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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531272/a-novel-isoform-of-tet1-that-lacks-a-cxxc-domain-is-overexpressed-in-cancer
#1
Charly R Good, Jozef Madzo, Bela Patel, Shinji Maegawa, Nora Engel, Jaroslav Jelinek, Jean-Pierre J Issa
TET1 oxidizes methylated cytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), resulting in regulation of DNA methylation and gene expression. Full length TET1 (TET1FL) has a CXXC domain that binds to unmethylated CpG islands (CGIs). This CXXC domain allows TET1 to protect CGIs from aberrant methylation, but it also limits its ability to regulate genes outside of CGIs. Here, we report a novel isoform of TET1 (TET1ALT) that has a unique transcription start site from an alternate promoter in intron 2, yielding a protein with a unique translation start site...
May 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531259/guideline-adherence-for-diagnostic-faeces-testing-in-primary-care-patients-with-gastroenteritis
#2
Alwin Schierenberg, Berna D L Broekhuizen, Martine D Nipshagen, Maarten B J Kommer, Patricia C J Bruijning-Verhagen, Sanne van Delft, Alma C van de Pol, Marc J M Bonten, Niek J de Wit
Background.: Gastroenteritis (GE) is a common reason for primary care consultation. Dutch clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommend diagnostic faeces testing (DFT) only in primary care patients with severe illness, comprised immunity or increased transmission risk. For its superior accuracy, shorter turnaround time and ease of use, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DFT has largely replaced conventional techniques. It is unknown whether this changed CPG adherence. Objective...
May 20, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530246/short-single-stranded-dna-degradation-products-augment-the-activation-of-toll-like-receptor-9
#3
Jelka Pohar, Duško Lainšček, Karolina Ivičak-Kocjan, Miša-Mojca Cajnko, Roman Jerala, Mojca Benčina
Toll-like receptors encounter a diversity of degradation products in endosomes. TLR7 and TLR8 have been shown to be activated by RNA degradation products. Here we show that although TLR9 requires single-stranded DNA longer than 20 nucleotides for a robust response, TLR9 activation is augmented by CpG-containing oligodeoxyribonucleotides (sODNs) as short as 2 nucleotides, which, by themselves, do not induce activation in cell cultures, as well as in mice. sODNs also activate human TLR9 in combination with ODNs containing a single CpG motif that by themselves do not activate human TLR9...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530106/serrated-lesions-and-serrated-polyposis-syndrome
#4
Alberto Herreros de Tejada, Carmen González-Lois, José Santiago
The serrated pathway has been shown to be an alternative colorectal carcinogenetic route potentially accounting for up to one third of all CRCs. Serrated lesions, particularly SSPs, have been a focus of research during the past few years. They have well-established histological and molecular characteristics that account for their potential carcinogenetic risk through the accumulation BRAF, KRAS and methylator profile (CpG) mutations. Their endoscopic identification and resection represent a challenge because of their specific characteristics, and the need for an adequate specimen for histological diagnosis...
May 22, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528197/ubiquitous-chromatin-opening-elements-ucoes-applications-in-biomanufacturing-and-gene-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan J Neville, Joe Orlando, Kimberly Mann, Bethany McCloskey, Michael N Antoniou
Ubiquitous Chromatin-opening Elements (UCOEs) are defined by their ability to consistently confer stable, site of integration-independent transgene expression that is proportional to copy number, including from within regions of heterochromatin such as centromeres. UCOEs structurally consist of methylation-free CpG islands encompassing single or dual divergently-transcribed housekeeping gene promoters. Since their discovery in 1999, UCOEs and their sub-fragments have found applications in areas of biotechnology requiring stable, reproducible, and high levels of gene expression...
May 17, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526774/preliminary-evaluation-of-cytosine-phosphate-guanine-oligodeoxynucleotides-bound-to-gelatine-nanoparticles-as-immunotherapy-for-canine-atopic-dermatitis
#6
I Wagner, K J Geh, M Hubert, G Winter, K Weber, J Classen, C Klinger, R S Mueller
Cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) are a promising new immunotherapeutic treatment option for canine atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this uncontrolled pilot study was to evaluate clinical and immunological effects of gelatine nanoparticle (GNP)-bound CpG ODN (CpG GNP) on atopic dogs. Eighteen dogs with AD were treated for 8 weeks (group 1, n=8) or 18 weeks (group 2, n=10). Before inclusion and after 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks (group 1+2), 8 weeks, 12 weeks and 16 weeks (group 2) 75 µg CpG ODN/dog (bound to 1...
May 19, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526320/mercury-exposure-induces-cytoskeleton-disruption-and-loss-of-renal-function-through-epigenetic-modulation-of-mmp9-expression
#7
Hafizurrahman Khan, Radha Dutt Singh, Ratnakar Tiwari, Siddhartha Gangopadhyay, Somendu Kumar Roy, Dhirendra Singh, Vikas Srivastava
Mercury is one of the major heavy metal pollutants occurring in elemental, inorganic and organic forms. Due to ban on most inorganic mercury containing products, human exposure to mercury generally occurs as methylmercury (MeHg) by consumption of contaminated fish and other sea food. Animal and epidemiological studies indicate that MeHg affects neural and renal function. Our study is focused on nephrotoxic potential of MeHg. In this study, we have shown for the first time how MeHg could epigenetically modulate matrix metalloproteinase 9(MMP9) to promote nephrotoxicity using an animal model of sub chronic MeHg exposure...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525852/absolute-quantification-of-dna-methylation-using-microfluidic-chip-based-digital-pcr
#8
Zhenhua Wu, Yanan Bai, Zule Cheng, Fangming Liu, Ping Wang, Dawei Yang, Gang Li, Qinghui Jin, Hongju Mao, Jianlong Zhao
Hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of many tumor suppressor genes downregulates their expression and in a result promotes tumorigenesis. Therefore, detection of DNA methylation status is a convenient diagnostic tool for cancer detection. Here, we reported a novel method for the integrative detection of methylation by the microfluidic chip-based digital PCR. This method relies on methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme HpaII, which cleaves the unmethylated DNA strands while keeping the methylated ones intact...
May 12, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525377/dna-methylation-mediated-silencing-of-microrna-874-is-a-promising-diagnosis-and-prognostic-marker-in-breast-cancer
#9
Lei Zhang, Da-Li Yan, Fan Yang, Dan-Dan Wang, Xiu Chen, Jian-Zhong Wu, Jin-Hai Tang, Wen-Jie Xia
MicroRNA-874 (miR-874) is downregulated in several human cancers and has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor gene. However, the molecular mechanism of miR-874 downregulation in breast cancer has not been well elucidated. Here we aimed to study the aberrant hyper-methylation of CpG sites with the utility of miR-874 downreregulation in breast cancer and evaluate the clinical function of miR-874 as a prognostic marker. The miR-874 expressions in cells and tissues of two breast cancer lines were measured by real-time PCR...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524723/l1-retrotransposition-is-activated-by-ten-eleven-translocation-protein-1-and-repressed-by-methyl-cpg-binding-proteins
#10
Peng Zhang, Anne K Ludwig, Florian D Hastert, Cathia Rausch, Anne Lehmkuhl, Ines Hellmann, Martha Smets, Heinrich Leonhardt, M Cristina Cardoso
One of the major functions of DNA methylation is the repression of transposable elements, such as the long-interspersed nuclear element 1 (L1). The underlying mechanism(s), however, are unclear. Here, we addressed how retrotransposon activation and mobilization are regulated by methyl-cytosine modifying ten-eleven-translocation (Tet) proteins and how this is modulated by methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins. We show that Tet1 activates both, endogenous and engineered L1 retrotransposons. Furthermore, we found that Mecp2 and Mbd2 repress Tet1-mediated activation of L1 by preventing 5hmC formation at the L1 promoter...
May 19, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524540/antineoplastic-effects-of-clove-buds-syzygium-aromaticum-l-in-the-model-of-breast-carcinoma
#11
Peter Kubatka, Sona Uramova, Martin Kello, Karol Kajo, Peter Kruzliak, Jan Mojzis, Desanka Vybohova, Marian Adamkov, Karina Jasek, Zora Lasabova, Pavol Zubor, Silvia Fialova, Svetlana Dokupilova, Peter Solar, Martin Pec, Katarina Adamicova, Jan Danko, Mariusz Adamek, Dietrich Busselberg
It is supposed that plant functional foods, rich in phytochemicals, may potentially have preventive effects in carcinogenesis. In this study, the anticancer effects of cloves in the in vivo and in vitro mammary carcinoma model were assessed. Dried flower buds of cloves (CLOs) were used at two concentrations of 0.1% and 1% through diet during 13 weeks after the application of chemocarcinogen. After autopsy, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of rat mammary carcinomas were performed. Moreover, in vitro evaluation using MCF-7 cells was carried out...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524180/aberrant-epigenetic-regulation-of-gabrp-associates-with-aggressive-phenotype-of-ovarian-cancer
#12
Hye Youn Sung, San-Duk Yang, Woong Ju, Jung-Hyuck Ahn
Metastasis is a major cause of therapeutic failure in ovarian cancer. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of ovarian cancer metastasis, we previously established a metastatic xenograft mouse model using human ovarian carcinoma SK-OV-3 cells. Using gene expression profiling, we found that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor π subunit (GABRP) expression was upregulated (>4-fold) in metastatic tissues from our xenograft mice compared with SK-OV-3 cells. Importantly, GABRP knockdown diminished the migration and invasion of SK-OV-3 cells, and reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation while overexpression of GABRP exhibited significantly increased cell migration, invasion and ERK activation...
May 19, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523967/comparative-assessment-of-dna-methylation-patterns-between-reduced-representation-bisulfite-sequencing-and-sequenom-epityper-methylation-analysis
#13
Aniruddha Chatterjee, Erin C Macaulay, Antonio Ahn, Jackie L Ludgate, Peter A Stockwell, Rob J Weeks, Matthew F Parry, Timothy J Foster, Ingrid M Knarston, Michael R Eccles, Ian M Morison
AIM: Validation of sequencing-based DNA methylation data is an important step for meaningful translation of findings. However, there has been limited assessment of different platforms to validate methylation data from next generation sequencing. METHODS: We performed a comparative methylation analysis between the genome-wide platform of reduced representation bisulfite sequencing with a targeted, Sequenom EpiTyper platform (four genes were analyzed in 15 cell lines covering 52 CpG sites)...
May 19, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523539/the-role-of-noncoding-rnas-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-the-case-of-rett-syndrome
#14
Aida Obiols-Guardia, Sònia Guil
Current technologies have demonstrated that only a small fraction of our genes encode for protein products. The vast majority of the human transcriptome corresponds to noncoding RNA (ncRNA) of different size, localization, and expression profile. Despite the fact that a biological function remains yet to be determined for most ncRNAs, growing evidence points to their crucial regulatory roles at all stages in gene expression regulation, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional control, so that proper cell homeostasis seems to depend largely on a variety of ncRNA-mediated regulatory networks...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523538/mecp2-a-modulator-of-neuronal-chromatin-organization-involved-in-rett-syndrome
#15
Alexia Martínez de Paz, Juan Ausió
From an epigenetic perspective, the genomic chromatin organization of neurons exhibits unique features when compared to somatic cells. Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), through its ability to bind to methylated DNA, seems to be a major player in regulating such unusual organization. An important contribution to this uniqueness stems from the intrinsically disordered nature of this highly abundant chromosomal protein in neurons. Upon its binding to methylated/hydroxymethylated DNA, MeCP2 is able to recruit a plethora of interacting protein and RNA partners...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523359/arginine-cga-codons-as-a-source-of-nonsense-mutations-a-possible-role-in-multivariant-gene-expression-control-of-mrna-quality-and-aging
#16
Georgy A Romanov, Victor S Sukhoverov
Methylation of cytosine residues in DNA of higher eukaryotes, including humans, creates "hot spots" of C→T transitions in the genome. The predominantly methylated sequence in mammalian DNAs is CG (CpG). Among CG-containing codons, CGA codons for arginine are unique due to their ability to create stop codons TGA (UGA in mRNA) upon epigenetic-mediated mutation. As such nonsense mutations can have a strong adverse effect on the cell and organism, we have performed a study, on the example of human genes, aimed to characterise the anticipated effects of epigenetic-mediated nonsense mutations CGA→TGA in somatic cells...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522876/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-mitochondria-associated-er-membrane-mam-in-a-long-term-type-2-diabetic-rodent-model
#17
Jacey Hongjie Ma, Shichen Shen, Joshua J Wang, Zhanwen He, Amanda Poon, Jun Li, Jun Qu, Sarah X Zhang
The mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) plays a critical role in cellular energetics and calcium homeostasis; however, how MAM is affected under diabetic condition remains elusive. This study presented a comprehensive proteome profiling of isolated brain MAM from long-term type 2 diabetic mice vs. non-diabetic controls. MAM protein was extracted efficiently by a surfactant-aided precipitation/on-pellet digestion (SOD) method, and MAM proteome was quantified by an ion-current-based MS1 method combined with nanoLC-MS/MS...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522752/mismatch-repair-proteins-initiate-epigenetic-alterations-during-inflammation-driven-tumorigenesis
#18
Ashley R Maiuri, Michael Peng, Shruthi Sriramkumar, Caitlin M Kamplain, Christina DeStefano Shields, Cynthia L Sears, Heather M O'Hagan
Aberrant silencing of genes by DNA methylation contributes to cancer, yet how this process is initiated remains unclear. Using a murine model of inflammation-induced tumorigenesis, we tested the hypothesis that inflammation promotes recruitment of epigenetic proteins to chromatin, initiating methylation and gene silencing in tumors. Compared to normal epithelium and non-inflammation-induced tumors, inflammation-induced tumors gained DNA methylation at CpG islands, some of which are associated with putative tumor suppressor genes...
May 18, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521481/increased-methylation-of-human-papillomavirus-type-16-dna-is-associated-with-the-severity-of-cervical-lesions-in-infected-females-from-northeast-china
#19
Wei Wang, Zhengrong Sun, Jianhua Liu, Guili Wang, Zhitao Lu, Weiqiang Zhou, Te Qi, Qiang Ruan
Hypermethylation of the cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites located at the 3'-major capsid protein L1 (3'L1) and the long control region (LCR) of the human papillomavirus (HPV) genome may be associated with the progression of cervical cancer (CC). However, the methylation status of the LCR of HPV type 16 DNA remains to be elucidated in an infected Chinese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between methylation of the HPV 16 L1 gene and LCR, and the severity of cervical lesions in infected female patients...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521147/a-pilot-study-of-differential-brain-activation-to-suicidal-means-and-dna-methylation-of-cacna1c-gene-in-suicidal-attempt-patients
#20
Young Jong Kim, Hae Jeong Park, Geon-Ho Jahng, Sang Min Lee, Won Sub Kang, Su Kang Kim, Tae Kim, Ah Rang Cho, Jin Kyung Park
Suicide is a serious public health problem. In this study, we investigated functional brain changes to novel visual stimuli of suicidal means, DNA methylation status, and the relationship between the two markers. 14 suicidal attempt patients (SAs) and 22 healthy controls were included. Pictures of facial expressions and suicidal means were shown to subjects during fMRI scanning. 11 CpG sites within transcription factor binding site of CACNA1C gene were selected. In knives (K) vs. natural landscape (NL) condition, left middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area, BA 6 and 46) and left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 9) were shown to be significantly higher brain activation in the SAs than the controls (p<0...
May 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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