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White matter AND disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527668/imaging-mass-spectrometry-ims-of-cortical-lipids-from-preclinical-to-severe-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
E Gónzalez de San Román, I Manuel, M T Giralt, I Ferrer, R Rodríguez-Puertas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of patients worldwide. Previous studies have demonstrated alterations in the lipid composition of lipid extracts from plasma and brain samples of AD patients. However, there is no consensus regarding the qualitative and quantitative changes of lipids in brains from AD patients. In addition, the recent developments in imaging mass spectrometry methods are leading to a new stage in the in situ analysis of lipid species in brain tissue slices from human postmortem samples...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527230/imaging-and-neuropsychological-correlates-of-white-matter-lesions-in-different-subtypes-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review
#2
Charlene L M Lam, Jenny Yiend, Tatia M C Lee
BACKGROUND: White matter lesions (WML) are prevalent in older adults. The association between WML and cognition in different subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is inconsistent in the literature. OBJECTVES: We aim to provide a systematic review on the impact of WML in different subtypes of MCI, and discuss the recent findings on white matter plasticity. METHODS: We reviewed peer-reviewed articles from January 2011 to August 2016 and identified 12 studies investigating the association between WML and subtypes of MCI with both neuroimaging and cognitive measures...
May 13, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524762/exosomes-promote-restoration-after-an-experimental-animal-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#3
Laura Otero-Ortega, Mari Carmen Gómez de Frutos, Fernando Laso-García, Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Esperanza Medina-Gutiérrez, Juan Antonio López, Jesús Vázquez, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Exosomes are gaining importance because they show great promise in therapeutic applications for several diseases. Particularly in stroke, exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy work as paracrine effectors responsible for promoting neurovascular remodeling and functional recovery. Adult male rats were subjected to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) by intrastriatal injection of collagenase type IV; 24 h after surgery, MSC-derived exosomes were administered through the tail vein. The rats were euthanized at 7 or 28 days after treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522962/alterations-in-cd200-cd200r1-system-during-eae-already-manifest-at-presymptomatic-stages
#4
Tony Valente, Joan Serratosa, Unai Perpiñá, Josep Saura, Carme Solà
In the brain of patients with multiple sclerosis, activated microglia/macrophages appear in active lesions and in normal appearing white matter. However, whether they play a beneficial or a detrimental role in the development of the pathology remains a controversial issue. The production of pro-inflammatory molecules by chronically activated microglial cells is suggested to contribute to the progression of neurodegenerative processes in neurological disease. In the healthy brain, neurons control glial activation through several inhibitory mechanisms, such as the CD200-CD200R1 interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518039/central-nervous-system-brucellosis-granuloma-and-white-matter-disease-in-immunocompromised-patient
#5
Mohammed Alqwaifly, Fahad S Al-Ajlan, Hindi Al-Hindi, Abdulaziz Al Semari
Brucellosis is a multisystem zoonotic disease. We report an unusual case of neurobrucellosis with seizures in an immunocompromised patient in Saudi Arabia who underwent renal transplantation. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed diffuse white matter lesions. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for Brucella sp. Granuloma was detected in a brain biopsy specimen.
June 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516805/mesial-temporal-lobe-and-subcortical-grey-matter-volumes-differentially-predict-memory-across-stages-of-multiple-sclerosis
#6
James F Sumowski, Victoria M Leavitt, Maria A Rocca, Matilde Inglese, Gianna Riccitelli, Korhan Buyukturkoglu, Alessandro Meani, Massimo Filippi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Memory deficits due to multiple sclerosis (MS) have been variably linked to lower subcortical grey matter (SCGM) and mesial temporal lobe (MTL) volumes. We investigated which is the better predictor and whether this changes across disease stages. METHODS/RESULTS: Memory was assessed in 315 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured volumes of total brain, grey matter, white matter, MTL (hippocampus, amygdala) and SCGM (thalamus, caudate)...
May 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516076/primary-central-nervous-system-vasculitis-mimicking-a-cortical-brain-tumor-a-case-report
#7
Joo-Seok Lee, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Seul-Kee Kim
We report a case of primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) mimicking a cortical brain tumor. A 25-year-old woman presented with a 2-week history of headache and transient right hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cortical-involving lesion on the left frontal lobe. The 6-cm sized lesion showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The lesion had continual linear enhancement on the subcortical white matter and leptomeninges...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515266/total-small-vessel-disease-score-and-risk-of-recurrent-stroke-validation-in-2-large-cohorts
#8
Kui Kai Lau, Linxin Li, Ursula Schulz, Michela Simoni, Koon Ho Chan, Shu Leong Ho, Raymond Tak Fai Cheung, Wilhelm Küker, Henry Ka Fung Mak, Peter M Rothwell
OBJECTIVE: In patients with TIA and ischemic stroke, we validated the total small vessel disease (SVD) score by determining its prognostic value for recurrent stroke. METHODS: Two independent prospective studies were conducted, one comprising predominantly Caucasian patients with TIA/ischemic stroke (Oxford Vascular Study [OXVASC]) and one predominantly Chinese patients with ischemic stroke (University of Hong Kong [HKU]). Cerebral MRI was performed and assessed for lacunes, microbleeds, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and perivascular spaces (PVS)...
May 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507511/distribution-of-elovl4-in-the-developing-and-adult-mouse-brain
#9
David M Sherry, Blake R Hopiavuori, Megan A Stiles, Negar S Rahman, Kathryn G Ozan, Ferenc Deak, Martin-Paul Agbaga, Robert E Anderson
ELOngation of Very Long chain fatty acids (ELOVL)-4 is essential for the synthesis of very long chain-fatty acids (fatty acids with chain lengths ≥ 28 carbons). The functions of ELOVL4 and its very long-chain fatty acid products are poorly understood at present. However, mutations in ELOVL4 cause neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative diseases that vary according to the mutation and inheritance pattern. Heterozygous inheritance of different ELOVL4 mutations causes Stargardt-like Macular Dystrophy or Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 34...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507268/teaching-neuroimages-prominent-spinal-cord-atrophy-and-white-matter-changes-in-adult-polyglucosan-body-disease
#10
A Sebastian López Chiriboga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505975/reduced-cardiovascular-functions-in%C3%A2-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Wang-Sheng Jin, Xian-Le Bu, Ye-Ran Wang, Ling Li, Wei-Wei Li, Yu-Hui Liu, Chi Zhu, Xiu-Qing Yao, Yang Chen, Chang-Yue Gao, Tao Zhang, Chang-Yue Gao, Hua-Dong Zhou, Fan Zeng, Yan-Jiang Wang
Previous studies have suggested that cardiovascular functions might play a critical role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. However, the relationship among heart function, blood flow of cerebral vessels, and AD remains unclear. In the present study, AD patients (n = 34) and age- and gender-matched cognitively normal controls (n = 34) were recruited. Comorbidity information was collected. The ejection fraction was measured using echocardiography, and the mean velocity, pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI) of the basilar artery (BA), left terminal internal carotid artery (LTICA), and right terminal internal carotid artery (RTICA) were measured using transcranial Doppler...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503735/wdr45b-related-intellectual-disability-spastic-quadriplegia-epilepsy-and-cerebral-hypoplasia-a-consistent-neurodevelopmental-syndrome
#12
Jehan Suleiman, Diane Allingham-Hawkins, Mais Hashem, Hanan Shamseddin, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Ayman W El-Hattab
The advancement in genomic sequencing has greatly improved the diagnostic yield for neurodevelopmental disorders and led to the discovery of large number of novel genes associated with these disorders. WDR45B has been identified as a potential intellectual disability gene through genomic sequencing of two large cohorts of affected individuals. In this report we present six individuals from three unrelated families with homozygous pathogenic variants in WDR45B: c.799C>T (p.Q267*) in one family and c.673C>T (p...
May 14, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503567/cognitive-impairment-in-chronic-kidney-disease-vascular-milieu-and-the-potential-therapeutic-role-of-exercise
#13
REVIEW
Ulf G Bronas, Houry Puzantian, Mary Hannan
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered a model of accelerated aging. More specifically, CKD leads to reduced physical functioning and increased frailty, increased vascular dysfunction, vascular calcification and arterial stiffness, high levels of systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress, as well as increased cognitive impairment. Increasing evidence suggests that the cognitive impairment associated with CKD may be related to cerebral small vessel disease and overall impairment in white matter integrity...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503323/severe-cervical-flexion-myelopathy-with-long-tract-signs-a-case-report-and-a-review-of-literature
#14
Takahito Fujimori, Akiko Tamura, Toshitada Miwa, Motoki Iwasaki, Takenori Oda
INTRODUCTION: Hirayama disease, a type of cervical flexion myelopathy, is a rare neurological disease characterized by muscular atrophy of the forearms and hands. Generally, the pathology is limited to the gray matter of the anterior horns in the lower cervical spinal cord. However, in rare cases the damage can spread to the white matter and present as long tract signs. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 30-year-old female whose onset presented as unilateral muscle atrophy of the right hand in her teens...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500648/bergmann-glia-translocation-a-new-disease-marker-for-vanishing-white-matter-identifies-therapeutic-effects-of-guanabenz-treatment
#15
Stephanie Dooves, Marianna Bugiani, Lisanne Wisse, Truus E M Abbink, Marjo S van der Knaap, Vivi M Heine
Vanishing White Matter (VWM) is a devastating leukoencephalopathy without effective treatment options. Patients have mutations in the EIF2B1-5 genes, encoding the five subunits of eIF2B, a guanine exchange factor that is an important regulator of protein translation. We recently developed mouse models for VWM that replicate the human disease. To study disease improvement after treatment in these mice it is essential to have sensitive biomarkers related to disease stage. The Bergmann glia of the cerebellum, an astrocytic subpopulation, translocate into the molecular layer in symptomatic VWM mice and patients...
May 13, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498826/divergent-influences-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factor-domains-on-cognition-grey-and-white-matter-morphology
#16
Mitzi M Gonzales, Olusola Ajilore, Rebecca C Charlton, Jamie Cohen, Shaolin Yang, Erica Sieg, Dulal K Bhaumik, Anand Kumar, Melissa Lamar
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity are associated with preclinical alterations in cognition and brain structure; however, this often comes from studies of comprehensive risk scores or single isolated factors. We examined associations of empirically-derived cardiovascular disease risk factor domains with cognition and brain structure. METHODS: 124 adults (age~59.8±13.1;41% African American;50% women) underwent neuropsychological and cardiovascular assessments and structural MRI...
January 16, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498794/diagnosis-of-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-use-of-traditional-measures-in-the-era-of-volumetric-mr-imaging
#17
Nityanand Miskin, Hersh Patel, Ana M Franceschi, Benjamin Ades-Aron, Alexander Le, Brianna E Damadian, Christian Stanton, Yafell Serulle, James Golomb, Oded Gonen, Henry Rusinek, Ajax E George
Purpose To assess the diagnostic performance of the callosal angle (CA) and Evans index (EI) measures and to determine their role versus automated volumetric methods in clinical radiology. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) examinations performed before surgery (within 1-5 months of the MR examination) in 36 shunt-responsive patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH; mean age, 75 years; age range, 58-87 years; 26 men, 10 women) and MR examinations of age- and sex-matched patients with Alzheimer disease (n = 34) and healthy control volunteers (n = 36) were studied...
May 10, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495946/neuroimaging-changes-in-menkes-disease-part-1
#18
REVIEW
R Manara, L D'Agata, M C Rocco, R Cusmai, E Freri, L Pinelli, F Darra, E Procopio, R Mardari, C Zanus, G Di Rosa, C Soddu, M Severino, M Ermani, D Longo, S Sartori
Menkes disease is a rare multisystem X-linked disorder of copper metabolism. Despite an early, severe, and progressive neurologic involvement, our knowledge of brain involvement remains unsatisfactory. The first part of this retrospective and review MR imaging study aims to define the frequency rate, timing, imaging features, and evolution of intracranial vascular and white matter changes. According to our analysis, striking but also poorly evolutive vascular abnormalities characterize the very early phases of disease...
May 11, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495831/clinical-correlates-ethnic-differences-and-prognostic-implications-of-perivascular-spaces-in-transient-ischemic-attack-and-ischemic-stroke
#19
Kui-Kai Lau, Linxin Li, Caroline E Lovelock, Giovanna Zamboni, Tsz-Tai Chan, Man-Fung Chiang, Kin-Ting Lo, Wilhelm Küker, Henry Ka-Fung Mak, Peter M Rothwell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perivascular spaces (PVSs) are considered markers of small vessel disease. However, their long-term prognostic implications in transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke patients are unknown. Ethnic differences in PVS prevalence are also unknown. METHODS: Two independent prospective studies were conducted, 1 comprising predominantly whites with transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke (OXVASC [Oxford Vascular] study) and 1 comprising predominantly Chinese with ischemic stroke (University of Hong Kong)...
May 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495143/central-and-peripheral-nervous-system-immune-mediated-demyelinating-disease-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
M I Stefanou, F Bischof
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate clinical and diagnostic features of central and peripheral immune-mediated demyelinating disease (CPID) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) recipients. BACKGROUND: CPID refers to the late-onset, immune-mediated neurological complications following aHSCT, when other frequent differential diagnoses have been ruled out, and when symptoms and signs of systemic GvHD manifestations are absent. METHODS: Case records at the University of Tuebingen, between 2001 and 2015, were screened to identify patients with CPID after aHSCT...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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