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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090600/learning-based-3t-brain-mri-segmentation-with-guidance-from-7t-mri-labeling
#1
Renping Yu, Minghui Deng, Pew-Thian Yap, Zhihui Wei, Li Wang, Dinggang Shen
Brain magnetic resonance image segmentation is one of the most important tasks in medical image analysis and has considerable importance to the effective use of medical imagery in clinical and surgical setting. In particular, the tissue segmentation of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is crucial for brain measurement and disease diagnosis. A variety of studies have shown that the learning-based techniques are efficient and effective in brain tissue segmentation. However, the learning-based segmentation methods depend largely on the availability of good training labels...
October 2016: Machine Learning in Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089760/enhanced-long-term-brain-mri-evaluation-of-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-following-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#2
Nancy S Green, Monica Bhatia, Erica Y Griffith, Mahvish Qureshi, Courtney Briamonte, Mirko Savone, Stephen Sands, Margaret T Lee, Angela Lignelli, Adam M Brickman
Progressive neurovasculopathy in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) results in decreased cognitive function and quality of life (QoL). Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is believed to halt progression of neurovasculopathy. Quantitative analysis of T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI for white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden provides a meaningful estimate of small vessel cerebrovascular disease. We asked if quantitative analysis of WMH could complement standardized clinical assessment of MRI/MRA for assessing SCD CNS vasculopathy pre- and post-HCT...
January 9, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088807/posterior-versus-anterior-circulation-stroke-in-young-adults-a-comparative-study-of-stroke-aetiologies-and-risk-factors-in-stroke-among-young-fabry-patients-sifap1
#3
Bettina von Sarnowski, Ulf Schminke, Ulrike Grittner, Christian Tanislav, Tobias Böttcher, Michael G Hennerici, Turgut Tatlisumak, Jukka Putaala, Manfred Kaps, Franz Fazekas, Christian Enzinger, Arndt Rolfs, Christof Kessler
BACKGROUND: Although 20-30% of all strokes occur in the posterior circulation, few studies have explored the characteristics of patients with strokes in the posterior compared to the anterior circulation so far. Especially data on young patients is missing. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of data of the prospective multi-centre European sifap1 study that investigated stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients aged 18-55 years, we compared vascular risk factors, stroke aetiology, presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cerebral microbleeds (CMB) between patients with ischaemic posterior circulation stroke (PCS) and those having suffered from anterior circulation stroke (ACS) based on cerebral MRI...
January 14, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087439/cerebrovascular-heterogeneity-and-neuronal-excitability
#4
REVIEW
Laura Librizzi, Marco de Curtis, Damir Janigro, Leonie Runtz, Frederic deBock, Emmanuel L Barbier, Nicola Marchi
The cerebral vasculature is a complex tridimensional network of arterial and venous vessels which are anatomically in proximity of and functionally coupled to neurons. Depending on the cellular composition of the vascular wall and its anatomical arrangement, cerebral vessels control regional blood flow, define interstitial homeostasis or cerebrospinal fluid circulation and influence immune cell patrolling. Pathological deviations from these functions promote or are a consequence of brain diseases, directly impacting neuronal firing...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086920/absence-of-system-xc-on-immune-cells-invading-the-central-nervous-system-alleviates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalitis
#5
Ellen Merckx, Giulia Albertini, Magdalena Paterka, Cathy Jensen, Philipp Albrecht, Michael Dietrich, Joeri Van Liefferinge, Eduard Bentea, Lise Verbruggen, Thomas Demuyser, Lauren Deneyer, Jan Lewerenz, Geert van Loo, Jacques De Keyser, Hideyo Sato, Pamela Maher, Axel Methner, Ann Massie
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS), leading to neurodegeneration and chronic disability. Accumulating evidence points to a key role for neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity in this degenerative process. System xc(-) or the cystine/glutamate antiporter could tie these pathological mechanisms together: its activity is enhanced by reactive oxygen species and inflammatory stimuli, and its enhancement might lead to the release of toxic amounts of glutamate, thereby triggering excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078314/onset-of-secondary-progressive-ms-after-long-term-rituximab-therapy-a-case-report
#6
H-Christian von Büdingen, Antje Bischof, Erica L Eggers, Shengzhi Wang, Carolyn J Bevan, Bruce A C Cree, Roland G Henry, Stephen L Hauser
A patient with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS) was treated with a standard immunomodulatory therapy, but due to ongoing disease activity was switched to rituximab. Relapses ceased, but secondary progressive MS (SPMS) eventually appeared, associated with new focal spinal cord white matter lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed persistent oligoclonal bands (OCB) and clonally related B cells in CSF and peripheral blood. The treatment escalation approach failed to prevent evolution to SPMS, raising the question of whether initiation of B-cell depleting therapy at the time of RMS diagnosis should be tested to more effectively address the immune pathology leading to SPMS...
January 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078310/polg2-deficiency-causes-adult-onset-syndromic-sensory-neuropathy-ataxia-and-parkinsonism
#7
Lionel Van Maldergem, Arnaud Besse, Boel De Paepe, Emma L Blakely, Vivek Appadurai, Margaret M Humble, Juliette Piard, Kate Craig, Langping He, Pierre Hella, François-Guillaume Debray, Jean-Jacques Martin, Marion Gaussen, Patrice Laloux, Giovanni Stevanin, Rudy Van Coster, Robert W Taylor, William C Copeland, Eric Mormont, Penelope E Bonnen
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as ataxia and Parkinson's disease. We describe an extended Belgian pedigree where seven individuals presented with adult-onset cerebellar ataxia, axonal peripheral ataxic neuropathy, and tremor, in variable combination with parkinsonism, seizures, cognitive decline, and ophthalmoplegia. We sought to identify the underlying molecular etiology and characterize the mitochondrial pathophysiology of this neurological syndrome...
January 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077719/suppressing-n-acetyl-l-aspartate-synthesis-prevents-loss-of-neurons-in-a-murine-model-of-canavan-leukodystrophy
#8
Jiho Sohn, Peter Bannerman, Fuzheng Guo, Travis Burns, Laird Miers, Christopher Croteau, Naveen K Singhal, Jennifer A McDonough, David Pleasure
: Canavan disease is a leukodystrophy caused by aspartoacylase (ASPA) deficiency. The lack of functional ASPA, an enzyme enriched in oligodendroglia that cleaves N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA) to acetate and l-aspartic acid, elevates brain NAA and causes "spongiform" vacuolation of superficial brain white matter and neighboring gray matter. In children with Canavan disease, neuroimaging shows early-onset dysmyelination and progressive brain atrophy. Neuron loss has been documented at autopsy in some cases...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076020/structure-of-the-medullary-veins-of-the-cerebral-hemisphere-and-related-disorders
#9
Toshiaki Taoka, Akio Fukusumi, Toshiteru Miyasaka, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiki Nakane, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Shinji Naganawa
Deep medullary veins drain into subependymal veins with four convergence zones and show parallel distribution patterns adjacent to the body or inferior horn and a radial pattern in the frontal horn or trigon of the lateral ventricle. As white matter imaging develops such as diffusion tensor imaging or susceptibility-weighted imaging, requirements for understanding of white matter structures are increasing, not only for understanding of neuronal tracts but also for that of other structures including the fine anatomy of white matter vessels...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074323/changes-in-cerebral-metabolism-during-ketogenic-diet-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-1-h-mrs-study
#10
Moran Artzi, Gilad Liberman, Nachum Vaisman, Felix Bokstein, Faina Vitinshtein, Orna Aizenstein, Dafna Ben Bashat
Normal brain cells depend on glucose metabolism, yet they have the flexibility to switch to the usage of ketone bodies during caloric restriction. In contrast, tumor cells lack genomic and metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose. Ketogenic-diet (KD) was suggested as a therapeutic option for malignant brain cancer. This study aimed to detect metabolic brain changes in patients with malignant brain gliomas on KD using proton magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Fifty MR scans were performed longitudinally in nine patients: four patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GB) treated with KD in addition to bevacizumab; one patient with gliomatosis-cerebri treated with KD only; and four patients with recurrent GB who did not receive KD...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073935/brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-younger-adults-in-growth-hormone-receptor-deficient-humans
#11
Kaoru Nashiro, Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Meredith N Braskie, George W Hafzalla, Rico Velasco, Priya Balasubramian, Min Wei, Paul M Thompson, Mara Mather, Marvin D Nelson, Alexandra Guevara, Enrique Teran, Valter D Longo
: Growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD) results in short stature, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and low circulating levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Previous studies in mice and humans suggested that GHRD has protective effects against age-related diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Whereas GHRD mice show improved age-dependent cognitive performance, the effect of GHRD on human cognition remains unknown. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we compared brain structure, function, and connectivity between 13 people with GHRD and 12 unaffected relatives...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073491/gray-matter-neuritic-microstructure-deficits-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#12
Arash Nazeri, Benoit H Mulsant, Tarek K Rajji, Melissa L Levesque, Jon Pipitone, Laura Stefanik, Saba Shahab, Tina Roostaei, Anne L Wheeler, Sofia Chavez, Aristotle N Voineskos
BACKGROUND: Postmortem studies have demonstrated considerable dendritic pathologies among persons with schizophrenia and to some extent among those with bipolar I disorder. Modeling gray matter (GM) microstructural properties is now possible with a recently proposed diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging modeling technique: neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging. This technique may bridge the gap between neuroimaging and histopathological findings. METHODS: We performed an extended series of multishell diffusion-weighted imaging and other structural imaging series using 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
December 8, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071826/gat-1-mediated-gaba-uptake-in-rat-oligodendrocytes
#13
Giorgia Fattorini, Marcello Melone, María Victoria Sánchez-Gómez, Rogelio O Arellano, Silvia Bassi, Carlos Matute, Fiorenzo Conti
Stimulated by the results of a recent paper on the effects of tiagabine, a selective inhibitor of the main GABA transporter GAT-1, on oligodendrogenesis, we verified the possibility that GAT-1 may be expressed in oligodendrocytes using immunocytochemical methods and functional assays. Light microscopic analysis of the subcortical white matter of all animals revealed the presence of numerous GAT-1+ cells of different size (from 3 to 29 µm) and morphology. An electron microscope analysis revealed that, besides fibrous astrocytes and interstitial neurons, GAT-1 immunoreactivity was present in immature and mature oligodendrocytes...
January 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069095/deficits-in-social-cognition-an-unveiled-signature-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Moussa A Chalah, Samar S Ayache
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, representing the primary cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults. Cognitive dysfunction can affect patients at any time during the disease process and might alter the six core functional domains. Social cognition is a multi-component construct that includes the theory of mind, empathy and social perception of emotions from facial, bodily and vocal cues...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067183/hippocampal-and-entorhinal-structures-in-subjective-memory-impairment-a-combined-mri-volumetric-and-dti-study
#15
Seon Young Ryu, Eun Ye Lim, Seunghee Na, Yong Soo Shim, Jung Hee Cho, Bora Yoon, Yun Jeong Hong, Dong Won Yang
BACKGROUND: Subjective memory impairment (SMI) is common among older adults. Increasing evidence suggests that SMI is a risk factor for future cognitive decline, as well as for mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Medial temporal lobe structures, including the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, are affected in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. The current study examined the gray matter (GM) volume and microstructural changes of hippocampal and entorhinal regions in individuals with SMI, compared with elderly control participants without memory complaints...
January 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066709/alterations-of-white-matter-structural-networks-in-patients-with-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-identified-by-probabilistic-tractography-and-connectivity-based-analyses
#16
Man Xu, Xiangliang Tan, Xinyuan Zhang, Yihao Guo, Yingjie Mei, Qianjin Feng, Yikai Xu, Yanqiu Feng
PURPOSE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory female-predominant autoimmune disease that can affect the central nervous system and exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In SLE patients without neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE), recent diffusion tensor imaging studies showed white matter abnormalities in their brains. The present study investigated the entire brain white matter structural connectivity in non-NPSLE patients by using probabilistic tractography and connectivity-based analyses...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066707/longitudinal-changes-in-microstructural-white-matter-metrics-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Chantel D Mayo, Erin L Mazerolle, Lesley Ritchie, John D Fisk, Jodie R Gawryluk
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Current avenues of AD research focus on pre-symptomatic biomarkers that will assist with early diagnosis of AD. The majority of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based biomarker research to date has focused on neuronal loss in grey matter and there is a paucity of research on white matter. METHODS: Longitudinal DTI data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2 database were used to examine 1) the within-group microstructural white matter changes in individuals with AD and healthy controls at baseline and year one; and 2) the between-group microstructural differences in individuals with AD and healthy controls at both time points...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065579/roles-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-il-10-in-virus-induced-demyelination
#18
REVIEW
Stanley Perlman, Jingxian Zhao
Neurotropic viruses are important causes of morbidity and mortality in human populations. Some of these viruses preferentially infect oligodendrocytes in the white matter, causing either direct lysis of infected cells, or more commonly myelin damage as a consequence of the host immune response to the virus. Virus-induced demyelination has similarities to the human disease multiple sclerosis. To study this disease process in experimental animals, mice are infected, most commonly, with neurotropic strains of mouse hepatitis virus, a coronavirus or Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis, a picornavirus...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064170/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-brain-volumes-in-men-and-women-in-the-finger-study
#19
Heikki Pentikäinen, Tiia Ngandu, Yawu Liu, Kai Savonen, Pirjo Komulainen, Merja Hallikainen, Miia Kivipelto, Rainer Rauramaa, Hilkka Soininen
BACKGROUND: high cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with larger brain volumes but data on sex differences in the association of CRF with brain volumes are scarce. We investigated whether the association of CRF with total grey matter (GM) and white matter volumes as well as medial temporal lobe and striatum volumes is different between men and women at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: we used baseline data from The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) in which the inclusion criteria were set to select individuals with cognitive performance at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age according to Finnish population norms...
January 6, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063772/white-matter-hyperintensity-associations-with-cerebral-blood-flow-in-elderly-subjects-stratified-by-cerebrovascular-risk
#20
Ahmed A Bahrani, David K Powell, Guoquiang Yu, Eleanor S Johnson, Gregory A Jicha, Charles D Smith
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. METHODS: Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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