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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090570/targeted-inhibition-of-pancreatic-acinar-cell-calcineurin-is-a-novel-strategy-to-prevent-post-ercp-pancreatitis
#1
Abrahim I Orabi, Li Wen, Tanveer A Javed, Tianming Le, Ping Guo, Subramaniam Sanker, David Ricks, Kristy Boggs, John F Eisses, Carlos Castro, Xiangwei Xiao, Krishna Prasadan, Farzad Esni, George K Gittes, Sohail Z Husain
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is a pressing need to develop effective preventative therapies for post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). We demonstrated that early PEP events are induced through the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin and that global calcineurin deletion abolishes PEP in mice. A crucial question is whether acinar cell calcineurin controls the initiation of PEP in vivo. METHODS: We used a mouse model of PEP and examined the effects of in vivo acinar cell-specific calcineurin deletion by either generating a conditional knockout line or infusing a novel AAV-Ela-iCre into the pancreatic duct of a calcineurin floxed line...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062251/opioid-suppression-of-conditioned-anticipatory-brain-responses-to-breathlessness
#2
Anja Hayen, Vishvarani Wanigasekera, Olivia K Faull, Stewart F Campbell, Payashi S Garry, Simon J M Raby, Josephine Robertson, Ruth Webster, Richard G Wise, Mari Herigstad, Kyle T S Pattinson
Opioid painkillers are a promising treatment for chronic breathlessness, but are associated with potentially fatal side effects. In the treatment of breathlessness, their mechanisms of action are unclear. A better understanding might help to identify safer alternatives. Learned associations between previously neutral stimuli (e.g. stairs) and repeated breathlessness induce an anticipatory threat response that may worsen breathlessness, contributing to the downward spiral of decline seen in clinical populations...
January 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060528/-learning-can-improve-the-blood-glucose-control-performance-for-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Youqing Wang, Jinping Zhang, Fanmao Zeng, Na Wang, Xiaoping Chen, Bo Zhang, Dong Zhao, Wenying Yang, Claudio Cobelli
BACKGROUND: A learning-type artificial pancreas has been proposed to exploit the repetitive nature in the blood glucose dynamics. We clinically evaluated the efficacy of the learning-type artificial pancreas. METHODS: We conducted a pilot clinical study in 10 participants of mean age 36.1 years (standard deviation [SD] 12.7; range 16-58) with type 1 diabetes. Each trial was conducted for eight consecutive mornings. The first two mornings were open-loop to obtain the individualized parameters...
January 6, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060257/drug-induced-sleep-endoscopy-dise-with-target-controlled-infusion-tci-and-bispectral-analysis-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#4
Maximilian Traxdorf, Klaus Tschaikowsky, Claudia Scherl, Judith Bauer, Heinrich Iro, Florian Angerer
The aim of this study was to establish a standardized protocol for drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) to differentiate obstruction patterns in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Target-controlled infusion (TCI) of the sedative propofol was combined with real-time monitoring of the depth of sedation using bispectral analysis. In an observational study 57 patients (mean age 44.8 years, ± SD 10.5; mean apnea hypopnea Index (AHI) 30.8/hr, ± SD 21.6, mean BMI 28.2 kg/m(2), ± SD 5.3) underwent cardiorespiratory polysomnography followed by DISE with TCI and bispectral analysis...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059647/simulating-vasogenic-brain-edema-using-chronic-vegf-infusion
#5
Martin Piazza, Jeeva Munasinghe, Roger Murayi, Nancy Edwards, Blake Montgomery, Stuart Walbridge, Marsha Merrill, Prashant Chittiboina
OBJECTIVE To study peritumoral brain edema (PTBE), it is necessary to create a model that accurately simulates vasogenic brain edema (VBE) without introducing a complicated tumor environment. PTBE associated with brain tumors is predominantly a result of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by brain tumors, and VEGF infusion alone can lead to histological blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in the absence of tumor. VBE is intimately linked to BBB breakdown. The authors sought to establish a model for VBE with chronic infusion of VEGF that can be validated by serial in-vivo MRI and histological findings...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047827/su-c-204-01-a-dosimetric-investigation-into-the-effects-of-yttrium-90-radioembolization-on-the-gi-tract-in-vivo-and-histological-analysis-in-an-animal-model
#6
A Pasciak, L Nodit, A Bourgeois, B Paxton, A Arepally, Y Bradley
PURPOSE: In Yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization, non-target embolization (NTE) to the stomach or small bowel can result in ulceration, a rare but difficult to manage clinical complication. However, dosimetric thresholds for toxicity to these tissues from radioembolization have never been evaluated in a controlled setting. We performed an analysis of the effect of 90Y radioembolization in a porcine model at different absorbed-dose endpoints. METHODS: Under approval of the University of Tennessee IACUC, 6 female pigs were included in this study...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047017/su-c-204-07-radiation-therapy-as-a-potential-treatment-for-obesity-initial-data-from-a-preclinical-investigation
#7
A Pasciak, Y Bradley, L Nodit, A Bourgeois, B Paxton, A Arepally
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of Yttrium-90 (90Y) radionuclide therapy as a potential treatment for obesity in a porcine model. As the only appetite-stimulating hormone, localized targeting of ghrelin-producing X/A cells in the fundus of the stomach using 90Y may reduce serum ghrelin levels and decrease hunger. METHODS: Under approval of the University of Tennessee IACUC, 8 young female pigs aged 12-13 weeks and weighing 21.8-28.1 Kg were included in this study...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043149/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-producing-tnf%C3%AE-lack-inhibitory-effect-against-a375-experimental-lung-metastasis
#8
S Tyciakova, M Matuskova, R Bohovic, L Kucerova
Cell-based anticancer therapy using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) engineered to express therapeutic genes has a potential to target the cancer cells in vivo. Metastatic dissemination of melanoma remains a serious problem in the treatment. In our previous work we used MSCs overexpressing gene for tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα; MSCs/TNFα), and we achieved inhibition of melanoma xenograft growth when engineered MCSs/TNFα were coinjected with tumor cells subcutaneously. The TNFα as a pleiotropic cytokine induces apoptosis of tumor cells, creates "tumor resistant" microenvironment, enhances immune response and can have tumor destructive capacity in selected tumor types, especially in tumors of mesodermal origin...
January 3, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042054/design-and-rationale-of-heart-and-lung-failure-pediatric-insulin-titration-trial-half-pint-a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-tight-glycemic-control-in-hyperglycemic-critically-ill-children
#9
Michael Sd Agus, Ellie Hirshberg, Vijay Srinivasan, Edward Vincent Faustino, Peter M Luckett, Martha Aq Curley, Jamin Alexander, Lisa A Asaro, Kerry Coughlin-Wells, Donna Duva, Jaclyn French, Natalie Hasbani, Martha T Sisko, Carmen L Soto-Rivera, Garry Steil, David Wypij, Vinay M Nadkarni
OBJECTIVES: Test whether hyperglycemic critically ill children with cardiovascular and/or respiratory failure experience more ICU-free days when assigned to tight glycemic control with a normoglycemic versus hyperglycemic blood glucose target range. DESIGN: Multi-center randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Pediatric ICUs at 35 academic hospitals. PATIENTS: Children aged 2weeks to 17years receiving inotropic support and/or acute mechanical ventilation, excluding cardiac surgical patients...
December 30, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040234/-regulation-of-hypnosis-in-propofol-anesthesia-administration-based-on-non-linear-control-strategy
#10
Muhammad Ilyas, Ali Khaqan, Jamshed Iqbal, Raja Ali Riaz
Continuous adjustment of Propofol in manual delivery of anesthesia for conducting a surgical procedure overburdens the workload of an anesthetist who is working in a multi-tasking scenario. Going beyond manual administration and Target Controlled Infusion, closed-loop control of Propofol infusion has the potential to offer several benefits in terms of handling perturbations and reducing the effect of inter-patient variability. This paper proposes a closed-loop automated drug administration approach to control Depth Of Hypnosis in anesthesia...
December 28, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039619/labeling-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-with-quantum-dots-provides-stable-and-long-term-fluorescent-signal-for-ex-vivo-cell-tracking
#11
Clautina R M Costa, Matheus L T Feitosa, Dayseanny O Bezerra, Yulla K P Carvalho, Rodrigo F G Olivindo, Pablo B Fernando, Gustavo C Silva, Mirna L G Silva, Carlos E Ambrósio, Airton M Conde Júnior, Napoleão M Argolo Neto, Laís M Costa Silva, Maria A M Carvalho
Stem cells derived from adipose tissue (ADSC) have been used in cell therapy as an alternative to treat chronic and degenerative diseases. Using biomedical and image trials to track the cells when infused in the target tissue is essential to control cell migration and adhesion. The objective of the present study was to label and assess the adhesion of goat adipose tissue-derived stem cells (g-ADSC) after cell infusion in animal models by tracking luminescent intracytoplasmatic nanocrystals. The cells were labeled by using Qdots...
December 30, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034583/differential-hypertensive-protease-expression-in-the-thoracic-versus-abdominal-aorta
#12
Jean Marie Ruddy, Adam W Akerman, Denise Kimbrough, Elizabeth K Nadeau, Robert E Stroud, Rupak Mukherjee, John S Ikonomidis, Jeffrey A Jones
BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN), which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, can drive pathologic remodeling of the macro- and microcirculation. Patterns of aortic pathology differ, however, suggesting regional heterogeneity of the pressure-sensitive protease systems triggering extracellular matrix remodeling in the thoracic (TA) and abdominal aortas (AA). This study tested the hypothesis that the expression of two major protease systems (matrix metalloproteinases [MMPs] and cathepsins) in the TA and AA would be differentially affected with HTN...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027066/complementary-use-of-effect-site-target-controlled-infusion-and-smartpilot-view-for-anesthetic-management-in-semi-awake-craniotomy-near-bis-85
#13
Shimada Mai, Sugawara Ami, Kunisawa Takayuki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009824/chitosan-oligosaccharide-reduces-propofol-requirements-and-propofol-related-side-effects
#14
Zhiwen Li, Xige Yang, Xuesong Song, Haichun Ma, Ping Zhang
Propofol is one of the main sedatives but its negative side effects limit its clinical application. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a kind of natural product with anti-pain and anti-inflammatory activities, may be a potential adjuvant to propofol use. A total of 94 patients receiving surgeries were evenly and randomly assigned to two groups: 10 mg/kg COS oral administration and/or placebo oral administration before being injected with propofol. The target-controlled infusion of propofol was adjusted to maintain the values of the bispectral index at 50...
December 21, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008152/dysregulated-mir34a-diacylglycerol-kinase-%C3%AE-interaction-enhances-t-cell-activation-in-acquired-aplastic-anemia
#15
Yuan-Xin Sun, Hui Li, Qi Feng, Xin Li, Ying-Yi Yu, Li-Wei Zhou, Yan Gao, Guo-Sheng Li, Juan Ren, Chun-Hong Ma, Cheng-Jiang Gao, Jun Peng
Acquired aplastic anemia is an idiopathic paradigm of human bone marrow failure syndrome, which involves active destruction of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors by cytotoxic T cells in the bone marrow. Aberrant expression of microRNAs in T cells has been shown to lead to development of certain autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we performed a microarray analysis of miRNA expression in bone marrow CD3+ T cells from patients with aplastic anemia and healthy controls. Overexpression of miR34a and underexpression of its target gene diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) ζ in bone marrow mononuclear cells were validated in 41 patients and associated with the severity of aplastic anemia...
December 20, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007761/functional-%C3%AE-opioid-galanin-receptor-heteromers-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#16
Estefanía Moreno, César Quiroz, William Rea, Ning-Sheng Cai, Josefa Mallol, Antoni Cortés, Carme Lluís, Enric I Canela, Vicent Casadó, Sergi Ferré
: The neuropeptide galanin has been shown to interact with the opioid system. More specifically, galanin counteracts the behavioral effects of the systemic administration of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists. Yet the mechanism responsible for this galanin-opioid interaction has remained elusive. Using biophysical techniques in mammalian transfected cells we found evidence for selective heteromerization of MOR and the galanin receptor subtype Gal1 (Gal1R). Also in transfected cells, a synthetic peptide selectively disrupted MOR-Gal1R heteromerization as well as specific interactions between MOR and Gal1R ligands: a negative crosstalk, by which galanin counteracted MAPK activation induced by the endogenous MOR agonist endomorphin-1, and a cross-antagonism, by which a MOR antagonist counteracted MAPK activation induced by galanin...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995512/clevidipine-versus-nicardipine-for-acute-blood-pressure-reduction-in-a-neuroscience-intensive-care-population
#17
Jacqueline R Finger, Lisa M Kurczewski, Gretchen M Brophy
BACKGROUND: Currently, a lack of published literature exists regarding the use of clevidipine in the neuroscience population. This agent may be preferred in some patients because of its short half-life, potentially leading to more narrow blood pressure (BP) control in comparison with other agents. The purpose of this study was to compare the difference in time to achieve target systolic blood pressure (SBP) goals with clevidipine versus nicardipine infusions in patients admitted to the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) at our institution...
December 19, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987236/evaluation-of-the-counter-regulatory-responses-to-hypoglycemia-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-during-opiate-receptor-blockade-with-naltrexone
#18
Sarita Naik, Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, Anne-Sophie Sejling, Barbara Szepietowska, Robert S Sherwin
AIMS: Hypoglycemia is the major limiting factor in achieving optimal glycemic control in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), especially intensively treated patients with impaired glucose counterregulation during hypoglycemia. Naloxone, an opiate receptor blocker, has been reported to enhance the acute counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia when administered intravenously in humans. The current study was undertaken to investigate if the oral formulation of the long acting opiate antagonist, naltrexone, could have a similar effect, and thus might be useful therapeutically in T1DM patients with a high risk for hypoglycemia...
December 17, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986627/a-novel-and-selective-melanin-concentrating-hormone-receptor-1-antagonist-ameliorates-obesity-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-diet-induced-obese-rodent-models
#19
Yayoi Kawata, Shoki Okuda, Natsu Hotta, Hideyuki Igawa, Masashi Takahashi, Minoru Ikoma, Shizuo Kasai, Ayumi Ando, Yoshinori Satomi, Mayumi Nishida, Masaharu Nakayama, Syunsuke Yamamoto, Yasutaka Nagisa, Shiro Takekawa
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a cyclic neuropeptide expressed predominantly in the lateral hypothalamus, plays an important role in the control of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. Mice lacking MCH or MCH1 receptor are resistant to diet-induced obesity (DIO) and MCH1 receptor antagonists show potent anti-obesity effects in preclinical studies, indicating that MCH1 receptor is a promising target for anti-obesity drugs. Moreover, recent studies have suggested the potential of MCH1 receptor antagonists for treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
December 13, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981484/uric-acid-is-protective-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-hyperglycemic-mice
#20
Carles Justicia, Angélica Salas-Perdomo, Isabel Pérez-de-Puig, Lisette H Deddens, Geralda A F van Tilborg, Clara Castellví, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Ángel Chamorro, Anna M Planas
Hyperglycemia at stroke onset is associated with poor long-term clinical outcome in numerous studies. Hyperglycemia induces intracellular acidosis, lipid peroxidation, and peroxynitrite production resulting in the generation of oxidative and nitrosative stress in the ischemic tissue. Here, we studied the effects of acute hyperglycemia on in vivo intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, neutrophil recruitment, and brain damage after ischemia/reperfusion in mice and tested whether the natural antioxidant uric acid was protective...
December 15, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
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