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perinatal psychiatric disorders

Chandni Prakash, Susan Hatters-Friedman, Charmian Moller-Olsen, Abigail North
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is a vulnerable period for recurrence of bipolar disorder. Discontinuation of mood stabilisers during pregnancy and the postpartum period can significantly increase the risk of recurrence of bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine is an anti-epileptic drug that has been approved for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Epilepsy literature has indicated that lamotrigine has a reassuring safety profile in pregnancy but there is little information on its effectiveness and safety in pregnant women with mental disorders...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
K M Babchishin, M C Seto, A Sariaslan, P Lichtenstein, S Fazel, N Långström
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest parental and perinatal risk factors are associated with later offending. It remains uncertain, however, if such risk factors are similarly related to sexual offending. METHOD: We linked socio-demographic, family relations, and perinatal (obtained at birth) data from the nationwide Swedish registers from 1973 to 2009 with information on criminal convictions of cases and control subjects. Male sex offenders (n = 13 773) were matched 1:5 on birth year and county of birth in Sweden to male controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Jeremy S Lum, Francesca Fernandez, Natalie Matosin, Jessica L Andrews, Xu-Feng Huang, Lezanne Ooi, Kelly A Newell
Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/mGluR5) play an integral role in neurodevelopment and are implicated in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. mGluR1 and mGluR5 are expressed as homodimers, which is important for their functionality and pharmacology. We examined the protein expression of dimeric and monomeric mGluR1α and mGluR5 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus throughout development (juvenile/adolescence/adulthood) and in the perinatal phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
C P Mboua, B A Nkoum, S P Abessouguié
In a setting such as Cameroon, where perinatal care offers few services for women with psychiatric problems during pregnancy, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, the development of the relational dimension of care may help prevent severe psychiatric disorders . This study evaluates the role of the relational dimension of perinatal and early postpartum care (providing perinatal counseling and a space to speak) on women with blues on the intermediate-term outcomes of decompensation, in view of the importance of the emotional issues occurring in the perinatal period...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Gracia Fellmeth, May May Oo, Billion Lay, Rose McGready
A young refugee woman attended antenatal clinic on the Thai-Myanmar border at 9 weeks' gestation. As part of an ongoing study of perinatal mental health, she underwent a structured psychiatric interview during which she described occasional depressed mood, anhedonia and passive suicidal ideation. Her husband was a young refugee known to use alcohol and drugs. 2 days later, the couple committed suicide together by herbicide ingestion. Refugee populations are at risk of developing mental disorders as a result of their marginalised status, socioeconomic disadvantage and exposures to trauma...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Nataša Karas Kuželički
Preclinical Research S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) is a major methyl donor and as such exerts its influence on CNS function through methylation reactions, such as methylation of several catecholamine moiety-containing neurotransmitters, epigenetic changes through methylation of DNA, RNA, RNA-binding proteins and histones, and phospholipid methylation. Based on available evidence, SAM is currently recommended as a next-step (second-line) treatment option following inadequate treatment response to a first-line antidepressant...
September 4, 2016: Drug Development Research
Laura Orsolini, Alessandro Valchera, Roberta Vecchiotti, Carmine Tomasetti, Felice Iasevoli, Michele Fornaro, Domenico De Berardis, Giampaolo Perna, Maurizio Pompili, Cesario Bellantuono
Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide has been considered a relatively rare event during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e., postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc.) have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers' mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
A Rohde, A Hocke, A Meurers, V Dorsch
BACKGROUND: Transition to parenthood is challenging but for women with a history of recurrent psychiatric disorders becoming a mother has a number of additional issues. Women with a history of mood disorders or psychoses are at increased risk for exacerbation in the vulnerable postpartum period and fear the potential risk of medication during pregnancy for the unborn child as much as they fear a relapse. In these difficult situations women and their families seek advice and support from mental health providers and obstetricians...
September 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Jessie I Lund, Kimberly L Day, Louis A Schmidt, Saroj Saigal, Ryan J Van Lieshout
The high prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) is concerning, particularly as survivors are at increased risk for multiple adverse outcomes, including poor mental health across the lifespan. Children born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000g) and who experience CSA may be a group that is especially vulnerable to psychopathology later in life. However, no research has considered the mental health risks associated with being born at ELBW and experiencing CSA. In this study, we investigated the mental health of 179 ELBW survivors and 145 matched normal birth weight (NBW; >2500g) participants at ages 22-26 and 29-36...
September 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Maji Hailemariam, Abebaw Fekadu, Medhin Selamu, Girmay Medhin, Martin Prince, Charlotte Hanlon
BACKGROUND: The provision of mental healthcare through integration into primary care is expected to improve access to care, but not all population groups may benefit equally. The aim of this study was to inform delivery of a new primary care-based mental health service in rural Ethiopia by identifying potential barriers to equitable access to mental healthcare and strategies to overcome them. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted as formative work for the PRogramme for Improving Mental healthcarE (PRIME), a project supporting delivery of mental healthcare integrated into primary care in a rural district in south central Ethiopia...
2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Leonardo Emberti Gialloreti, Arianna Benvenuto, Barbara Battan, Francesca Benassi, Paolo Curatolo
BACKGROUND: The clinical and pathogenetic heterogeneity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) limits our ability to predict its short- and long-term evolution. Aim of this naturalistic study was to observe the clinical evolution of very young children with ASD for 12 months after first diagnosis, in order to identify those children who might develop a more positive trajectory and understand how a wide range of biological, clinical and familial factors can influence prognosis. METHODS: Ninety-two children were characterized in terms of family history, prenatal and perinatal variables, and clinical conditions...
2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Ellen N Jopling, Sarosh Khalid-Khan, Shivani F Chandrakumar, Shira C Segal
With an estimated lifetime prevalence as high as 5.9% in the general population, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by marked impulsivity as well as difficulties in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects. The burden on the health care system is immense with BPD patients accounting for 10%-20% of the patients in mental health outpatient facilities and 15%-40% in mental health inpatient facilities. Further, while 75%-80% of BPD patients attempt to commit suicide, 10% succeed; this mortality rate exceeds even that of anorexia nervosa which, with a weighted mortality rate of 5...
July 21, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Philippe Leff-Gelman, Ismael Mancilla-Herrera, Mónica Flores-Ramos, Carlos Cruz-Fuentes, Juan Pablo Reyes-Grajeda, María Del Pilar García-Cuétara, Marielle Danitza Bugnot-Pérez, David Ellioth Pulido-Ascencio
Major depression during pregnancy is a common psychiatric disorder that arises from a complex and multifactorial etiology. Psychosocial stress, sex, hormones, and genetic vulnerability increase the risk for triggering mood disorders. Microglia and toll-like receptor 4 play a crucial role in triggering wide and varied stress-induced responses mediated through activation of the inflammasome; this leads to the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, increased serotonin metabolism, and reduction of neurotransmitter availability along with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity...
August 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Elin Næs Bertelsen, Janne Tidselbak Larsen, Liselotte Petersen, Jakob Christensen, Søren Dalsgaard
OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy, febrile seizures, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are disorders of the central nervous system and share common risk factors. Our goal was to examine the association in a nationwide cohort study with prospective follow-up and adjustment for selected confounders. We hypothesized that epilepsy and febrile seizures were associated with subsequent ADHD. METHODS: A population-based cohort of all children born in Denmark from 1990 through 2007 was followed up until 2012...
August 2016: Pediatrics
Dubravko Habek, Tatjana Dujaković, Jasna Cerkez Habek, Ivana Jurković
Results of the first research of this kind on the 23-year long-term outcome in children born during the war in Vukovar are presented. This retrospective clinical study surveyed the potential 23-year long-term consequences and morbidity of children born between May 1, 1991 and November 19, 1991, during the siege and occupation of Vukovar. Data were obtained from women having delivered their babies in that period and from delivery protocols of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vukovar County Hospital...
March 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
Diana Moura, Maria Cristina Canavarro, Margarida Figueiredo-Braga
Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common postnatal psychiatric disorder, and it represents a considerable problem to the health and well-being of women and their families. Several pathogenic mechanisms have been identified in PPD, and recently, oxytocin (OT), known to be involved in childbirth and lactation, has drawn attention as a possible diagnostic and therapeutic tool in this disorder. The aim of this review was to assess and summarize the current literature on the relationship between OT as a potential depressive biomarker and depression in the perinatal period...
August 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Rodrigo B Mansur, Graccielle R Cunha, Elson Asevedo, André Zugman, Lucas B Rizzo, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Mateus L Levandowski, Ary Gadelha, Pedro M Pan, Antônio L Teixeira, Roger S McIntyre, Jair J Mari, Luís A Rohde, Eurípedes C Miguel, Rodrigo A Bressan, Elisa Brietzke
There is consistent evidence that inflammation is involved in mental disorders pathogenesis. Herein, using data from the High Risk Cohort Study for Psychiatric Disorders, we investigated the relationship between parental mood disorders (PMD), environmental factors, serum interleukin-6 (IL6) and mental health problems in children aged 6-12. We measured the serum levels of IL6 in 567 children. Information related to socio-demographic characteristics, mental health problems and multiple risk factors, as well as parent's psychiatric diagnosis, was captured...
September 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Lucia Maltoni, Annio Posar, Antonia Parmeggiani
Continuous spike-waves during sleep (CSWS) are associated with several cognitive, neurological, and psychiatric disorders, which sometimes persist after CSWS disappearance. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the correlation between general (clinical and instrumental) and neuropsychological findings in CSWS, to identify variables that predispose patients to a poorer long-term neuropsychological outcome. Patients with spikes and waves during sleep with a frequency ≥25/min (spikes and waves frequency index - SWFI) were enrolled...
July 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
B Zupan, A Sharma, A Frazier, S Klein, M Toth
The developing fetus and neonate are highly sensitive to maternal environment. Besides the well-documented effects of maternal stress, nutrition and infections, maternal mutations, by altering the fetal, perinatal and/or early postnatal environment, can impact the behavior of genetically normal offspring. Mutation/premutation in the X-linked FMR1 (encoding the translational regulator FMRP) in females, although primarily responsible for causing fragile X syndrome (FXS) in their children, may also elicit such maternal effects...
July 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
J Jo Kim, Richard K Silver, Rita Elue, Marci G Adams, Laura M La Porte, Li Cai, Jong Bae Kim, Robert D Gibbons
We assessed differential item functioning (DIF) based on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) to examine how perinatal mood disorders differ from adult psychiatric disorders. The CAT-Mental Health (CAT-MH) was administered to 1614 adult psychiatric outpatients and 419 perinatal women with IRB approval. We examined individual item-level differences using logistic regression and overall score differences by scoring the perinatal data using the original bifactor model calibration based on the psychiatric sample data and a new bifactor model calibration based on the perinatal data and computing their correlation...
October 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
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