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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334672/oxidative-and-interactive-challenge-of-cadmium-and-ocean-acidification-on-the-smooth-scallop-flexopecten-glaber
#1
Alessandro Nardi, Maura Benedetti, Daniele Fattorini, Francesco Regoli
Ocean acidification (OA) may affect sensitivity of marine organisms to metal pollution modulating chemical bioavailability, bioaccumulation and biological responsiveness of several cellular pathways. In this study, the smooth scallop Flexopecten glaber was exposed to various combinations of reduced pH (pH/pCO2 7.4/∼3000 μatm) and Cd (20 μg/L). The analyses on cadmium uptake were integrated with those of a wide battery of biomarkers including metallothioneins, single antioxidant defenses and total oxyradical scavenging capacity in digestive gland and gills, lysosomal membrane stability and onset of genotoxic damage in haemocytes...
January 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334621/taurine-as-a-green-bio-organic-catalyst-for-the-preparation-of-bio-active-barbituric-and-thiobarbituric-acid-derivatives-in-water-media
#2
Nader Daneshvar, Farhad Shirini, Mohaddeseh Safarpoor Nikoo Langarudi, Reyhaneh Karimi-Chayjani
Taurine, a β-amino acid that is abundantly available in the tissues of human and animals, is efficiently used as a green bio-organic catalyst in the preparation of some of the biologically active barbituric and thiobarbituric acid derivatives. In the presence of taurine, 5-Arylidene (thio) barbituric acid derivatives were prepared via Knovenagel reaction between aldehydes and (thio)barbituric acid. Using this reagent also pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidinone(thione) derivatives were synthesized through a three-component reaction between aldehydes, (thio)barbituric and malononitrile...
December 21, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334401/unearthing-belowground-bud-banks-in-fire-prone-ecosystems
#3
Juli G Pausas, Byron B Lamont, Susana Paula, Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória, Alessandra Fidelis
Despite long-time awareness of the importance of the location of buds in plant biology, research on belowground bud banks has been scant. Terms such as lignotuber, xylopodium and sobole, all referring to belowground bud-bearing structures, are used inconsistently in the literature. Because soil efficiently insulates meristems from the heat of fire, concealing buds below ground provides fitness benefits in fire-prone ecosystems. Thus, in these ecosystems, there is a remarkable diversity of bud-bearing structures...
January 15, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334382/a-de-novo-enzyme-catalyzes-a-life-sustaining-reaction-in-escherichia-coli
#4
Ann E Donnelly, Grant S Murphy, Katherine M Digianantonio, Michael H Hecht
Producing novel enzymes that are catalytically active in vitro and biologically functional in vivo is a key goal of synthetic biology. Here we describe Syn-F4, the first de novo protein that meets both criteria. Purified Syn-F4 hydrolyzes the siderophore ferric enterobactin, and expression of Syn-F4 allows an inviable strain of Escherichia coli to grow in iron-limited medium. These findings demonstrate that entirely new sequences can provide life-sustaining enzymatic functions in living organisms.
January 15, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334379/highly-parallel-direct-rna-sequencing-on-an-array-of-nanopores
#5
Daniel R Garalde, Elizabeth A Snell, Daniel Jachimowicz, Botond Sipos, Joseph H Lloyd, Mark Bruce, Nadia Pantic, Tigist Admassu, Phillip James, Anthony Warland, Michael Jordan, Jonah Ciccone, Sabrina Serra, Jemma Keenan, Samuel Martin, Luke McNeill, E Jayne Wallace, Lakmal Jayasinghe, Chris Wright, Javier Blasco, Stephen Young, Denise Brocklebank, Sissel Juul, James Clarke, Andrew J Heron, Daniel J Turner
Sequencing the RNA in a biological sample can unlock a wealth of information, including the identity of bacteria and viruses, the nuances of alternative splicing or the transcriptional state of organisms. However, current methods have limitations due to short read lengths and reverse transcription or amplification biases. Here we demonstrate nanopore direct RNA-seq, a highly parallel, real-time, single-molecule method that circumvents reverse transcription or amplification steps. This method yields full-length, strand-specific RNA sequences and enables the direct detection of nucleotide analogs in RNA...
January 15, 2018: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333342/is-there-a-link-between-aging-and-microbiome-diversity-in-exceptional-mammalian-longevity
#6
Graham M Hughes, John Leech, Sébastien J Puechmaille, Jose V Lopez, Emma C Teeling
A changing microbiome has been linked to biological aging in mice and humans, suggesting a possible role of gut flora in pathogenic aging phenotypes. Many bat species have exceptional longevity given their body size and some can live up to ten times longer than expected with little signs of aging. This study explores the anal microbiome of the exceptionally long-lived Myotis myotis bat, investigating bacterial composition in both adult and juvenile bats to determine if the microbiome changes with age in a wild, long-lived non-model organism, using non-lethal sampling...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332593/facile-synthesis-crystal-structure-dft-calculation-and-biological-activities-of-4-2-fluorophenyl-3-3-methoxybenzyl-1h-1-2-4-triazol-5-4h-one-5
#7
Muhammad Saleem, Muhammad Rafiq, Yeon Ki Jeong, Dae Won Cho, Chong-Hyeak Kim, Sung-Yum Seo, Chang-Shik Choi, Seong-Karp Hong, Ki-Hwan Lee
BACKGROUND: In the past few decades, the design, synthesis and characterization of novel heterocyclic compounds with auspicious biological profile received the considerable attention of scientific community. Among them, the small and simple organic molecular backbone like triazole moiety have broad spectrum of applications in the medicinal as well as diagnostic areas. OBJECTIVE: The objective of present study was the synthesis, characterization and exploration of biological profile of 4-(2-fluorophenyl)-3-(3-methoxybenzyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (5)...
January 12, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332309/how-have-leaves-of-mycoheterotrophic-plants-evolved-from-the-view-point-of-a-developmental-biologist
#8
Hirokazu Tsukaya
How mycoheterotrophs have evolved and how they are sustained are an enigma. Structural analyses of the plastid genome and phylogenetic analyses of mycoheterotrophs have been used to identify mycorrhizal fungi. Molecular genetic studies have also revealed the mechanism for plant-fungi interactions. However, the evolution of the small, scale-like vegetative leaves of mycoheterotrophs is unknown. As almost all genes determining leaf size affect the floral organ sizes, it is highly implausible that loss-of-function mutations in leaf size regulators caused the evolution of smaller foliage leaves in mycoheterotrophs...
January 14, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332271/biodegradation-of-plastics-current-scenario-and-future-prospects-for-environmental-safety
#9
Temoor Ahmed, Muhammad Shahid, Farrukh Azeem, Ijaz Rasul, Asad Ali Shah, Muhammad Noman, Amir Hameed, Natasha Manzoor, Irfan Manzoor, Sher Muhammad
Plastic is a general term used for a wide range of high molecular weight organic polymers obtained mostly from the various hydrocarbon and petroleum derivatives. There is an ever-increasing trend towards the production and consumption of plastics due to their extensive industrial and domestic applications. However, a wide spectrum of these polymers is non-biodegradable with few exceptions. The extensive use of plastics, lack of waste management, and casual community behavior towards their proper disposal pose a significant threat to the environment...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331853/mobility-of-heavy-metals-in-sandy-soil-after-application-of-composts-produced-from-maize-straw-sewage-sludge-and-biochar
#10
K Gondek, M Mierzwa-Hersztek, M Kopeć
Studies on the availability of heavy metals in composted organic materials and in soil amended with these materials are of practical significance. They are used in the assessment of the purity of the soil environment and of the biological value of plants intended for human and animal consumption. Composting of organic materials has a significant effect on changes in mobile forms of heavy metals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of biochar and sewage sludge on (i) the contents of water soluble forms of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in composts; and (ii) the contents of mobile forms of these elements in sandy soil after the addition of composts...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331852/no-time-to-waste-organic-waste-nanosizing-converts-remains-of-food-processing-into-refined-materials
#11
Sharoon Griffin, Muhammad Sarfraz, Verda Farida, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Azubuike P Ebokaiwe, Cornelia M Keck, Claus Jacob
Modern food processing results in considerable amounts of side-products, such as grape seeds, walnut shells, spent coffee grounds, and harvested tomato plants. These materials are still rich in valuable and biologically active substances and therefore of interest from the perspective of waste management and "up-cycling". In contrast to traditional, often time consuming and low-value uses, such as vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion, the complete conversion into nanosuspensions unlocks considerable potentials of and new applications for such already spent organic materials without the need of extraction and without producing any additional waste...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331830/fetal-development-of-the-poeppig-s-woolly-monkey-lagothrix-poeppigii
#12
Rafael Dos Santos de Andrade, Frederico Ozanan Barros Monteiro, Hani Rocha El Bizri, Wilter Ricardo Russiano Vicente, Diva Anelie de Araujo Guimarães, Pedro Mayor
The intrauterine development is an evolutionary strategy that prepares the neonate for extra-uterine life, thus providing important information on the life history of species. In this study, we described the external and internal morphology of 25 fetuses of Poeppig's woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) by taking advantage of a 10-year participatory collection of biological samples originated from animals hunted for subsistence purposes in the Peruvian Amazon. Logistic regressions estimated the probability of occurrence of each external morphological characteristic in relation to the crown-rump length (CRL)...
December 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331736/dysfunctional-telomeres-and-hematological-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Elena Fiorini, Andrea Santoni, Simona Colla
Telomere biology disorders, which are characterized by telomerase activity haploinsufficiency and accelerated telomere shortening, most commonly manifest as degenerative diseases. Tissues with high rates of cell turnover, such as those in the hematopoietic system, are particularly vulnerable to defects in telomere maintenance genes that eventually culminate in bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes, in which the BM cannot produce sufficient new blood cells. Here, we review how telomere defects induce degenerative phenotypes across multiple organs, with particular focus on how they impact the hematopoietic stem and progenitor compartment and affect hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation...
January 4, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331642/protein-adaptations-in-extremophiles-an-insight-into-extremophilic-connection-of-mycobacterial-proteome
#14
REVIEW
Ashutosh Kumar, Anwar Alam, Deeksha Tripathi, Mamta Rani, Hafeeza Khatoon, Saurabh Pandey, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
The biological paradox about how extremophiles persist at extreme ecological conditions throws a fascinating picture of the enormous potential of a single cell to adapt to homeostatic conditions in order to propagate. Unicellular organisms face challenges from both environmental factors and the ecological niche provided by the host tissue. Although the existence of extremophiles and their physiological properties were known for a long time, availability of whole genome sequence has catapulted the study on mechanisms of adaptation and the underlying principles that have enabled these unique organisms to withstand evolutionary and environmental pressures...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331582/inositol-polyphosphates-contribute-to-cellular-circadian-rhythms-implications-for-understanding-lithium-s-molecular-mechanism
#15
Heather Wei, Dominic Landgraf, George Wang, Michael J McCarthy
Most living organisms maintain cell autonomous circadian clocks that synchronize critical biological functions with daily environmental cycles. In mammals, the circadian clock is regulated by inputs from signaling pathways including glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). The drug lithium has actions on GSK3, and also on inositol metabolism. While it is suspected that lithium's inhibition of GSK3 causes rhythm changes, it is not known if inositol polyphosphates can also affect the circadian clock. We examined whether the signaling molecule inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) has effects on circadian rhythms...
January 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331429/paper-based-fluorescent-sensor-via-aggregation-induced-emission-fluorogen-for-facile-and-sensitive-visual-detection-of-hydrogen-peroxide-and-glucose
#16
Jiafu Chang, Haiyin Li, Ting Hou, Wenna Duan, Feng Li
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an important reactive oxygen species (ROS), is related to the oxidative stress in organisms, and plays important roles in a variety of cellular activities as well. So it is of crucial importance to develop sensitive and accurate sensing strategies to detect H2O2 in biological systems. Herein, by taking advantage of the unique emission characteristics of aggregation induced emission (AIE) fluorogens, we proposed a non-enzymatic fluorescence platform for facile and sensitive detection of H2O2, both in solution state using fluorescence spectrometer and on paper-based sensor via visual inspection...
January 6, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331074/cryopyrin-associated-periodic-syndrome-in-early-childhood-can-be-successfully-treated-with-interleukin-1-blockades
#17
Vesa Eskola, Heini Pohjankoski, Liisa Kröger, Kristiina Aalto, Katariina Latva, Matti Korppi
Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is caused by a mutation in the NLRP3 gene encoding cryopyrin production. Overproduction of interleukin-1 (IL-1) leads to symptoms that are associated with elevated inflammatory markers, including periodic fever and a rash. We provide a clinical overview of CAPS in children, including three Finnish case studies. Conclusion When CAPS has been diagnosed, an IL-1 blockade with biologicals should be introduced to lessen the symptoms and to prevent the progression of organ damage...
January 13, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330803/western-blot-analysis-of-c-elegans-proteins
#18
Dae-Eun Jeong, Yujin Lee, Seung-Jae V Lee
C. elegans has been widely used as a model organism for basic biological research and is particularly amenable for molecular genetic studies using a broad repertoire of techniques. Biochemical approaches, including Western blot analysis, have emerged as a powerful tool in C. elegans biology for understanding molecular mechanisms that link genotypes to phenotypes. Here, we provide a protocol for Western blot analysis using protein extracts obtained from C. elegans samples.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330665/a-synthetic-pathway-for-the-production-of-2-hydroxyisovaleric-acid-in-escherichia-coli
#19
Seokjung Cheong, James M Clomburg, Ramon Gonzalez
Synthetic biology, encompassing the design and construction of novel artificial biological pathways and organisms and the redesign of existing natural biological systems, is rapidly expanding the number of applications for which biological systems can play an integral role. In the context of chemical production, the combination of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering approaches continues to unlock the ability to biologically produce novel and complex molecules from a variety of feedstocks. Here, we utilize a synthetic approach to design and build a pathway to produce 2-hydroxyisovaleric acid in Escherichia coli and demonstrate how pathway design can be supplemented with metabolic engineering approaches to improve pathway performance from various carbon sources...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330535/the-stoichiometry-of-coral-dinoflagellate-symbiosis-carbon-and-nitrogen-cycles-are-balanced-in-the-recycling-and-double-translocation-system
#20
Yasuaki Tanaka, Atsushi Suzuki, Kazuhiko Sakai
Symbioses between microalgae and animal hosts have the advantage of acquiring and sharing autotrophically produced organic carbon (C) as their energy source. However, the stoichiometry and turnover rates of biological elements in symbioses are not fully understood because of complicated metabolic interactions. We report the first comprehensive and simultaneous measurement of C and nitrogen (N) flows through coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis by using the unique approach of dual-isotope labeling with 13C and 15N, in situ chasing, and isotope-mixing models...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
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