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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922165/the-gastrointestinal-brain-axis-in-humans-as-an-evolutionary-advance-of-the-root-leaf-axis-in-plants-a-hypothesis-linking-quantum-effects-of-light-on-serotonin-and-auxin
#1
Lucio Tonello, Bekim Gashi, Alessandro Scuotto, Glenda Capello, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Jack A Tuszynski
Living organisms tend to find viable strategies under ambient conditions that optimize their search for, and utilization of, life-sustaining resources. For plants, a leading role in this process is performed by auxin, a plant hormone that drives morphological development, dynamics, and movement to optimize the absorption of light (through branches and leaves) and chemical "food" (through roots). Similarly to auxin in plants, serotonin seems to play an important role in higher animals, especially humans. Here, it is proposed that morphological and functional similarities between (i) plant leaves and the animal/human brain and (ii) plant roots and the animal/human gastro-intestinal tract have general features in common...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921840/the-role-of-cadherin-genes-in-five-major-psychiatric-disorders-a-literature-update
#2
REVIEW
Ziarih Hawi, Janette Tong, Callum Dark, Hannah Yates, Beth Johnson, Mark A Bellgrove
Converging evidence from candidate gene, genome-wide linkage, and association studies support a role of cadherins in the pathophysiology of five major psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). These molecules are transmembrane proteins which act as cell adhesives by forming adherens junctions (AJs) to bind cells within tissues. Members of the cadherin superfamily are also involved in biological processes such as signal transduction and plasticity that have been implicated in the etiology of major psychiatric conditions...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921808/long-term-agricultural-management-does-not-alter-the-evolution-of-a-soybean-rhizobium-mutualism
#3
Jennifer E Schmidt, Dylan J Weese, Jennifer A Lau
Leguminous crops, like soybeans, often rely on biologically fixed nitrogen via their symbiosis with rhizobia rather than synthetic nitrogen inputs. However, agricultural management practices may influence the effectiveness of biological nitrogen fixation. While the ecological effects of agricultural management on rhizobia have received some attention, the evolutionary effects have been neglected in comparison. Resource mutualism theory predicts that evolutionary effects are likely, however. Both fertilization and tillage are predicted to cause the evolution of rhizobia that provide fewer growth benefits to plant hosts and fix less nitrogen...
September 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920997/rapid-and-highly-sensitive-detection-of-extracellular-and-intracellular-h2s-by-an-azide-functionalized-al-iii-based-metal-organic-framework
#4
Soutick Nandi, Helge Reinsch, Sooram Banesh, Norbert Stock, Vishal Trivedi, Shyam Biswas
A new, azide-functionalized Al(iii)-based metal-organic framework (MOF) denoted as CAU-10-N3 (1, CAU = Christian-Albrechts-University) and consisting of the 5-azido-isophthalic acid (H2IPA-N3) ligand was employed as a reaction-based fluorescent turn-on probe for the detection of H2S. The activated compound (1') showed fast, selective and highly sensitive sensing properties for extracellular H2S in HEPES buffer (10 mM, pH = 7.4). The material retained its high selectivity even in the presence of possibly competing biological species...
September 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920443/four-fallacies-and-an-oversight-searching-for-martian-life
#5
J D Rummel, C A Conley
While it is anticipated that future human missions to Mars will increase the amount of biological and organic contamination that might be distributed on that planet, robotic missions continue to grow in capability and complexity, requiring precautions to be taken now to protect Mars, and particularly areas of Mars that might be Special Regions. Such precautionary cleanliness requirements for spacecraft have evolved over the course of the space age, as we have learned more about planetary environments, and are the subject of regular deliberations and decisions sponsored by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR)...
September 16, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920391/-progress-in-metabolic-engineering-of-%C3%AE-carotene-synthesis
#6
Yanyan Wang, Jianmin Xing, Hongge Chen
β-carotene is an important natural plant pigment and has various physiological functions in organisms. With the proposition of systematic biology and progress in carotenoids biosynthesis since the 1960s, metabolic engineering has played a significant role in enhancing carotenoid production. In this review, we present β-carotene's traditional production methods and metabolic engineering strategies for constructing β-carotene-producing strains. Meanwhile, main problems and corresponding solutions to improve β-carotene yield of engineered strains were further analyzed, for further efficient microbial production of β-carotene...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920148/differential-gene-expression-profiles-and-alternative-isoform-regulations-in-gill-of-nile-tilapia-in-response-to-acute-hypoxia
#7
Hong Lian Li, Hao Ran Lin, Jun Hong Xia
Fish often encounters exposures to acute environmental hypoxia either spatially or temporally. Gill organ plays important roles in response to hypoxic stress in fish. Few studies focus on the molecular regulation mechanisms of gills under hypoxic stress. In this study, we investigated the transcriptomic response to 12-h acute hypoxia in gill of a hypoxia tolerant fish, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus through RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). We sequenced messenger RNA from three control samples and three hypoxia-treated samples...
September 18, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920086/organic-compounds-generated-after-the-flow-of-water-through-micro-orifices-were-they-synthesized
#8
Tomiichi Hasegawa, Akiomi Ushida, Masaki Goda, Yasushi Ono
Micro-fluid mechanics is an important area of research in modern fluid mechanics because of its many potential industrial and biological applications. However, the field is not fully understood yet. In previous work, when passing ultrapure water (UPW) in which air was dissolved (UPW*) through micro-orifices, we found that the flow velocity decreased and stopped over time, and membranes were frequently formed in the orifice when the flow stopped. The membrane came from the dissolved air in UPW*, and membrane formation was closely related to electric charges generated in orifices by the flow...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920077/mimicking-the-bioactivity-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-using-supramolecular-nanoribbons
#9
Charles M Rubert Pérez, Zaida Álvarez, Feng Chen, Taner Aytun, Samuel I Stupp
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) is a multifunctional growth factor that has pleiotropic effects in different tissues and organs. In particular, FGF-2 has a special role in angiogenesis, an important process in development, wound healing, cell survival, and differentiation. Therefore, incorporating biological agents like FGF-2 within therapeutic biomaterials is a potential strategy to create angiogenic bioactivity for the repair of damaged tissue caused by trauma or complications that arise from age and/or disease...
September 11, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920062/into-the-eyes-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-therapy-for-myocardial-infarction-and-other-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Jian-Rui Li, Ting-Ting Qu
Applications of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been documented for diseases occur in the sports system, the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system etc. However, poor viability of donor stem cells after transplantation limits their therapeutic efficiency. Although the autophagy theory has been reported, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Isolation and culture methods of mesenchymal stem cells are currently concentrate on four ways. Overall, BM-MSCs have both important research significance and clinical application value in cell replacement therapy, gene therapy and reconstruction of tissues as well as organs especially for myocardial infarction (MI)...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919925/in-vitro-evaluation-of-polylactic-acid-pla-manufactured-by-fused-deposition-modeling
#11
Matthias C Wurm, Tobias Möst, Bastian Bergauer, Dominik Rietzel, Friedrich Wilhelm Neukam, Sandra C Cifuentes, Cornelius von Wilmowsky
BACKGROUND: With additive manufacturing (AM) individual and biocompatible implants can be generated by using suitable materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of polylactic acid (PLA) manufactured by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) on osteoblasts in vitro according to European Norm / International Organization for Standardization 10,993-5. METHOD: Human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) were seeded onto PLA samples produced by FDM and investigated for cell viability by fluorescence staining after 24 h...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919888/the-sporothrix-schenckii-gene-encoding-for-the-ribosomal-protein-l6-has-constitutive-and-stable-expression-and-works-as-an-endogenous-control-in-gene-expression-analysis
#12
Elías Trujillo-Esquivel, José A Martínez-Álvarez, Diana M Clavijo-Giraldo, Nahúm V Hernández, Alberto Flores-Martínez, Patricia Ponce-Noyola, Héctor M Mora-Montes
Sporothrix schenckii is one of the causative agents of sporotrichosis, a worldwide-distributed mycosis that affects humans and other mammals. The interest in basic and clinical features of this organism has significantly increased in the last years, yet little progress in molecular aspects has been reported. Gene expression analysis is a set of powerful tools that helps to assess the cell response to changes in the extracellular environment, the genetic networks controlling metabolic pathways, and the adaptation to different growth conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919884/secretome-of-intestinal-bacilli-a-natural-guard-against-pathologies
#13
REVIEW
Olga N Ilinskaya, Vera V Ulyanova, Dina R Yarullina, Ilgiz G Gataullin
Current studies of human gut microbiome usually do not consider the special functional role of transient microbiota, although some of its members remain in the host for a long time and produce broad spectrum of biologically active substances. Getting into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with food, water and probiotic preparations, two representatives of Bacilli class, genera Bacillus and Lactobacillus, colonize epithelium blurring the boundaries between resident and transient microbiota. Despite their minor proportion in the microbiome composition, these bacteria can significantly affect both the intestinal microbiota and the entire body thanks to a wide range of secreted compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919745/dose-and-time-effect-of-cdte-quantum-dots-on-antioxidant-capacities-of-the-liver-and-kidneys-in-mice
#14
Jilong Wang, Hubo Sun, Peijun Meng, Mengmeng Wang, Mi Tian, Yamin Xiong, Xueying Zhang, Peili Huang
Although quantum dot (QD)-induced toxicity occurs due to free radicals, generation of oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is considered an important mechanism. However, free radical mechanisms are essentially difficult to elucidate at the molecular level because most biologically relevant free radicals are highly reactive and short-lived, making them difficult to directly detect, especially in vivo. Antioxidants play an important role in preventing or, in most cases, limiting the damage caused by ROS...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919705/new-insight-into-the-pathogenesis-of-nail-psoriasis-and-overview-of-treatment-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Alessandra Ventura, Mauro Mazzeo, Roberta Gaziano, Marco Galluzzo, Luca Bianchi, Elena Campione
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting up to 3% of the general population. The prevalence of nail involvement in psoriasis patients varies between 15% and 79%. While the nails represent a small portion of the body surface area, psoriasis in these areas can have a disproportionate influence on a patient's physical and psychosocial activities. Differential diagnosis between an onychomycosis and a psoriatic nail could be challenging; nevertheless, coexistence of onychomycosis and nail psoriasis also occurs and both are common disorders in the general population...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919364/forward-and-reverse-genetics-approaches-to-uncover-metabolic-aging-pathways-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
REVIEW
Arwen W Gao, Jelmi Uit de Bos, Mark G Sterken, Jan E Kammenga, Reuben L Smith, Riekelt H Houtkooper
The biological mechanisms of aging have been studied in depth and prominent findings in this field promote the development of new therapies for age-associated disorders. Various model organisms are used for research on aging; among these, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been widely used and has provided valuable knowledge in determining the regulatory mechanisms driving the aging process. Many genes involved in lifespan regulation are associated with metabolic pathways and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors...
September 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918686/sensitivity-of-post-treatment-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-to-detect-inter-fractional-range-variations-in-scanned-ion-beam-therapy
#17
Josefine Handrack, Thomas Tessonnier, Wenjing Chen, Jakob Liebl, Jürgen Debus, Julia Bauer, Katia Parodi
BACKGROUND: Ion therapy, especially with modern scanning beam delivery, offers very sharp dose gradients for highly conformal cancer treatment. However, it is very sensitive to uncertainties of tissue stopping properties as well as to anatomical changes and setup errors, making range verification highly desirable. To this end, positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to measure decay products of β(+)-emitters created in interactions inside the patient. This work investigates the sensitivity of post treatment PET/CT (computed tomography) to detect inter-fractional range variations...
September 18, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918672/protein-complexes-big-data-machine-learning-and-integrative-proteomics-lessons-learned-over-a-decade-of-systematic-analysis-of-protein-interaction-networks
#18
Pierre C Havugimana, Pingzhao Hu, Andrew Emili
Elucidation of the networks of physical (functional) interactions present in cells and tissues is fundamental for understanding the molecular organization of biological systems, the mechanistic basis of essential and disease-related processes, and for functional annotation of previously uncharacterized proteins (via guilt-by-association or -correlation). After a decade in the field, we felt it timely to document our own experiences in the systematic analysis of protein interaction networks. Areas covered: Researchers worldwide have contributed innovative experimental and computational approaches that have driven the rapidly evolving field of 'functional proteomics'...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918561/marine-polysaccharides-therapeutic-efficacy-and-biomedical-applications
#19
REVIEW
Young-Eun Lee, Hyeongmin Kim, Changwon Seo, Taejun Park, Kyung Bin Lee, Seung-Yup Yoo, Seong-Chul Hong, Jeong Tae Kim, Jaehwi Lee
The ocean contains numerous marine organisms, including algae, animals, and plants, from which diverse marine polysaccharides with useful physicochemical and biological properties can be extracted. In particular, fucoidan, carrageenan, alginate, and chitosan have been extensively investigated in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields owing to their desirable characteristics, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioactivity. Various therapeutic efficacies of marine polysaccharides have been elucidated, including the inhibition of cancer, inflammation, and viral infection...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918485/the-5-oxoprolinase-is-required-for-conidiation-sexual-reproduction-virulence-and-deoxynivalenol-production-of-fusarium-graminearum
#20
Piao Yang, Yunyun Chen, Huiming Wu, Wenqin Fang, Qifu Liang, Yangling Zheng, Stefan Olsson, Dongmei Zhang, Jie Zhou, Zonghua Wang, Wenhui Zheng
In eukaryotic organisms, the 5-oxoprolinase is one of the six key enzymes in the γ-glutamyl cycle that is involved in the biosynthetic pathway of glutathione (GSH, an antioxidative tripeptide counteracting the oxidative stress). To date, little is known about the biological functions of the 5-oxoprolinase in filamentous phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, we investigated the 5-oxoprolinase in Fusarium graminearum for the first time. In F. graminearum, two paralogous genes (FgOXP1 and FgOXP2) were identified to encode the 5-oxoprolinase while only one homologous gene encoding the 5-oxoprolinase could be found in other filamentous phytopathogenic fungi or Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
September 16, 2017: Current Genetics
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