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biological organs

Song Xu, Fan Yang, Renwang Liu, Xiongfei Li, Haiyang Fan, Jinghao Liu, Sen Wei, Gang Chen, Jun Chen, Yurong Da
Bone remodeling can be interrupted by tumor cells which leads to an inappropriate balance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. As the progenitors of osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to exhibit an abnormal osteogenic differentiation potential in some cancer‑related bone lesions. However, the evidence is very limited in terms of the biological alterations of MSCs in the bone metastasis of non‑small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). We investigated the expression and function of miR‑139‑5p in MSC osteogenic differentiation in vitro in normal and NSCLC-exposed condition...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Chau Yee Ng, Hsi Yen, Hui-Yi Hsiao, Shih-Chi Su
Skin is the largest human organ, our protection against various environmental assaults and noxious agents. Accumulation of these stress events may lead to the formation of skin cancers, including both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Although modern targeted therapies have ameliorated the management of cutaneous malignancies, a safer, more affordable, and more effective strategy for chemoprevention and treatment is clearly needed for the improvement of skin cancer care. Phytochemicals are biologically active compounds derived from plants and herbal products...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), this paper deals with Research, the future of PRM. PRM students and specialists are mainly involved in biomedical research, investigating the biological processes, the causes of diseases, their medical diagnosis, the evaluation of their consequences on functioning, disability and health and the effects of health interventions at an individual and a societal level. Most of the current PRM research, often interdisciplinary, originates from applied research which, using existing knowledge, is directed towards specific goals...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Xingye Xu, Tao Liu, Jian Yang, Lihong Chen, Bo Liu, Lingling Wang, Qi Jin
Trichophyton rubrum is the most common fungal pathogen in the world, which has been studied as an important dermatophyte model organism. Despite the prevalence of T. rubrum, the available antifungal therapies are not sufficiently efficient. In this study, we performed the first comparisons between the two major growth stages of T. rubrum: conidial and mycelial stages, based on their whole-cell proteomes and lysine acetylomes. In total, 4,343 proteins were identified in both stages, and 1,879 proteins were identified as differentially expressed between the two stages...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Laura M Higgins, Vidya Ganapathy, Harini Kantamneni, Xinyu Zhao, Yang Sheng, Mei-Chee Tan, Charles M Roth, Richard E Riman, Prabhas V Moghe, Mark C Pierce
Rare-earth-doped nanocomposites have appealing optical properties for use as biomedical contrast agents, but few systems exist for imaging these materials. We describe the design and characterization of (i) a preclinical system for whole animal in vivo imaging and (ii) an integrated optical coherence tomography/confocal microscopy system for high-resolution imaging of ex vivo tissues. We demonstrate these systems by administering erbium-doped nanocomposites to a murine model of metastatic breast cancer. Short-wave infrared emissions were detected in vivo and in whole organ imaging ex vivo...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Estela G García-González, Bladimir Roque-Ramirez, Carlos Palma-Flores, J Manuel Hernández-Hernández
Epigenetic regulation is achieved at many levels by different factors such as tissue-specific transcription factors, members of the basal transcriptional apparatus, chromatin-binding proteins, and noncoding RNAs. Importantly, chromatin structure dictates the availability of a specific genomic locus for transcriptional activation as well as the efficiency with which transcription can occur. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a method that allows elucidating gene regulation at the molecular level by assessing if chromatin modifications or proteins are present at a specific locus...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sukanya Luang, Pradeep Sornaraj, Natalia Bazanova, Wei Jia, Omid Eini, Syed Sarfraz Hussain, Nataliya Kovalchuk, Pradeep K Agarwal, Maria Hrmova, Sergiy Lopato
The understanding of roles of bZIP factors in biological processes during plant development and under abiotic stresses requires the detailed mechanistic knowledge of behaviour of TFs. Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in the regulation of grain development and plant responses to abiotic stresses. We investigated the role and molecular mechanisms of function of the TabZIP2 gene isolated from drought-stressed wheat plants. Molecular characterisation of TabZIP2 and derived protein included analyses of gene expression and its target promoter, and the influence of interacting partners on the target promoter activation...
March 21, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Joana Rodrigues, David Lydall
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a commonly used model organism for understanding eukaryotic gene function. However, the close proximity between yeast genes can complicate the interpretation of yeast genetic data, particularly high-throughput data. In this study, we examined the interplay between genes encoding components of the PAF1 complex and VPS36, the gene located next to CDC73 on chromosome XII. The PAF1 complex (Cdc73, Paf1, Ctr9, Leo1, and Rtf1, in yeast) affects RNA levels by affecting transcription, histone modifications, and post-transcriptional RNA processing...
March 22, 2018: Current Genetics
Chris N Glover
Ecological risk assessments principally rely on simplified metrics of organismal sensitivity that do not consider mechanism or biological traits. As such, they are unable to adequately extrapolate from standard laboratory tests to real-world settings, and largely fail to account for the diversity of organisms and environmental variables that occur in natural environments. However, an understanding of how stressors influence organism health can compensate for these limitations. Mechanistic knowledge can be used to account for species differences in basal biological function and variability in environmental factors, including spatial and temporal changes in the chemical, physical and biological milieu...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Edison A Díaz-Álvarez, Roberto Lindig-Cisneros, Erick de la Barrera
Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is the third largest cause of global biodiversity loss, with rates that have more than doubled over the past century. This is especially threatening for tropical regions where the deposition may soon exceed 25 kg of N ha-1 year-1 , well above the threshold for physiological damage of 12-20 kg of N ha-1 year-1 , depending on plant species and nitrogenous compound. It is thus urgent to monitor these regions where the most diverse biotas occur. However, most studies have been conducted in Europe, the USA and recently in China...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Deborah L Narh Mensah, Peter Addo, Matilda Dzomeku, Mary Obodai
Pineapple rind is a by-product of the pineapple processing industry and contains nutrients and other compounds which must be utilized as a bioresource for socio-economic benefits while preventing the potential problems of improper agroindustrial biomass disposal methods. Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible oyster mushroom with medicinal properties and can be cultivated on various agroindustrial biomass, including sawdust containing supplements. Pineapple rind was powdered and used as a supplement of composted sawdust at 2%, 5%, 10%, 12%, 15%, and 20% (w/w) on dry weight basis...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Seong Heon Kim, Hye Young Kim, Su Young Kim
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is often encountered in children with acute kidney injury. Besides the well-known shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli -associated HUS, atypical HUS (aHUS) caused by genetic complement dysregulation has been studied recently. aHUS is a rare, chronic, and devastating disorder that progressively damages systemic organs, resulting in stroke, end-stage renal disease, and death. The traditional treatment for aHUS is mainly plasmapheresis or plasma infusion; however, many children with aHUS will progress to chronic kidney disease despite plasma therapy...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Lai-Hua Liu, Teng-Fei Fan, Dong-Xue Shi, Chang-Jun Li, Ming-Jie He, Yi-Yin Chen, Lei Zhang, Chao Yang, Xiao-Yuan Cheng, Xu Chen, Di-Qin Li, Yi-Chen Sun
Although many members encoding different ammonium- and nitrate-transporters (AMTs, NRTs) were identified and functionally characterized from several plant species, little is known about molecular components for [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text] acquisition/transport in tobacco, which is often used as a plant model for biological studies besides its agricultural and industrial interest. We reported here the first molecular identification in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) of nine AMTs and four NRTs , which are respectively divided into four ( AMT1/2/3/4 ) and two ( NRT1/2 ) clusters and whose functionalities were preliminarily evidenced by heterologous functional-complementation in yeast or Arabidopsis...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tatiana V Karpinets, Vancheswaran Gopalakrishnan, Jennifer Wargo, Andrew P Futreal, Christopher W Schadt, Jianhua Zhang
Studies of microbial communities by targeted sequencing of rRNA genes lead to recovering numerous rare low-abundance taxa with unknown biological roles. We propose to study associations of such rare organisms with their environments by a computational framework based on transformation of the data into qualitative variables. Namely, we analyze the sparse table of putative species or OTUs (operational taxonomic units) and samples generated in such studies, also known as an OTU table, by collecting statistics on co-occurrences of the species and on shared species richness across samples...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hao Wan, Jingying Yue, Shoujun Zhu, Takaaki Uno, Xiaodong Zhang, Qinglai Yang, Kuai Yu, Guosong Hong, Junying Wang, Lulin Li, Zhuoran Ma, Hongpeng Gao, Yeteng Zhong, Jessica Su, Alexander L Antaris, Yan Xia, Jian Luo, Yongye Liang, Hongjie Dai
Fluorescence imaging of biological systems in the second near-infrared (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) window has shown promise of high spatial resolution, low background, and deep tissue penetration owing to low autofluorescence and suppressed scattering of long wavelength photons. Here we develop a bright organic nanofluorophore (named p-FE) for high-performance biological imaging in the NIR-II window. The bright NIR-II >1100 nm fluorescence emission from p-FE affords non-invasive in vivo tracking of blood flow in mouse brain vessels...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Bing Hu, Yu Guo, Feng Shi, Xiaoqiang Zou, Jing Dong, Long Pan, Min Yu, Chaowei Zhou, Zhang Cheng, Wanyue Tang, Haochen Sun, Luonan Chen
In this paper, we use a model modified from classic corticothalamic network(CT) to explore the mechanism of absence seizures appearing on specific relay nuclei (SRN) of the thalamus. It is found that typical seizure states appear on SRN through tuning several critical connection strengths in the model. In view of previous experimental and theoretical works which were mainly on epilepsy seizure phenomena appearing on excitatory pyramidal neurons (EPN) of the cortex, this is a novel model to consider the seizure observed on thalamus...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Beata Ujvari, Marcel Klaassen, Nynke Raven, Tracey Russell, Marion Vittecoq, Rodrigo Hamede, Frédéric Thomas, Thomas Madsen
Genetic diversity is essential for adaptive capacities, providing organisms with the potential of successfully responding to intrinsic and extrinsic challenges. Although a clear reciprocal link between genetic diversity and resistance to parasites and pathogens has been established across taxa, the impact of loss of genetic diversity by inbreeding on the emergence and progression of non-communicable diseases, such as cancer, has been overlooked. Here we provide an overview of such associations and show that low genetic diversity and inbreeding associate with an increased risk of cancer in both humans and animals...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Lucie Bacakova, Jana Zarubova, Martina Travnickova, Jana Musilkova, Julia Pajorova, Petr Slepicka, Nikola Slepickova Kasalkova, Vaclav Svorcik, Zdenka Kolska, Hooman Motarjemi, Martin Molitor
Stem cells can be defined as units of biological organization that are responsible for the development and the regeneration of organ and tissue systems. They are able to renew their populations and to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Therefore, these cells have great potential in advanced tissue engineering and cell therapies. When seeded on synthetic or nature-derived scaffolds in vitro, stem cells can be differentiated towards the desired phenotype by an appropriate composition, by an appropriate architecture, and by appropriate physicochemical and mechanical properties of the scaffolds, particularly if the scaffold properties are combined with a suitable composition of cell culture media, and with suitable mechanical, electrical or magnetic stimulation...
March 18, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Douglas Ruden, Alan Bolnick, Awoniyi Awonuga, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Gloria Perez, Elizabeth Ella Puscheck, Daniel A Rappolee
Plant and animal life forms evolved mechanisms for sensing and responding to gravity on Earth where homeo-static needs require responses. The lack of gravity, such as in the International Space Station (ISS), causes acute, intra-generational changes in the quality of life. These include maintaining calcium levels in bone, main-taining muscle tone, and disturbances in the vestibular apparatus in the ears. These problems decrease work efficiency and quality of life of humans not only during microgravity exposures but also after return to higher gravity on Earth or destinations such as Mars or the Moon...
March 21, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Rémi Soret, Jean-Louis Fanlo, Luc Malhautier, Philippe Geiger, Sandrine Bayle
New emerging issues appears regarding the possible aerosolization of micro-organisms from biofilters to the ambient air. Traditional bioaerosol sampling and cultural methods used in literature offer relative efficiencies. In this study, a new method revolving around a particle counter capable of detecting total and viable particles in real time was used. This counter (BioTrak 9510-BD) uses laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology to determine the biological nature of the particle. The concentration of viable particles was measured on two semi-industrial pilot scale biofilters in order to estimate the Removal Efficiency in viable particles (REvp ) in stable conditions and to examine the influence of pollutant feeding and relative humidification of the gaseous effluent on the REvp ...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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