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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166656/fragmentation-modes-and-the-evolution-of-life-cycles
#1
Yuriy Pichugin, Jorge Peña, Paul B Rainey, Arne Traulsen
Reproduction is a defining feature of living systems. To reproduce, aggregates of biological units (e.g., multicellular organisms or colonial bacteria) must fragment into smaller parts. Fragmentation modes in nature range from binary fission in bacteria to collective-level fragmentation and the production of unicellular propagules in multicellular organisms. Despite this apparent ubiquity, the adaptive significance of fragmentation modes has received little attention. Here, we develop a model in which groups arise from the division of single cells that do not separate but stay together until the moment of group fragmentation...
November 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166576/the-beneficial-health-aspects-of-sea-buckthorn-elaeagnus-rhamnoides-l-a-nelson-oil
#2
REVIEW
Beata Olas
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL CONTEXT: Plant oils are known to have biological activity. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge of the composition of sea buckthorn (Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A.Nelson) seed and pulp oil and its beneficial health aspects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro and in vivo studies on humans and animals have found sea buckthorn oil to have a variety of beneficial properties to human health, and indicate that it may be a valuable component of human and animal nutrition...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166560/analytical-challenges-and-recent-advances-in-mass-spectrometry-based-lipidomics
#3
Yepy Hardi Rustam, Gavin Edmund Reid
Although no internationally accepted consensus definition exists, lipids can be broadly defined as "fatty acids and their derivatives, and substances related biosynthetically or functionally to these compounds". Lipids play critical roles as (i) the major structural components of biological membranes, and as functional and regulatory components of membrane protein signaling, (ii) bioactive intra- and inter-cellular signaling molecules, and (iii) energy storage molecules for the maintenance of energy homeostasis...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166127/bat-biology-genomes-and-the-bat1k-project-to-generate-chromosome-level-genomes-for-all-living-bat-species
#4
Emma Teeling, Sonja Vernes, Liliana M Davalos, David A Ray, M Thomas P Gilbert, Eugene Myers, Bat K Consortium
Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling insect pest populations, thus driving healthy ecosystems. They account for more than 20% of all living mammalian diversity, and their crown-group evolutionary history dates back to the Eocene...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165993/hybrid-structured-illumination-expansion-microscopy-reveals-microbial-cytoskeleton-organization
#5
Aaron R Halpern, Germain C M Alas, Tyler J Chozinski, Alexander R Paredez, Joshua C Vaughan
Recently developed tissue-hydrogel methods for specimen expansion now enable researchers to perform super-resolution microscopy with ~65 nm lateral resolution using ordinary microscopes, standard fluores-cent probes, and inexpensive reagents. Here we use the combination of specimen expansion and the optical super-resolution microscopy technique structured illumination microscopy (SIM) to extend the spatial reso-lution to ~30 nm. We apply this hybrid method, which we call ExSIM, to study the cytoskeleton of the im-portant human pathogen Giardia lamblia including the adhesive disc and flagellar axonemes...
November 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165984/on-chip-lipid-extraction-using-super-absorbent-polymers-for-mass-spectrometry
#6
Geul Bang, Young Hwan Kim, Junghyo Yoon, Yeong Jun Yu, Seok Chung, Jeong Ah Kim
Pre-treatment of samples is the one of most important steps in analytical methods for efficient and accurate results. Typically, an extraction method used for lipid analysis with mass spectrometry is accompanied by complex liquid-liquid extraction. We have devised a simple, rapid, and efficient lipid extraction method using super absorbent polymers (SAPs) and developed a high-throughput lipid extraction platform based on a microfluidic system. Since SAPs can rapidly absorb an aqueous solution from a raw sample and convert it into the gel, the lipid extraction process can be remarkably simplified...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165683/systematic-review-occupational-illness-in-the-waste-and-recycling-sector
#7
C J M Poole, S Basu
Background: The waste and recycling sector is a growing part of industry. Whether health surveillance is indicated and how it should be undertaken is unclear. Aims: To undertake a review of the literature to identify hazards to health, biological effects and occupational illnesses for workers in the sector. Methods: A systematic review of the published literature and two UK databases. Results: Rates of fatal, non-fatal injuries and self-reported work-related illness were found to be higher in the waste and recycling sector than in UK industry as a whole...
November 20, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165453/structural-and-electronic-properties-of-barbituric-acid-and-melamine-containing-ribonucleosides-as-plausible-components-of-prebiotic-rna-implications-for-prebiotic-self-assembly
#8
Sarabjeet Kaur, Purshotam Sharma, Stacey D Wetmore
The RNA world hypothesis assumes that RNA was the first informational polymer that originated from prebiotic chemical soup. However, since the reaction of d-ribose with canonical nucleobases (A, C, G and U) fails to yield ribonucleosides (rNs) in substantial amounts, the spontaneous origin of rNs and the subsequent synthesis of RNA remains an unsolved mystery. To this end, it has been suggested that RNA may have evolved from primitive genetic material (preRNA) composed of simpler prebiotic heterocycles that spontaneously form glycosidic bonds with ribose...
November 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164985/bio-soliton-model-that-predicts-non-thermal-electromagnetic-frequency-bands-that-either-stabilize-or-destabilize-living-cells
#9
J H Geesink, D K F Meijer
Solitons, as self-reinforcing solitary waves, interact with complex biological phenomena such as cellular self-organization. A soliton model is able to describe a spectrum of electromagnetism modalities that can be applied to understand the physical principles of biological effects in living cells, as caused by endogenous and exogenous electromagnetic fields and is compatible with quantum coherence. A bio-soliton model is proposed, that enables to predict which eigen-frequencies of non-thermal electromagnetic waves are life-sustaining and which are, in contrast, detrimental for living cells...
2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164924/towards-enhanced-pet-quantification-in-clinical-oncology
#10
Habib Zaidi, Nicolas Karakatsanis
Positron emission tomography (PET) has, since its inception, established itself as the imaging modality of choice for the in vivo quantitative assessment of molecular targets in a wide range of biochemical processes underlying tumour physiology. PET image quantification enables to ascertain a direct link between the time-varying activity concentration in organs/tissues and the fundamental parameters portraying the biological processes at the cellular level being assessed. However, the quantitative potential of PET may be affected by a number of factors related to physical effects, hardware and software system specifications, tracer kinetics, motion, scan protocol design and limitations in current image-derived PET metrics...
November 22, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164876/live-cell-imaging-of-endogenous-rnas-using-pumilio-homology-domain-mutants-principles-and-applications
#11
Hideaki Yoshimura
Recently, dynamic changes in RNA location in space and time in living cells have become a target of interest in biology because of their essential roles in controlling physiological phenomena. To visualize RNA, methods for the fluorescence labeling of RNA in living cells have been developed. For RNA labeling, oligonucleotide-based RNA probes have mainly been used because of their high selectivity for target RNAs. By contrast, protein-based RNA probes have not been used widely because of their lack of design flexibility, although they have various potential advantages compared with nucleotide-based probes, such as controllability of intracellular localization, high detectability, and ease of introduction to cells and transgenic organisms in cell type and tissue specific manner by genetic engineering techniques...
November 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164853/microfluidic-free-flow-electrophoresis-based-solvent-exchanger-for-continuously-operating-lab-on-chip-applications
#12
Franziska D Zitzmann, Heinz-Georg Jahnke, Simon Pfeiffer, Ronny Frank, Felix Nitschke, Laura Mauritz, Bernd Abel, Detlev Belder, Andrea A Robitzki
For miniaturization and integration of chemical synthesis and analytics on small length scales, the development of complex lab on chip (LOC) systems is in the focus of many current research projects. While application specific synthesis and analytic modules and LOC devices are widely described, the combination and integration of different modules is intensively investigated. Problems for in-line processes such as solvent incompatibilities, e.g., for a multistep synthesis or the combination of an organic drug synthesis with a cell-based biological activity testing system, require a solvent exchange between serialized modules...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164819/decellularized-bovine-cotyledons-may-serve-as-biological-scaffolds-with-preserved-vascular-arrangement
#13
Rodrigo da Silva Nunes Barreto, Patricia Romagnolli, Andrea Maria Mess, Maria Angelica Miglino
Technically produced scaffolds are common to establish transplantable tissues for Regenerative Medicine, but also biological ones that are closer to the natural condition become of interest. Placentas are promising, because they represented available, complete organs with rich extracellular matrix (ECM) and well developed vasculature that easily could build anastomoses to a host´s organ. Only placentas from larger animal models such as the bovine meet the dimensions large enough for most organs, but are not adequately described yet...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164709/identification-of-pyridoxal-phosphate-modified-proteins-using-mass-spectrometry
#14
Yue Wu, Jin Chen, Zheyi Liu, Fangjun Wang
RATIONALE: Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) cooperates with a variety of enzymes in all organisms for many important biological processes. The development of mass-spectrometry-based methodology for high throughput modification analyses could provide an alternative way for PLP identification. The present study aims to identify PLP modification. METHODS: More PLP site-determining information was obtained by introducing multistage activation (MSA) assisted collision induced dissociation (CID)...
November 22, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164365/organ-doses-and-lifetime-attributable-risk-evaluations-for-scoliosis-examinations-of-adolescent-patients-with-the-eos-imaging-system
#15
Marco Branchini, Antonella Del Vecchio, Carmen Rosaria Gigliotti, Alessandro Loria, Alberto Zerbi, Riccardo Calandrino
PURPOSE: The goal of this work is to evaluate organ doses and lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence and mortality in scoliosis examinations of adolescent patients performed with EOS imaging system, in order to optimize patient dose and protocols. METHODS: An anthropomorphic phantom of a normal patient, with thermoluminescent dosimeters in correspondence with the main organs at risk, was imaged with both EOS and computed radiography (CR). For each modality, effective dose was calculated from the measured organ doses...
November 21, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164177/a-systems-medicine-approach-translating-emerging-science-into-individualized-wellness
#16
REVIEW
J S Bland, D M Minich, B M Eck
In today's aging society, more people are living with lifestyle-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Numerous opinion-leader organizations recommend lifestyle medicine as the first-line approach in NCD prevention and treatment. However, there is a strong need for a personalized approach as "one-size-fits-all" public health recommendations have been insufficient in addressing the interindividual differences in the diverse populations. Advancement in systems biology and the "omics" technologies has allowed comprehensive analysis of how complex biological systems are impacted upon external perturbations (e...
2017: Advances in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164117/active-aging-in-very-old-age-and-the-relevance-of-psychological-aspects
#17
Constança Paúl, Laetitia Teixeira, Oscar Ribeiro
Background: Active aging encompasses a socially and individually designed mix of different domains that range from personal and familial, to social and professional. In being a key policy concept often focused on the young-old individuals, efforts in studying its dimensions in advanced ages have seldom been made. Nevertheless, there is a recognized need to promote adequate responses to the growing number of individuals reaching advanced ages and to recognize their specific dependability on health-related aspects, services attendance, social interactions, or on psychological characteristics for what it means to "age actively...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163922/bright-and-sensitive-ratiometric-fluorescent-probe-enabling-endogenous-fa-imaging-and-mechanistic-exploration-of-indirect-oxidative-damage-due-to-fa-in-various-living-systems
#18
Kun Dou, Guang Chen, Fabiao Yu, Yuxia Liu, Lingxin Chen, Ziping Cao, Tao Chen, Yulin Li, Jinmao You
As a notorious toxin, formaldehyde (FA) poses an immense threat to human health. Aberrantly elevated FA levels lead to serious pathologies, including organ damage, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Unfortunately, current techniques limit FA imaging to general comparative studies, instead of a mechanistic exploration of its biological role, and this is presumably due to the lack of robust molecular tools for reporting FA in living systems. More importantly, despite being reductive, FA, however, can induce oxidative damage to organisms, thus providing a challenge to the mechanistic study of FA using fluorescence imaging...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163669/current-status-and-perspectives-of-genome-editing-technology-for-microalgae
#19
REVIEW
Seungjib Jeon, Jong-Min Lim, Hyung-Gwan Lee, Sung-Eun Shin, Nam Kyu Kang, Youn-Il Park, Hee-Mock Oh, Won-Joong Jeong, Byeong-Ryool Jeong, Yong Keun Chang
Genome editing techniques are critical for manipulating genes not only to investigate their functions in biology but also to improve traits for genetic engineering in biotechnology. Genome editing has been greatly facilitated by engineered nucleases, dubbed molecular scissors, including zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN), TAL effector endonuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced palindromic sequences (CRISPR)/Cas9. In particular, CRISPR/Cas9 has revolutionized genome editing fields with its simplicity, efficiency and accuracy compared to previous nucleases...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163622/transcriptome-and-metabolome-analyses-provide-insights-into-the-occurrence-of-peel-roughing-disorder-on-satsuma-mandarin-citrus-unshiu-marc-fruit
#20
Xiao-Peng Lu, Fei-Fei Li, Jiang Xiong, Xiong-Jun Cao, Xiao-Chuan Ma, Zi-Mu Zhang, Shang-Yin Cao, Shen-Xi Xie
Roughing disorder (RD) is a significant quality barrier in citrus fruit, prevalent on easy-peeling mandarins. As RD is not yet well-understood, this study aimed to examine the changes and synergic molecular processes involved in peel RD. Peel with RD was induced by severely defruiting Satsuma mandarin trees. Morphology observations, RNA-sequencing, and targeted and untargeted metabolic analyses were conducted. The results showed that the primary metabolites of sugars, organic acids and amino acids are dramatically changed in RD peel...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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