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preventive science

William R Johnson, Ajmal Mian, Cyril J Donnelly, David Lloyd, Jacqueline Alderson
An understanding of athlete ground reaction forces and moments (GRF/Ms) facilitates the biomechanist's downstream calculation of net joint forces and moments, and associated injury risk. Historically, force platforms used to collect kinetic data are housed within laboratory settings and are not suitable for field-based installation. Given that Newton's Second Law clearly describes the relationship between a body's mass, acceleration, and resultant force, is it possible that marker-based motion capture can represent these parameters sufficiently enough to estimate GRF/Ms, and thereby minimize our reliance on surface embedded force platforms? Specifically, can we successfully use partial least squares (PLS) regression to learn the relationship between motion capture and GRF/Ms data? In total, we analyzed 11 PLS methods and achieved average correlation coefficients of 0...
March 17, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Yin Shuen Tan, Shao Wen Amanda Teo, Yiying Pei, Julia Huina Sng, Hong Wei Yap, Ying Pin Toh, Lalit K R Krishna
A consistent mentoring approach is key to unlocking the full benefits of mentoring, ensuring effective oversight of mentoring relationships and preventing abuse of mentoring. Yet consistency in mentoring between senior clinicians and medical students (novice mentoring) which dominate mentoring processes in medical schools is difficult to achieve particularly when mentors practice in both undergraduate and postgraduate medical schools. To facilitate a consistent approach to mentoring this review scrutinizes common aspects of mentoring in undergraduate and postgraduate medical schools to forward a framework for novice mentoring in medical schools...
March 17, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Fabio Rodríguez Sánchez, Carlos Rodríguez Andrés, Iciar Arteagoitia
OBJECTIVE: To assess which antibiotic regimen prevents dental implant failures or postoperative infections following dental implant placement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Pubmed, Cochrane, Science Direct, and EMBASE via OVID were searched up to August 2017. Only randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) using antibiotics were included. Outcome measures were set on dental implant failures or postoperative infection incidence after dental implant surgery...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Guiliang Wang, Gui Xiao, Linfang Xu, Ping Qiu, Ting Li, Xiaoli Wang, Ping Wen, Jianbo Wen, Xianzhong Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of all available studies on the effect of prophylactic somatostatin administration on prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) and post-ERCP hyperamylasemia (PEHA). METHODS: Electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and the Science Citation Index were searched to retrieve relevant trials. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials in adult patients that compared somatostatin versus placebo in prevention of PEP were included...
March 10, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Jiuchen Zhang, Feklova T Yu
In the 1950s, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) engaged in close cooperation with the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The CAS sent scientists to the Soviet Academy to work as interns, study for advanced degrees, or engage in academic cooperation, and a large number of Soviet scientists were invited by the various institutes of the CAS to come to China to give lectures, direct research, help make scientific plans, and collaborate. The comprehensive cooperation between the two academies was launched at a time when the CAS institutes were in their embryonic stage, which suggests that the better-established Soviet scientists had the opportunity to play a dominate role...
March 13, 2018: Endeavour
Tamar Mendelson, William W Eaton
PURPOSE: Prevention of mental disorders is a rapidly growing area of research with substantial potential benefits for population health. This paper reviews the evidence base for prevention of depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. METHODS: We synthesized evidence from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between 2013 and 2018 on prevention of depression, anxiety, and first-episode psychosis. We included reviews of randomized controlled trials testing psychological, psychosocial, and pharmacological preventive interventions...
March 15, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Wuber J S Soares, Alexandre D Lopes, Eduardo Nogueira, Victor Candido, Suzana A Moraes, Monica R Perracini
This systematic review examines the association between physical activity (PA) level and risk of falling in community-dwelling older adults. A search of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Sport Discus, and Web of Science was performed in January 2017. Four prospective cohort studies investigating the incidence of falls in a period of at least 12 months and its association with the level of PA in people 60-plus years old were reviewed and pooled for meta-analysis. The pooled risk ratio for being a recurrent faller (2,420 participants) was 39% higher among those who were in the lowest PA level (RR = 1...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Elizabeth Wilmerding, Mari Knuth-Bouracee, Jeffrey L Edleson
This article offers reflections on the article "Bystander Training as Leadership Training: Notes on the Origins, Philosophy and Pedagogy of the Mentors in Violence Prevention Model" by Jackson Katz in this issue of Violence Against Women. The authors rely on their unique perspectives in varying roles at the University of California (UC) Berkeley, as well as on relevant social science and social justice research. The article explores five themes of violence prevention and anti-oppression work: leadership, social justice, gender identity, issues of identity and status, and diffusion of innovation...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Fariha Hasan, Mohammad O Khan, Mukarram Ali
Introduction Pakistan is extremely susceptible to an influenza outbreak, as it shares borders with the most affected countries, namely China and India. The medical and dental students come into direct contact with the affected population and should be aware of the risk factors and signs and symptoms pertaining to swine influenza virus (SIV). Hence, this survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, perceptions and self-care practices of the medical and dental students with regards to this pandemic. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the swine flu-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of the medical and dental students at various institutions in Karachi, Pakistan...
January 9, 2018: Curēus
Mehdi Ranjbaran, Faeze Mohammadshahi, Sorour Mani, Mahmood Karimy
Background: Tendency toward addiction is provided before drug use begins. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for addiction potential in the students of Arak University of Medical Sciences. Methods: We conducted this cross-sectional study among 305 students from Arak University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2016. We selected the students by stratified random sampling and collected the data by family and sociodemographic factors questionnaires and Addiction Potential Scale...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Pepita Barlow, Paulo Serôdio, Gary Ruskin, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
Critics have long accused food and beverage companies of trying to exonerate their products from blame for obesity by funding organisations that highlight alternative causes. Yet, conclusions about the intentions of food and beverage companies in funding scientific organisations have been prevented by limited access to industry's internal documents. Here we allow the words of Coca-Cola employees to speak about how the corporation intended to advance its interests by funding the Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Alfredo Perales-Puchalt, Jairo Perez-Sanz, Kyle K Payne, Nikolaos Svoronos, Michael J Allegrezza, Ricardo A Chaurio, Carmen Anadon, Joseph Calmette, Subir Biswas, Jessica A Mine, Tara Lee Costich, Logan Nickels, Jayamanna Wickramasinghe, Melanie R Rutkowski, Jose R Conejo-Garcia
Due to their cytotoxic activities, many anticancer drugs cause extensive damage to the intestinal mucosa and have antibiotic activities. Here, we show that cisplatin induces significant changes in the repertoire of intestinal commensal bacteria that exacerbate mucosal damage. Restoration of the microbiota through fecal-pellet gavage drives healing of cisplatin-induced intestinal damage. Bacterial translocation to the blood stream is correspondingly abrogated, resulting in a significant reduction in systemic inflammation, as evidenced by decreased serum IL-6 and reduced mobilization of granulocytes...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Rima Salah
Today millions of children are trapped in situations of war, conflict, violence and displacement. Science shows that violence has a detrimental effect on the development of young children. It, also, heralds in a new era, with opportunities to contribute to sustaining peace and prevention of violence, through investment in early childhood development. The commentary argues that we have every opportunity to make a transformative shift and raise the voice of science to join the voice of "we the peoples.....
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Aung Myat, Kyoung-Jun Song, Thomas Rea
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a leading cause of global mortality. Regional variations in reporting frameworks and survival mean the exact burden of OHCA to public health is unknown. Nevertheless, overall prognosis and neurological outcome are relatively poor following OHCA and have remained almost static for the past three decades. In this Series paper, we explore the aetiology of OHCA. Coronary artery disease remains the predominant cause, but there is a diverse range of other potential cardiac and non-cardiac causes to be aware of...
March 10, 2018: Lancet
Ruiqiang Xie, Xiaohua Douglas Zhang, Qi Zhao, Bo Peng, Jun Zheng
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most challenging nosocomial pathogens due to the emergence and widespread of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to provide the first analysis of global prevalence of antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii infections, by synthesizing data and knowledge through a systematic review. We searched studies reporting antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii infections using the Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to December 2016. Studies were eligible if they investigated and reported antibiotic resistance in A...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Siti Khuzaimah Ahmad Sharoni, Hejar Abdul Rahman, Halimatus Sakdiah Minhat, Sazlina Shariff-Ghazali, Mohd Hanafi Azman Ong
BACKGROUND: Self-care behaviour is essential in preventing diabetes foot problems. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of health education programs based on the self-efficacy theory on foot self-care behaviour for older adults with diabetes. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial was conducted for 12 weeks among older adults with diabetes in elderly care facility in Peninsular Malaysia. Six elderly care facility were randomly allocated by an independent person into two groups (intervention and control)...
2018: PloS One
Hermann Blessberger, Juergen Kammler, Hans Domanovits, Oliver Schlager, Brigitte Wildner, Danyel Azar, Martin Schillinger, Franz Wiesbauer, Clemens Steinwender
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials have yielded conflicting results regarding the ability of beta-blockers to influence perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus routine prescription of these drugs in unselected patients remains a controversial issue. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to systematically analyse the effects of perioperatively administered beta-blockers for prevention of surgery-related mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing any type of surgery while under general anaesthesia...
March 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lauren H Supplee, Jenita Parekh, Makedah Johnson
Precision medicine and precision public health focus on identifying and providing the right intervention to the right population at the right time. Expanding on the concept, precision prevention science could allow the field to examine prevention programs to identify ways to make them more efficient and effective at scale, including addressing issues related to engagement and retention of participants. Research to date on engagement and retention has often focused on demographics and risk factors. The current paper proposes using McCurdy and Daro (Family Relations, 50, 113-121, 2001) model that posits a complex mixture of individual, provider, program, and community-level factors synergistically affect enrollment, engagement, and retention...
March 12, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Brian T Yates
The current paper is a commentary on the Standards of Evidence for Conducting and Reporting Economic Evaluations in Prevention Science (Crowley et al. 2018). Although the standards got a lot right, some important issues were not addressed or could be explored further. Measuring rather than modeling is encouraged whenever possible. That also is in keeping with the approach taken by many prevention researchers. Pre-program planning for collection of data on resources used by individual participants (i.e., costs) is recommended, along with devotion of evaluation resources to cost assessment throughout program implementation...
March 12, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Samantha Sabo, Catalina Denman Champion, Melanie L Bell, Elsa Cornejo Vucovich, Maia Ingram, Celina Valenica, Maria Del Carmen Castro Vasquez, Eduardo Gonzalez-Fagoaga, Jill Geurnsey de Zapien, Cecilia B Rosales
INTRODUCTION: Northern Mexico has among the highest rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes in the world. This research addresses core gaps in implementation science to develop, test and scale-up CVD risk-reduction interventions in diabetics through a national primary care health system. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Meta Salud Diabetes (MSD) research project is a parallel two-arm cluster-randomised clinical behavioural trial based in 22 (n=22) health centres in Sonora, Mexico...
March 12, 2018: BMJ Open
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