanna B Goldberg, Robert E W Hancock, Sebastián Albertí
Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to survive in the host hinges on its ability to probe the environment and respond appropriately. Rapid adaptation is often mediated by two-component regulatory systems, such as the PhoP/PhoQ system that responds to Mg(2+) ion concentration. However, there is limited information about the role of PhoQ in P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections. We used a murine model of systemic infection to test the virulence of a PhoQ-deficient mutant. Mutation of PhoQ impaired the virulence and the ability to cause bacteremia of P...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804502/purification-preliminary-characterization-and-immunological-activity-of-polysaccharides-from-crude-drugs-of-sijunzi-formula
#6
Yunfei Ji, Ruijun Wang, Ying Peng, Chongsheng Peng, Xiaobo Li
Sijunzi Decoction (SJZD) is a conventional prescription for curing spleen deficiency in Traditional Chinese Medicine and polysaccharide is its main ingredient. In order to explore the effective ingredients contributing to the immunological activity of SJZD, we isolated and purified seven homogeneous polysaccharides from Radix Ginseng (RS-3-1 and RS-3-2), Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (BZ-3-1, BZ-3-2, and BZ-3-3), Poria (FL-3-1), and Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC-3-1) decoctions, respectively. The molecular weight of seven homogeneous polysaccharides ranged from 5...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794230/analysis-of-factor-d-isoforms-in-malpuech-michels-mingarelli-carnevale-patients-highlights-the-role-of-masp-3-as-a-maturase-in-the-alternative-pathway-of-complement
#7
Rasmus Pihl, Lisbeth Jensen, Annette G Hansen, Ida B Thøgersen, Stephanie Andres, Frederik Dagnæs-Hansen, Konrad Oexle, Jan J Enghild, Steffen Thiel
Factor D (FD), which is also known as adipsin, is regarded as the first-acting protease of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. It has been suggested that FD is secreted as a mature enzyme that does not require subsequent activation. This view was challenged when it was shown that mice lacking mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1) and MASP-3 contain zymogenic FD (pro-FD), and it is becoming evident that MASP-3 is implicated in pro-FD maturation. However, the necessity of MASP-3 for pro-FD cleavage has been questioned, because AP activity is still observed in sera from MASP-1/3-deficient Malpuech-Michels-Mingarelli-Carnevale (3MC) patients...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776976/complementary-cell-free-translational-assay-for-quantification-of-amino-acids
#8
Yeon-Jae Jang, Kyung-Ho Lee, Tae Hyeon Yoo, Dong-Myung Kim
In this study, we present a simple and economical method that enables rapid quantification of amino acids based on their polymerization into a signal-generating protein. This method harnesses amino acid-deficient cell-free protein synthesis sys-tems that generate fluorescence signals in response to exogenous amino acids. When premixed with assay samples contain-ing the amino acids in question, incubation of the cell-free synthesis reaction mixture rapidly resulted in the production of sfGFP, the fluorescence intensity of which was linearly proportional to the concentration of the amino acids...
August 4, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771859/the-role-of-zip-transporters-and-group-f-bzip-transcription-factors-in-the-zn-deficiency-response-of-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#9
Nicholas P Evens, Peter Buchner, Lorraine E Williams, Malcolm J Hawkesford
Understanding the molecular basis of zinc (Zn) uptake and transport in staple cereal crops is critical for improving both Zn content and tolerance to low Zn soils. This study demonstrates the importance of F-group bZIP transcription factors and ZIP transporters in responses to Zn deficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Seven F group TabZIP genes and fourteen ZIPs with homeologs were identified in hexaploid wheat. Promoter analysis revealed the presence of Zn-deficiency-response elements (ZDREs) in a number of the ZIPs...
August 3, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770496/serogroup-b-meningococcus-outbreaks-prevalence-and-the-case-for-standard-vaccination
#10
REVIEW
James Grogan, Karen Roos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores the history of serogroup B meningitis outbreaks in American universities and the rise of the monovalent serogroup B meningococcus vaccines (MenB). RECENT FINDINGS: Serogroup B meningitis represents 30% of American meningococcal infections and had no commercially available vaccine in the USA until 2013 when the FDA made an expanded allowance for importation of the MenB-4C vaccine for outbreaks at two American universities. Infections of Neisseria meningitidis, notably meningococcal meningitis represent a continued, lethal threat to the pediatric and adolescent populations and those with primary or acquired complement component deficiencies, largely mitigated by the quadrivalent meningococcal conjugated vaccine against serogroups A, C, W, and Y (MenACWY)...
September 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768857/molecular-function-analysis-of-rabies-virus-rna-polymerase-l-protein-by-using-an-l-gene-deficient-virus
#11
Kento Nakagawa, Yuki Kobayashi, Naoto Ito, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Kazuma Okada, Machiko Makino, Hideo Goto, Tatsuki Takahashi, Makoto Sugiyama
While the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L protein of rabies virus (RABV), a member of the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, has potential to be a therapeutic target for rabies, the molecular functions of this protein have remained largely unknown. In this study, to obtain a novel experimental tool for molecular function analysis of the RABV L protein, we established by using a reverse genetics approach an L gene-deficient RABV (Nishi-ΔL/Nluc), which infects, propagates and correspondingly produces NanoLuc luciferase in cultured neuroblastoma cells [20013240291] transfected to express the L protein...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764571/increased-c4d-and-bb-immunoreactivity-and-decreased-mbl-immunoreactivity-characterise-first-time-pathologic-first-trimester-miscarriage-a-case-control-study
#12
M Tunc Canda, Latife Doganay Caglayan, Namik Demir, Ragıp Ortaç
The role of the complement system in first-time pathologic first-trimester miscarriage was investigated. In this case-control study, tissue samples of 126 women with pathologic miscarriage and termination of normal pregnancies were assessed. The pathologic pregnancy group consisted of 40 women with missed miscarriage, 13 women with incomplete miscarriage and 10 women with a blighted ovum. The control group consisted of 63 normal-appearing pregnancies. Immunoreactivity for C4d, Bb and MBL was evaluated in the deciduas and villous trophoblasts separately using a semi-quantitative histological scoring system (H-score)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763236/hinge-deficient-igg1-fc-fusion-application-to-human-lactoferrin
#13
Yuki Shiga, Daisuke Murata, Akinori Sugimoto, Yuta Oshima, Minoru Tada, Akiko Ishii-Watabe, Kenichiro Imai, Kentaro Tomii, Takashi Takeuchi, Shinji Kagaya, Atsushi Sato
Fusion of therapeutic proteins with an antibody Fc domain is a strategy applied widely to increase their plasma half-life. Previously, we reported a recombinant human lactoferrin (hLF)-immunoglobulin G1 Fc fusion protein (hLF-hinge-CH2-CH3) with enhanced pharmacokinetic properties [Shiga, Y. et al., Eur J Pharm Sci., 2015, 67, 136-143.]. This conventional Fc fusion protein, however, has the potential drawback of inducing undesirable Fc-mediated immune effector functions (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity)...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760885/the-neonatal-fc-receptor-and-complement-fixation-facilitate-prophylactic-vaccine-mediated-humoral-protection-against-viral-infection-in-the-ocular-mucosa
#14
Derek J Royer, Meghan M Carr, Hem R Gurung, William P Halford, Daniel J J Carr
The capacity of licensed vaccines to protect the ocular surface against infection is limited. Common ocular pathogens, such as HSV-1, are increasingly recognized as major contributors to visual morbidity worldwide. Humoral immunity is an essential correlate of protection against HSV-1 pathogenesis and ocular pathology, yet the ability of Ab to protect against HSV-1 is deemed limited due to the slow IgG diffusion rate in the healthy cornea. We show that a live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine elicits humoral immune responses that are unparalleled by a glycoprotein subunit vaccine vis-à-vis Ab persistence and host protection...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757528/vitamin-d-insufficiency-predicts-elevated-levels-of-complement-3-independent-of-insulin-resistance-and-bmi
#15
Reem M Al Haj Ahmad, Hayder A Al-Domi
This study was to determine serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), the complement 3 (C3), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and their association with the risk of insulin resistance (IR). A case-control study was carried out among 134 participants with body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and BMI=18.5-24.99 kg/m(2). Anthropometric and body composition indicators were measured. Serum levels of C3, CRP, 25(OH)D, insulin, and glucose were also measured. IR was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755839/peripheral-complement-interactions-with-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-in-alzheimer-s-disease-2-relationship-to-a%C3%AE-immunotherapy
#16
Andrés Crane, William D Brubaker, Jenny U Johansson, Abhishek Trigunaite, Justine Ceballos, Bonnie Bradt, Courtney Glavis-Bloom, Tanya L Wallace, Andrea J Tenner, Joseph Rogers
INTRODUCTION: Our previous studies have shown that amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is subject to complement-mediated clearance from the peripheral circulation, and that this mechanism is deficient in Alzheimer's disease. The mechanism should be enhanced by Aβ antibodies that form immune complexes (ICs) with Aβ, and therefore may be relevant to current Aβ immunotherapy approaches. METHODS: Multidisciplinary methods were employed to demonstrate enhanced complement-mediated capture of Aβ antibody immune complexes compared with Aβ alone in both erythrocytes and THP1-derived macrophages...
July 26, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753655/bacterial-effector-nlel-promotes-enterohemorrhagic-e-coli-induced-attaching-and-effacing-lesions-by-ubiquitylating-and-inactivating-jnk
#17
Xiangpeng Sheng, Qing You, Hongnian Zhu, ZeNan Chang, Qingrun Li, Haifeng Wang, Chen Wang, Hongyan Wang, Lijian Hui, Chongtao Du, Xiaoduo Xie, Rong Zeng, Anning Lin, Dongfang Shi, Kangcheng Ruan, Jinghua Yan, George Fu Gao, Feng Shao, Ronggui Hu
As a major diarrheagenic human pathogen, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) produce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions, characterized by the formation of actin pedestals, on mammalian cells. A bacterial T3SS effector NleL from EHEC O157:H7 was recently shown to be a HECT-like E3 ligase in vitro, but its biological functions and host targets remain elusive. Here, we report that NleL is required to effectively promote EHEC-induced A/E lesions and bacterial infection. Furthermore, human c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) were identified as primary substrates of NleL...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751468/overcoming-operational-challenges-to-ebola-case-investigation-in-sierra-leone
#18
Samuel T Boland, Erin Polich, Allison Connolly, Adam Hoar, Tom Sesay, Ahn-Minh A Tran
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that hit West Africa in 2013 was the worst outbreak of EVD in recorded history. While much has been published regarding the international and national-level EVD responses, there is a dearth of literature on district-level coordination and operational structures, successes, and failures. This article seeks to understand how the EVD response unfolded at the district level, namely the challenges to operationalizing EVD surveillance over the course of the outbreak in Port Loko and Kambia districts of Sierra Leone...
July 27, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749033/co-occurring-down-syndrome-and-sucla2-related-mitochondrial-depletion-syndrome
#19
Natario L Couser, Daniel S Marchuk, Laurie D Smith, Alexandra Arreola, Kathleen A Kaiser-Rogers, Joseph Muenzer, Arti Pandya, Muge Gucsavas-Calikoglu, Cynthia M Powell
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 5 (MIM 612073) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in the beta subunit of the succinate-CoA ligase gene located within the 13q14 band. We describe two siblings of Hispanic descent with SUCLA2-related mitochondrial depletion syndrome (encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria); the older sibling is additionally affected with trisomy 21. SUCLA2 sequencing identified homozygous p.Arg284Cys pathogenic variants in both patients...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747342/sigm-fc%C3%AE-r-interactions-regulate-early-b-cell-activation-and-plasma-cell-development-after-influenza-virus-infection
#20
Trang T T Nguyen, Beth A Graf, Troy D Randall, Nicole Baumgarth
Previous studies with mice lacking secreted IgM (sIgM) due to a deletion of the μs splice region (μs(-/-) ) had shown sIgM involvement in normal B cell development and in support of maximal Ag-specific IgG responses. Because of the changes to B cell development, it remains unclear to which extent and how sIgM directly affects B cell responses. In this study, we aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms of sIgM-mediated IgG response regulation during influenza virus infection. Generating mice with normally developed μs-deficient B cells, we demonstrate that sIgM supports IgG responses by enhancing early Ag-specific B cell expansion, not by altering B cell development...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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