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White matter AND disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646350/abnormal-rich-club-organization-associated-with-compromised-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-their-unaffected-parents
#1
Xin Zhao, Lin Tian, Jun Yan, Weihua Yue, Hao Yan, Dai Zhang
Schizophrenia is considered to be a disorder of brain connectivity, which might result from a disproportionally impaired rich-club organization. The rich-club is composed of highly interconnected hub regions that play crucial roles in integrating information between different brain regions. Few studies have yet investigated whether the structural rich-club organization is impaired in patients and their first-degree relatives. In this study, we established a weighted network model of white matter connections using diffusion tensor imaging of 19 patients and 39 unaffected parents, 22 young healthy controls for the patients, and 25 old healthy controls for the parents...
June 23, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645128/-headache-news
#2
Hans-Christoph Diener, Charly Gaul, Dagny Holle-Lee, Lazaros Lazaridis, Steffen Nägel, Mark Obermann
A review of the latest and most relevant information on different disorders of head and facial pain is presented. News from epidemiologic studies regarding the relationship between migraine and patent foramen ovale, the cardiovascular risk in migraine, and migraine behavior during menopause, and the development of white matter lesions or migraine genetics are presented. Regarding pathophysiology there are very recent insights regarding the role of the hypothalamus during prodromal phase and the interplay of brain-stem and hypothalamus during the attack...
June 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644999/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-cingulum-bundle-and-corpus-callosum-in-schizophrenia-vs-bipolar-disorder
#3
Igor Nenadić, Anna Hoof, Maren Dietzek, Kerstin Langbein, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Heinrich Sauer, Daniel Güllmar
Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show abnormalities of white matter, as seen in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses of major brain fibre bundles. While studies in each of the two conditions have indicated possible overlap in anatomical location, there are few direct comparisons between the disorders. Also, it is unclear whether phenotypically similar subgroups (e.g. patients with bipolar disorder and psychotic features) might share white matter pathologies or be rather similar. Using region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T, we analysed fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the corpus callosum and cingulum bundle in 33 schizophrenia patients, 17 euthymic (previously psychotic) bipolar disorder patients, and 36 healthy controls...
May 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644998/olfactory-identification-deficit-predicts-white-matter-tract-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Matthew R Woodward, Michael G Dwyer, Niels Bergsland, Jesper Hagemeier, Robert Zivadinov, Ralph Hb Benedict, Kinga Szigeti
Olfactory identification deficit (OID) has been associated with both aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the context of an amnestic disorders, OID predicts conversion to AD. Neuroanatomical correlates could increase specificity and sensitivity and elucidate the mechanistic differences between OID in AD and aging. Cross-sectional analysis of white matter microstructural changes was performed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based-spatial-statistics in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), AD and normal controls (NC) in 66 subjects (26 AD, 15 aMCI, 25 NC)...
June 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643955/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-normal-appearing-white-matter-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-and-multiple-sclerosis
#5
S-H Kim, K Kwak, J-W Hyun, A Joung, S H Lee, Y-H Choi, J-M Lee, H J Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The occult changes in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were investigated and compared amongst patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HCs) by applying tract-based spatial statistics to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging was performed with a 3-T scanner in 93 patients with NMOSD, 53 patients with MS and 43 HCs. Voxel-wise statistical analyses of the DTI data were performed using tract-based spatial statistics...
July 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641772/susac-syndrome-a-differential-diagnosis-of-white-matter-lesions
#6
Mariano Marrodan, Jorge Correale, Lucas Alessandro, Mariela Amaya, Maria Eugenia Fracaro, Alejandro Alfredo Köhler, Marcela Fiol
INTRODUCTION: Susac Syndrome is an autoimmune endotheliopathy affecting capillaries and precapillary arterioles of the brain, inner ear and retina. The classic symptom triad includes visual disturbances, hypoacusia, and encephalopathy, but is rarely fully manifest at onset. The syndrome typically follows an active fluctuating monophasic course. Typical imaging findings on brain magnetic resonance show central fiber microischemias/microinfarctions of the corpus callosum known as "snow balls", as well as lineal infarcts and upper callosal fiber involvement...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640803/brain-network-eigenmodes-provide-a-robust-and-compact-representation-of-the-structural-connectome-in-health-and-disease
#7
Maxwell B Wang, Julia P Owen, Pratik Mukherjee, Ashish Raj
Recent research has demonstrated the use of the structural connectome as a powerful tool to characterize the network architecture of the brain and potentially generate biomarkers for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In particular, the anatomic embedding of the edges of the cerebral graph have been postulated to elucidate the relative importance of white matter tracts to the overall network connectivity, explaining the varying effects of localized white matter pathology on cognition and behavior. Here, we demonstrate the use of a linear diffusion model to quantify the impact of these perturbations on brain connectivity...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638987/leukodystrophies-a-proposed-classification-system-based-on-pathological-changes-and-pathogenetic-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Marjo S van der Knaap, Marianna Bugiani
Leukodystrophies are genetically determined disorders characterized by the selective involvement of the central nervous system white matter. Onset may be at any age, from prenatal life to senescence. Many leukodystrophies are degenerative in nature, but some only impair white matter function. The clinical course is mostly progressive, but may also be static or even improving with time. Progressive leukodystrophies are often fatal, and no curative treatment is known. The last decade has witnessed a tremendous increase in the number of defined leukodystrophies also owing to a diagnostic approach combining magnetic resonance imaging pattern recognition and next generation sequencing...
June 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638692/a-report-of-three-cases-with-lupus-myelitis
#9
Hiroshi Oiwa, Toru Yamabe, Masanori Kawashima, Yuta Maetani, Dai Agari, Takemori Yamawaki, Eiji Sugiyama
Lupus myelitis (LM) is a rare but serious complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In 2009, Birnbaum et al. suggested that LM could be classified into two subtypes, namely gray and white matter myelitis, based on neurological examination findings. Here we describe three cases of this disorder, one with signs of white matter dysfunction and two with signs of gray matter dysfunction. We discuss the potential role of autoantibodies in the development of LM.
June 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637381/role-of-caspase-3-mediated-apoptosis-in-chronic-caspase-3-cleaved-tau-accumulation-and-blood-brain-barrier-damage-in-the-corpus-callosum-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#10
Olena Glushakova, Andriy O Glushakov, Cesar Borlongan, Alex Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a significant risk factor for development of neurodegenerative disorders such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), and Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Chronic TBI is associated with several pathological features that are also characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, including tau pathologies, caspase-3-mediated apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and microvascular alterations. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes following TBI in cleaved-caspase-3 and caspase-3-cleaved tau truncated at Asp421 and their relationships to cellular markers potentially associated with inflammation and blood-brain (BBB) barrier damage...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635875/-disturbances-of-gait-and-postural-stability-in-chronic-cerebral-ischemia
#11
N N Vakhnina, V V Zakharov
Disturbances of gait and postural stability are characteristic of the chronic progressive vascular lesion of the brain observed in moderate to severe stages of cerebrovascular disease. Disconnections between the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum due to the damage of the white matter (vascular leukoencephalopathy) underlie disturbances of gait and postural stability (shorter stride length, wider gait). There are difficulties in starting with possible stoppings during the walking, waiting in front of small barriers as well as difficulties in concentration (e...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630661/intrainsular-connectivity-and-somatosensory-responsiveness-in-young-children-with-asd
#12
Michelle D Failla, Brittany R Peters, Haleh Karbasforoushan, Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Kimberly B Schauder, Brynna H Heflin, Carissa J Cascio
BACKGROUND: The human somatosensory system comprises dissociable paths for discriminative and affective touch, reflected in separate peripheral afferent populations and distinct cortical targets. Differences in behavioral and neural responses to affective touch may have an important developmental role in early social experiences, which are relevant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Using probabilistic tractography, we compared the structural integrity of white matter pathways for discriminative and affective touch in young children with ASD and their typically developing (TD) peers...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629742/statistical-differences-in-the-white-matter-tracts-in-subjects-with-depression-by-using-different-skeletonized-voxel-wise-analysis-approaches-and-dti-fitting-procedures
#13
Maurizio Bergamino, Madison Farmer, Hung-Wen Yeh, Elisabeth Paul, J Paul Hamilton
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most significant contributors to the global burden of illness. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a procedure that has been used in several studies to characterize abnormalities in white matter (WM) microstructural integrity in MDD. These studies, however, have provided divergent findings, potentially due to the large variety of methodological alternatives available in conducting DTI research. In order to determine the importance of different approaches to coregistration of DTI-derived metrics to a standard space, we compared results from two different skeletonized voxel-wise analysis approaches: the standard TBBS pipeline and the Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTs) approach incorporating a symmetric image normalization (SyN) algorithm and a group-wise template (ANTs TBSS)...
June 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629604/novel-fkrp-mutations-in-a-japanese-mdc1c-sibship-clinically-diagnosed-with-fukuyama-congenital-muscular-dystrophy
#14
Mieko Yoshioka, Kazuhiro Kobayashi, Tatsushi Toda
INTRODUCTION: Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), caused by fukutin mutations, is the most common form of Japanese CMD. We followed a Japanese CMD sibship without fukutin mutation, and herein identified new FKRP mutations causing MDC1C rarely reported in Oriental countries. PATIENTS: Two affected siblings, individuals 1 (I-1, male) and 2 (I-2, female), were born uneventfully to unaffected, non-consanguineous parents. Severe hypotonia was soon apparent and serum CK levels were elevated: I-1: 1025 IU/L (normal range <130 IU/L) and I-2: 5350 IU/L...
June 16, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628762/white-matter-microstructure-in-boys-with-persistent-depressive-disorder
#15
Veronika Vilgis, Alasdair Vance, Ross Cunnington, Timothy J Silk
BACKGROUND: Persistent depressive symptoms in children and adolescents are considered a risk factor for the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) later in life. Previous research has shown alterations in white matter microstructure in pediatric MDD but discrepancies exist as to the specific tracts affected. The current study aimed to improve upon previous methodology and address the question whether previous findings of lower fractional anisotropy (FA) replicate in a sample of children with persistent depressive disorder characterized by mild but more chronic symptoms of depression...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628708/brain-calcifications-in-adult-onset-genetic-leukoencephalopathies-a-review
#16
Xavier Ayrignac, Gaël Nicolas, Clarisse Carra-Dallière, Didier Hannequin, Pierre Labauge
Importance: Adult-onset genetic leukoencephalopathies and leukodystrophies are increasingly recognized as a heterogeneous group of disorders with new diagnostic approaches and potential treatments. In the new era of genomics, the challenging interpretation of individual genetic variations requires an accurate phenotypic description and classification. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approaches have been proposed to improve the diagnostic process of adult-onset leukoencephalopathies...
June 19, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627968/severe-myelinopathy-in-49-xxxxy-syndrome
#17
Mark A Buller, Cory M Pfeifer
49,XXXXY is a rare aneuploidy with neuroanatomic findings scarcely reported in the literature. Given the fact that many of its phenotypic characteristics are similar to Klinefelter patients, 49,XXXXY has been treated as a variant of Klinefelter syndrome in the past. Newer studies have shown that intellectual disabilities and cardiac sequelae are more common in 49,XXXXY making the need for more precise characterization of the disorder essential. Prior case studies have demonstrated focal (and to a lesser extent confluent) white abnormalities as well as enlarged perivascular cysts (often in clustered arrangements) in the brains of these patients, but high resolution magnetic resonance images of severe myelinopathy are infrequently documented...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626444/aging-with-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-dizziness-the-importance-of-undiagnosed-peripheral-vestibular-disorders
#18
Niccolò Cerchiai, Michelangelo Mancuso, Elena Navari, Nicola Giannini, Augusto Pietro Casani
Recent studies showed a link between cerebral small vessel white matter disease (SVD) and dizziness: patients whose dizziness cannot be explained by vestibular disease show severe SVD and gait abnormalities; however, little is still known about how SVD can cause this symptom. The primary aim of this study is to examine the possible underlying causes of dizziness in neurovascular patients; this is in order to assess whether treatable causes could be routinely disregarded. A secondary aim is to possibly define a central oculomotor pattern induced per se by SVD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625938/language-disturbances-after-non-thalamic-subcortical-stroke-a-review-of-the-literature
#19
Liziane Bouvier, Bertrand Groulx, Vincent Martel-Sauvageau, Laura Monetta
Language disorders following subcortical non-thalamic stroke show great variability across literature and a well-defined profile in these aphasic disturbances is yet to be established. The lack of recent and consistent literature on the subject complicates the management of subcortical aphasia. The aim of this study is to review the literature describing oral language disturbances following subcortical non-thalamic stoke affecting the basal ganglia and the surrounding white matter. A review of the literature of three databases (PubMed, PsycNet and LLBA), identifying research articles from 1997 to 2015, was completed...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625589/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-in-dengue-viral-infection
#20
REVIEW
Wan Aliaa Wan Sulaiman, Liyana Najwa Inche Mat, Hasnur Zaman Hashim, Fan Kee Hoo, Siew Mooi Ching, Ramachandran Vasudevan, Mohd Hazmi Mohamed, Hamidon Basri
Dengue is the most common arboviral disease affecting many countries worldwide. An RNA virus from the flaviviridae family, dengue has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DEN-1-DEN-4). Neurological involvement in dengue can be classified into dengue encephalopathy immune-mediated syndromes, encephalitis, neuromuscular or dengue muscle dysfunction and neuro-ophthalmic involvement. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system following recent infection or vaccination...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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