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White matter AND disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771288/sex-differences-in-the-adult-human-brain-evidence-from-5216-uk-biobank-participants
#1
Stuart J Ritchie, Simon R Cox, Xueyi Shen, Michael V Lombardo, Lianne M Reus, Clara Alloza, Mathew A Harris, Helen L Alderson, Stuart Hunter, Emma Neilson, David C M Liewald, Bonnie Auyeung, Heather C Whalley, Stephen M Lawrie, Catharine R Gale, Mark E Bastin, Andrew M McIntosh, Ian J Deary
Sex differences in the human brain are of interest for many reasons: for example, there are sex differences in the observed prevalence of psychiatric disorders and in some psychological traits that brain differences might help to explain. We report the largest single-sample study of structural and functional sex differences in the human brain (2750 female, 2466 male participants; mean age 61.7 years, range 44-77 years). Males had higher raw volumes, raw surface areas, and white matter fractional anisotropy; females had higher raw cortical thickness and higher white matter tract complexity...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760654/failure-to-replicate-the-association-between-fractional-anisotropy-and-the-serotonin-transporter-gene-5-httlpr-rs25531
#2
Tim Klucken, Isabell Tapia León, Carlo Blecker, Onno Kruse, Tobias Stalder, Rudolf Stark
Recent work underlines the importance of alterations in white matter (e.g., measured by fractional anisotropy (FA)) as a neural vulnerability marker for psychiatric disorders. In this context, the uncinate fasciculus (UF), which connects the limbic system with prefrontal areas, has repeatedly been linked to psychiatric disorders, fear processing, and anxiety-related traits. Individual differences in FA may partly be genetically determined. Variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region [5-HTTLPR]) is a particularly promising candidate in this context, which has been linked to psychiatric disorders as well as to limbic and prefrontal reactivity...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760289/-neurocognitive-disorders-other-than-alzheimer-disease-vascular-dementia
#3
Mari Yoshida
Vascular dementia involves several mechanism of pathogenesis. Cerebral small vessel diseases play a central role in vascular dementia, including sporadic cerebral small vessel diseases, cerebral autosomal-dominant or autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL or CARASIL), cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and amyloid β-related angiitis. Although these diseases have different pathomechanisms, chronic white matter hypoperfusion contributes to development of neuronal dysfunction as a common pathway in vascular dementia...
May 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758375/alterations-in-the-microstructure-of-white-matter-in-children-and-adolescents-with-tourette-syndrome-measured-using-tract-based-spatial-statistics-and-probabilistic-tractography
#4
Hilmar P Sigurdsson, Sophia E Pépés, Georgina M Jackson, Amelia Draper, Paul S Morgan, Stephen R Jackson
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by repetitive and intermittent motor and vocal tics. TS is thought to reflect fronto-striatal dysfunction and the aetiology of the disorder has been linked to widespread alterations in the functional and structural integrity of the brain. The aim of this study was to assess white matter (WM) abnormalities in a large sample of young patients with TS in comparison to a sample of matched typically developing control individuals (CS) using diffusion MRI...
April 12, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756356/neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-individuals-exhibiting-parkinson-s-disease-risk-markers
#5
Marcus Heldmann, Janna Heeren, Christine Klein, Linus Rauch, Johann Hagenah, Thomas F Münte, Meike Kasten, Norbert Brüggemann
BACKGROUND: The concept of prodromal Parkinson's disease (PD) involves variable combinations of nonmotor features and subtle motor abnormalities as a result of ongoing neurodegeneration in the brain stem including substantia nigra (SN) and abnormal findings upon transcranial sonography and nuclear imaging. Except for nuclear imaging, the predictive value of risk markers for the conversion to overt PD is low. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether PD risk markers are associated with changes in brain structure and to what extent cognitive changes are risk markers for PD...
May 14, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755842/lipopolysaccharide-endotoxemia-induces-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-p-tau-formation-in-the-rat-brain
#6
Li-Ming Wang, Qi Wu, Ryan A Kirk, Kevin P Horn, Ahmed H Ebada Salem, John M Hoffman, Jeffrey T Yap, Joshua A Sonnen, Rheal A Towner, Fernando A Bozza, Rosana S Rodrigues, Kathryn A Morton
Amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques are not specific to Alzheimer's disease and occur with aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Soluble brain Aβ may be neuroprotective and increases in response to neuroinflammation. Sepsis is associated with neurocognitive compromise. The objective was to determine, in a rat endotoxemia model of sepsis, whether neuroinflammation and soluble Aβ production are associated with Aβ plaque and hyperphosphorylated tau deposition in the brain. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS)...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755396/overlapping-autoimmune-syndromes-in-patients-with-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-antibodies
#7
Xinguang Yang, Huiming Xu, Meilin Ding, Qingmei Huang, Baikeng Chen, Huacai Yang, Tianni Liu, Youming Long, Cong Gao
Background: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy, an autoimmune central nervous system disorder with a specific GFAP-IgG, often coexists with other antibodies. Objective: The aim of this article was to study overlapping syndromes in autoimmune GFAP astrocytopathy. Methods: Antibody was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Patient data were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty patients with positive GFAP-IgG were included, of whom 10 were defined as overlapping syndrome...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753755/polarization-sensitive-optical-coherence-tomography-reveals-gray-matter-and-white-matter-atrophy-in-sca1-mouse-models
#8
Chao J Liu, Orion Rainwater, H Brent Clark, Harry T Orr, Taner Akkin
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a fatal inherited neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we demonstrate the label-free optical imaging methodology that can detect, with a high degree of sensitivity, discrete areas of degeneration in the cerebellum of the SCA1 mouse models. We used ATXN1[82Q] and ATXN1[30Q]-D776 mice in which the transgene is directed only to Purkinje cells. Molecular layer, granular layer, and white matter regions are analyzed using the intrinsic contrasts provided by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography...
May 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753752/the-cingulum-bundle-anatomy-function-and-dysfunction
#9
REVIEW
Emma J Bubb, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, John P Aggleton
The cingulum bundle is a prominent white matter tract that interconnects frontal, parietal, and medial temporal sites, while also linking subcortical nuclei to the cingulate gyrus. Despite its apparent continuity, the cingulum's composition continually changes as fibres join and leave the bundle. To help understand its complex structure, this review begins with detailed, comparative descriptions of the multiple connections comprising the cingulum bundle. Next, the impact of cingulum bundle damage in rats, monkeys, and humans is analysed...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752654/reduced-hemispheric-asymmetry-of-brain-anatomical-networks-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Dandan Li, Ting Li, Yan Niu, Jie Xiang, Rui Cao, Bo Liu, Hui Zhang, Bin Wang
Despite many studies reporting a variety of alterations in brain networks in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), alterations in hemispheric anatomical networks are still unclear. In this study, we investigated topology alterations in hemispheric white matter in patients with ADHD and the relationship between these alterations and clinical features of the illness. Weighted hemispheric brain anatomical networks were first constructed for each of 40 right-handed patients with ADHD and 53 matched normal controls...
May 11, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752520/mucopolysaccharidoses-overview-of-neuroimaging-manifestations
#11
Manal Nicolas-Jilwan, Moeenaldeen AlSayed
The mucopolysaccharidoses are a heterogeneous group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders, characterized by the accumulation of undegraded glycosaminoglycans in various organs, leading to tissue damage. Mucopolysaccharidoses include eight individual disorders (IS [Scheie syndrome], IH [Hurler syndrome], II, III, IV, VI, VII and IX). They have autosomal-recessive transmission with the exception of mucopolysaccharidosis II, which is X-linked. Each individual disorder has a wide spectrum of phenotypic variation, depending on the specific mutation, from very mild to very severe...
May 11, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752348/genetic-study-of-white-matter-integrity-in-uk-biobank-n-8448-and-the-overlap-with-stroke-depression-and-dementia
#12
Loes C A Rutten-Jacobs, Daniel J Tozer, Marco Duering, Rainer Malik, Martin Dichgans, Hugh S Markus, Matthew Traylor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Structural integrity of the white matter is a marker of cerebral small vessel disease, which is the major cause of vascular dementia and a quarter of all strokes. Genetic studies provide a way to obtain novel insights in the disease mechanism underlying cerebral small vessel disease. The aim was to identify common variants associated with microstructural integrity of the white matter and to elucidate the relationships of white matter structural integrity with stroke, major depressive disorder, and Alzheimer disease...
May 11, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740945/alexander-disease-an-astrocytopathy-that-produces-a-leukodystrophy
#13
Alexander Sosunov, Markel Olabarria, James E Goldman
Alexander Disease (AxD) is a degenerative disorder caused by mutations in the GFAP gene, which encodes the major intermediate filament of astrocytes. As other cells in the CNS do not express GFAP, AxD is a primary astrocyte disease. Astrocytes acquire a large number of pathological features, including changes in morphology, the loss or diminution of a number of critical astrocyte functions and the activation of cell stress and inflammatory pathways. AxD is also characterized by white matter degeneration, a pathology that has led it to be included in the "leukodystrophies...
May 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740940/leukodystrophies-due-to-astroyctic-dysfunction
#14
Marianna Bugiani, Marjolein Breur
Leukodystrophies are genetically determined disorders due to defects in any structural components of the brain white matter. This mini-symposium presents a selection of leukodystrophies due to astrocytic dysfunction, the astrocytopathies. Examples are provided of astrocytopathies due to defects in astrocyte-specific proteins and in which astrocytes play a major role in the pathophysiology. Knowledge on the disease mechanisms underlying these leukodystrophies also provides information how loss of physiologic functions and gain of detrimental functions in astrocytes leads to degeneration of the white matter...
May 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740390/a-novel-variant-in-abcd1-gene-presenting-as-adolescent-onset-atypical-adrenomyeloneuropathy-with-spastic-ataxia
#15
Yanxing Chen, Jianfang Zhang, Jianwen Wang, Kang Wang
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare neurological disorder with a highly complex clinical presentation. Adrenal function, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and cerebral white matter are commonly affected in adult-onset male patients. Here, we report a family with unusual presentation of X-ALD. The 19-year-old proband had presented with atypical symptoms of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) for 3 years, only with spastic paraparesis, cerebellar ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy with white matter hyperintensity...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740383/nervous-system-injury-and-neuroimaging-of-zika-virus-infection
#16
REVIEW
Shanshan Wu, Yu Zeng, Alexander Lerner, Bo Gao, Meng Law
In 2016, World Health Organization announced Zika virus infection and its neurological sequalae are a public health emergency of global scope. Preliminary studies have confirmed a relationship between Zika virus infection and certain neurological disorders, including microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). The neuroimaging features of microcephaly secondary to Zika virus infection include calcifications at the junction of gray-white matter and subcortical white matter with associated cortical abnormalities, diminution of white matter, large ventricles with or without hydrocephalus, cortical malformations, hypoplasia of cerebellum and brainstem, and enlargement of cerebellomedullary cistern...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739804/etiology-and-treatment-of-adrenoleukodystrophy-new-insights-from-drosophila
#17
Hannah B Gordon, Lourdes Valdez, Anthea Letsou
Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting brain white matter. The most common form of ALD is X-linked (X-ALD) and results from mutation of the ABCD1 -encoded very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) transporter. X-ALD is clinically heterogeneous, with the cerebral form being the most severe. Diagnosed in boys usually between the ages of 4 and 8, cerebral X-ALD symptoms progress rapidly (in as little as two years) through declines in cognition, learning, and behavior, to paralysis and ultimately to a vegetative state and death...
May 8, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736781/combination-of-rs-fmri-and-smri-data-to-discriminate-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-young-children-using-deep-belief-network
#18
Maryam Akhavan Aghdam, Arash Sharifi, Mir Mohsen Pedram
In recent years, the use of advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) has recorded a great increase in neuropsychiatric disorders. Deep learning is a branch of machine learning that is increasingly being used for applications of medical image analysis such as computer-aided diagnosis. In a bid to classify and represent learning tasks, this study utilized one of the most powerful deep learning algorithms (deep belief network (DBN)) for the combination of data from Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange I and II (ABIDE I and ABIDE II) datasets...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734951/disrupted-rich-club-organization-and-structural-brain-connectome-in-unmedicated-bipolar-disorder
#19
Ying Wang, Feng Deng, Yanbin Jia, Junjing Wang, Shuming Zhong, Huiyuan Huang, Lixiang Chen, Guanmao Chen, Huiqing Hu, Li Huang, Ruiwang Huang
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with altered brain structural and functional connectivity. However, little is known regarding alterations of the structural brain connectome in BD. The present study aimed to use diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theory approaches to investigate the rich club organization and white matter structural connectome in BD. METHODS: Forty-two patients with unmedicated BD depression and 59 age-, sex- and handedness-matched healthy control participants underwent DTI...
May 8, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734487/cortical-thickness-and-white-matter-integrity-abnormalities-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-combined-multimodal-surface-based-morphometry-and-tract-based-spatial-statistics-study
#20
Cong Zhou, Jian Xu, Liangliang Ping, Fengrui Zhang, Wei Chen, Zonglin Shen, Linling Jiang, Xiufeng Xu, Yuqi Cheng
BACKGROUND: Cerebral morphological abnormalities may play a key role in pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have used multimodal imaging strategies to investigate alterations of cortical morphometry and white matter (WM) integrity. This study aimed to evaluate cortical thickness, cortical and subcortical volume, and WM integrity characteristics in OCD patients comprehensively. METHODS: We acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 52 OCD patients and 46 well-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
May 7, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
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