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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438972/position-of-o-acetylation-within-the-capsular-repeat-unit-impacts-the-biological-properties-of-pneumococcal-serotypes-33a-and-33f
#1
Brady L Spencer, Jamil S Saad, Anukul T Shenoy, Carlos J Orihuela, Moon H Nahm
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) produces many capsule types that differ in their abilities to evade host immune recognition. To explain these serotype-dependent protective capacities, many studies have investigated capsular thickness or the interaction of the capsule with complement proteins, but the effects of small chemical modifications of the capsule on its function have not been studied. One small chemical modification found frequently among pneumococcal capsules is O-acetylation. Pneumococcal serotype 33A has two membrane-bound O-acetyltransferase genes, wciG and wcjE A 33A wcjE-deficient variant, 33F, occurs naturally and is increasing in prevalence in the wake of widespread conjugate vaccine use, but no wciG-deficient variants have been reported...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433622/diminished-capacity-of-opsonization-and-immune-complex-solubilization-and-detection-of-anti-c1q-antibodies-in-sera-from-patients-with-hereditary-angioedema
#2
Daisuke Honda, Isao Ohsawa, Nobuyuki Sato, Hiroyuki Inoshita, Satoshi Mano, Yasuhiko Tomino, Yusuke Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor. Symptoms of HAE include edema, which can potentially cause suffocation. Some patients with HAE exhibit immunological abnormalities, which could prevent an accurate diagnosis. Low levels of complement components are characteristic of HAE and in other settings are thought to reduce elimination of apoptotic cells and immune complex (IC). Thus, we aimed to experimentally clarify the mechanism of immunological abnormalities using sera from HAE patients...
April 19, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432146/c1q-dependent-dendritic-cell-cross-presentation-of-in-vivo-formed-antigen-antibody-complexes
#3
Nataschja I Ho, Marcel G M Camps, Edwin F E de Haas, Leendert A Trouw, J Sjef Verbeek, Ferry Ossendorp
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized in Ag engulfment via a wide variety of uptake receptors on their cell surface. In the present study we investigated Ag uptake and presentation of in vivo-formed Ag-Ab complexes by i.v. injecting mice with Ag-specific Abs followed by the cognate Ag. We show by this natural Ab-mediated Ag targeting system that uptake by splenic APC subsets is severely hampered in mice lacking complement factor C1q (C1qa(-/-)). Moreover, no detectable Ag cross-presentation by CD8α(+) DCs from C1qa(-/-) mice was found...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431399/muc2-mucin-deficiency-alters-inflammatory-and-metabolic-pathways-in-the-mouse-intestinal-mucosa
#4
Selamawit Tadesse, Georgia Corner, Elena Dhima, Michele Houston, Chandan Guha, Leonard Augenlicht, Anna Velcich
The mucus layer in the intestine affects several aspects of intestinal biology, encompassing physical, chemical protection, immunomodulation and growth, thus contributing to homeostasis. Mice with genetic inactivation of the Muc2 gene, encoding the MUC2 mucin, the major protein component of mucus, exhibit altered intestinal homeostasis, which is strictly dependent on the habitat, likely due to differing complements of intestinal microbes. Our previous work established that Muc2 deficiency was linked to low chronic inflammation resulting in tumor development in the small, large intestine including the rectum...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429296/diurnal-changes-in-transcript-and-metabolite-levels-during-the-iron-deficiency-response-of-rice
#5
Jamie Selby-Pham, Adrian Lutz, Laura T Moreno-Moyano, Berin A Boughton, Ute Roessner, Alexander A T Johnson
BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is highly susceptible to iron (Fe) deficiency due to low secretion levels of the mugineic acid (MA) family phytosiderophore (PS) 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) into the rhizosphere. The low levels of DMA secreted by rice have proved challenging to measure and, therefore, the pattern of DMA secretion under Fe deficiency has been less extensively studied relative to other graminaceous monocot species that secrete high levels of PS, such as barley (Hordeum vulgare L...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428059/the-decreased-growth-performance-and-impaired-immune-function-and-structural-integrity-by-dietary-iron-deficiency-or-excess-are-associated-with-tor-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p38mapk-nrf2-and-mlck-signaling-in-head-kidney-spleen-and-skin-of-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#6
Yan-Lin Guo, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Yang Liu, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Lin Feng
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary iron on the growth, and immune function and structural integrity in head kidney, spleen and skin as well as the underlying signaling of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Total 630 grass carp (242.32 ± 0.58 g) were fed diets containing graded levels of iron at 12.15 (basal diet), 35.38, 63.47, 86.43, 111.09, 136.37 mg/kg (diets 2-6 were added with ferrous fumarate) and 73.50 mg/kg (diet 7 was added with ferrous sulfate) diet for 60 days...
April 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427477/plasma-chitotriosidase-activity-versus-ccl18-level-for-assessing-type-i-gaucher-disease-severity-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data
#7
Tatiana Raskovalova, Patrick B Deegan, Ruby Yang, Elena Pavlova, Jérome Stirnemann, José Labarère, Ari Zimran, Pramod K Mistry, Marc Berger
BACKGROUND: Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency in acid beta-glucosidase. GD exhibits a wide clinical spectrum of disease severity with an unpredictable natural course. Plasma chitotriosidase activity and CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) have been exchangeably used for monitoring GD activity and response to enzyme replacement therapy in conjunction with clinical assessment. Yet, a large-scale head-to-head comparison of these two biomarkers is currently lacking...
April 20, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426943/how-strong-is-the-evidence-for-using-blood-biomarkers-alone-to-screen-for-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#8
Helen Howlett, Sarah Abernethy, Nigel W Brown, Judith Rankin, William K Gray
Accurate and early identification of women at risk from alcohol consumption during pregnancy allows education and support programmes to be targeted at those most in need. We aimed to conduct a systematic review to compare the efficacy of blood analysis and maternal self-report in detecting at risk women during pregnancy. This review investigated diagnostic accuracy. We searched four databases (Medline, Embase, Psychinfo and CINAHL) for relevant articles and conducted hand searches of recent issues of key journals in the field...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424685/analysis-of-linear-antibody-epitopes-on-factor-h-and-cfhr1-using-sera-of-patients-with-autoimmune-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#9
Eszter Trojnár, Mihály Józsi, Katalin Uray, Dorottya Csuka, Ágnes Szilágyi, Danko Milosevic, Vesna D Stojanović, Brankica Spasojević, Krisztina Rusai, Thomas Müller, Klaus Arbeiter, Kata Kelen, Attila J Szabó, György S Reusz, Satu Hyvärinen, T Sakari Jokiranta, Zoltán Prohászka
INTRODUCTION: In autoimmune atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), the complement regulator factor H (FH) is blocked by FH autoantibodies, while 90% of the patients carry a homozygous deletion of its homolog complement FH-related protein 1 (CFHR1). The functional consequence of FH-blockade is widely established; however, the molecular basis of autoantibody binding and the role of CFHR1 deficiency in disease pathogenesis are still unknown. We performed epitope mapping of FH to provide structural insight in the autoantibody recruitment on FH and potentially CFHR1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416508/hus-and-atypical-hus
#10
T Sakari Jokiranta
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney failure. HUS is usually categorized as typical, caused by shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) infection, atypical HUS (aHUS), usually caused by uncontrolled complement activation, or secondary HUS with a coexisting disease. In recent years, a general understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms driving HUS has increased. Typical (i.e. STEC-HUS) follows a gastrointestinal infection with STEC, while aHUS is associated primarily with mutations or autoantibodies leading to dysregulated complement activation...
April 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412963/posttranslationally-modified-progesterone-receptors-direct-ligand-specific-expression-of-breast-cancer-stem-cell-associated-gene-programs
#11
Todd P Knutson, Thu H Truong, Shihong Ma, Nicholas J Brady, Megan E Sullivan, Ganesh Raj, Kathryn L Schwertfeger, Carol A Lange
BACKGROUND: Estrogen and progesterone are potent breast mitogens. In addition to steroid hormones, multiple signaling pathways input to estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) actions via posttranslational events. Protein kinases commonly activated in breast cancers phosphorylate steroid hormone receptors (SRs) and profoundly impact their activities. METHODS: To better understand the role of modified PRs in breast cancer, we measured total and phospho-Ser294 PRs in 209 human breast tumors represented on 2754 individual tissue spots within a tissue microarray and assayed the regulation of this site in human tumor explants cultured ex vivo...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412872/chinese-xibe-population-genetic-composition-according-to-linkage-groups-of-x-chromosomal-strs-population-genetic-variability-and-interpopulation-comparisons
#12
Hao-Tian Meng, Chun-Mei Shen, Yu-Dang Zhang, Qian Dong, Yu-Xin Guo, Guang Yang, Jiang-Wei Yan, Yao-Shun Liu, Ting Mei, Jian-Feng Shi, Bo-Feng Zhu
BACKGROUND: The Xibe population is one of China's officially recognised populations and is now distributed separately from west to east in the northern part of China. X-chromosomal short tandem repeats have a special inheritance pattern, and could be used as complements in forensic application especially for complex or deficiency cases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We obtained the allelic and haplotypic frequencies of 19 X-STR loci in the Xibe population from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, and studied the genetic differentiations between the Xibe and other populations...
April 16, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412283/complement-factor-c4-activation-in-patients-with-hereditary-angioedema
#13
Anne Aabom, Anette Bygum, Claus Koch
OBJECTIVES: Low complement factor C4 is usually considered a valuable screening tool for patients with the potentially life-threatening Hereditary Angioedema with C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency (C1-INH-HAE). However, there are patients with C1-INH-HAE presenting with normal C4 levels. This means, that C1-INH-HAE may potentially be overlooked, if screening is performed only by measurement of C4. It has been suggested that measurement of C4 activation products is better suited to avoid false negative results...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409474/generation-of-peroxisome-deficient-somatic-animal-cell-mutants
#14
Kanji Okumoto, Yukio Fujiki
Cell mutants with a genetic defect affecting various cellular phenotypes are widely utilized as a powerful tool in genetic, biochemical, and cell biological research. More than a dozen complementation groups of animal somatic mutant cells defective in peroxisome biogenesis have been successfully isolated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and used as a model system reflecting fatal human severe genetic disorders named peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD). Isolation and characterization of peroxisome-deficient CHO cell mutants has allowed the identification of PEX genes and the gene products peroxins, which directly leads to the accomplishment of isolation of pathogenic genes responsible for human PBDs, as well as elucidation of their functional roles in peroxisome biogenesis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408540/small-kernel2-encodes-a-glutaminase-in-vitamin-b6-biosynthesis-essential-for-maize-seed-development
#15
Yan-Zhuo Yang, Shuo Ding, Yong Wang, Cui-Ling Li, Yun Shen, Robert Meeley, Donald R McCarty, Bao-Cai Tan
Vitamin B6, an essential co-factor for a range of biochemical reactions and a potent antioxidant, plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Vitamin B6 deficiency causes embryo lethality in Arabidopsis, but the specific role of vitamin B6 synthesis in endosperm development has not been fully addressed, especially in monocot crops where endosperm constitutes the major portion of the grain. Through molecular characterization of a small kernel2 (smk2) mutant in maize, we reveal that vitamin B6 has differential effects on embryogenesis and endosperm development in maize...
April 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405017/lectin-pathway-factors-in-patients-suffering-from-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#16
Katarzyna Kasperkiewicz, Łukasz Eppa, Anna S Świerzko, Marcin A Bartłomiejczyk, Zbigniew M Żuber, Katarzyna Siniewicz-Luzeńczyk, Elżbieta Mężyk, Misao Matsushita, Leokadia Bąk-Romaniszyn, Krzysztof Zeman, Mikael Skurnik, Maciej Cedzyński
Both complement activation and certain infections (including those with Yersinia sp.) may contribute to the pathogenesis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We investigated factors specific for the lectin pathway of complement: mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins and associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), in 144 patients and 98 controls. 106 patients had oligoarticular disease and 38 had polyarticular disease. In 51 patients (out of 133 tested), Yersinia-reactive antibodies were found (JIA Ye+ group)...
April 13, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402705/interaction-of-factor-h-binding-protein-of-streptococcus-suis-with-globotriaosylceramide-promotes-the-development-of-meningitis
#17
Decong Kong, Zhe Chen, Junping Wang, Qingyu Lv, Hua Jiang, Yuling Zheng, Maokai Xu, Xuyu Zhou, Huaijie Hao, Yongqiang Jiang
Streptococcus suis is an important emerging zoonotic agent that causes acute bacterial meningitis in humans with high mortality and morbidity. Our previous work showed that factor H-binding protein (Fhb) contributed to virulence of S. suis, but the role of Fhb in the development of S. suis meningitis remained unclear. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that Fhb contributed to the traversal of S. suis across the human blood-brain barrier by allelic-exchange mutagenesis, complementation and specific antibody blocking studies...
April 12, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398343/large-scale-interaction-effects-reveal-missing-heritability-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#18
H J Woo, C Yu, K Kumar, J Reifman
Genetic susceptibility factors behind psychiatric disorders typically contribute small effects individually. A possible explanation for the missing heritability is that the effects of common variants are not only polygenic but also non-additive, appearing only when interactions within large groups are taken into account. Here, we tested this hypothesis for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) disease risks, and identified genetic factors shared with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When considered independently, few single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached genome-wide significance...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397982/generation-of-chimeric-minipigs-by-aggregating-4-to-8-cell-stage-blastomeres-from-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-with-the-tracing-of-enhanced-green-fluorescent-protein
#19
Huili Ji, Chuan Long, Chong Feng, Ningning Shi, Yingdi Jiang, Guomin Zeng, Xirui Li, Jingjing Wu, Lin Lu, Shengsheng Lu, Dengke Pan
BACKGROUND: Blastocyst complementation is an important technique for generating chimeric organs in organ-deficient pigs, which holds great promise for solving the problem of a shortage of organs for human transplantation procedures. Porcine chimeras have been generated using embryonic germ cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells; however, there are no authentic pluripotent stem cells for pigs. In previous studies, blastomeres from 4- to 8-cell-stage parthenogenetic embryos were able to generate chimeric fetuses efficiently, but the resulting fetuses did not produce live-born young...
April 11, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396344/critical-role-for-complement-receptor-c5ar2-in-the-pathogenesis-of-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#20
Felix Poppelaars, Maaike B van Werkhoven, Juha Kotimaa, Zwanida J Veldhuis, Albertina Ausema, Stefan G M Broeren, Jeffrey Damman, Julia C Hempel, Henri G D Leuvenink, Mohamed R Daha, Willem J van Son, Cees van Kooten, Ronald P van Os, Jan-Luuk Hillebrands, Marc A Seelen
The complement system, and specifically C5a, is involved in renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The 2 receptors for complement anaphylatoxin C5a (C5aR1 and C5aR2) are expressed on leukocytes as well as on renal epithelium. Extensive evidence shows that C5aR1 inhibition protects kidneys from IR injury; however, the role of C5aR2 in IR injury is less clear as initial studies proposed the hypothesis that C5aR2 functions as a decoy receptor. By Using wild-type, C5aR1(-/-), and C5aR2(-/-) mice in a model of renal IR injury, we found that a deficiency of either of these receptors protected mice from renal IR injury...
April 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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