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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749553/myelopathy-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-the-bagel-sign
#1
Ugur Uygunoglu, Burcu Zeydan, Yesim Ozguler, Serdal Ugurlu, Emire Seyahi, Naci Kocer, Civan Islak, Kejal Kantarci, Sabahattin Saip, Aksel Siva, Orhun H Kantarci
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and distinctive imaging features of myelopathy associated with Behçet's disease. METHODS: We evaluated the records of patients meeting the following criteria: a) fulfillment of the International Study Group criteria for Behçet's disease; b) clinically suggestive of myelopathy; c) simultaneous spinal cord and brain MRIs within 1 month of acute worsening of myelopathy; d) follow-up duration ≥1 year after initial MRI evaluation...
July 27, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749290/granulomatous-encephalomyelitis-in-a-false-gharial-tomistoma-schlegelii-associated-with-a-novel-chlamydia-species
#2
Marjorie Bercier, Darryl J Heard, Alexandra M Goe, Ember Epperson, Jeffrey R Abbott, April L Childress, James F X Wellehan
A 5-yr-old, captive, hatched, female false gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii) presented with a 1-mo history of cervical spinal curvature. Antemortem diagnostics, including blood work, electromyography, muscle biopsies, and advanced imaging tests, were either within reference ranges or did not identify any specific etiology. Necropsy revealed extensive, marked, chronic granulomatous encephalomyelitis along with neuronal necrosis, rarefaction, gliosis, and astrocytosis of the white and gray matter of the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749199/hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells
#3
Yasuyuki Amoh, Robert M Hoffman
Various types of stem cells reside in the skin, including keratinocyte progenitor cells, melanocyte progenitor cells, and skin-derived precursors (SKPs), and nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. HAP stem cells, located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. HAP stem cells are positive forthe stem cell marker CD34, as well as K15-negative, suggestingtheir relatively undifferentiated state and therefore, HAP stem cells may be the most primitive stem cells in the skin...
July 27, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748910/spinal-intramedullary-ependymoma-surgical-approaches-and-outcome
#4
Lawrence F Borges
Intramedullary Ependymomas are uncommon tumors that can occur within the medullary substance of the spinal cord. Despite this difficult location, they are typically benign tumors that can most often be removed completely with an acceptable surgical risk. Therefore, the recommended management approach is usually surgical excision. This review will consider the historical context in which surgeons began treating these tumors and then review the more recent literature that guides their current management.
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748449/first-report-of-persistent-dengue-1-associated-autoimmune-neurological-disturbance-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#5
Marzia Puccioni-Sohler, Alice M M Ornelas, Andrea S de Souza, Mauro Jorge Cabral-Castro, Jessyca T M A Ramos, Carolina Rosadas, Maria Cecilia F Salgado, Alexandre A Castiglione, Fernando Ferry, Jose Mauro Peralta, Carolina Moreira Voloch, Amilcar Tanuri, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Renato Santana Aguiar
Dengue virus (DENV) causes immune-mediated diseases. Neurological involvement represents a severe condition that is rarely observed in DENV-1 infection. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)/NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are idiopathic immune-mediated demyelinating syndromes of the central nervous system. We report a 17-year-old female with oligosymptomatic DENV-1 viremia, diagnosed as NMOSD. Magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal cord and brainstem lesions. Antibody for aquaporin 4 was negative. DENV-1 RNA infection was detected by serial RT-PCR and confirmed by phylogenetic analysis in serum...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748217/mechanisms-and-applications-of-the-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-photobiomodulation
#6
Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low-level level laser therapy is the use of red and near-infrared light to stimulate healing, relieve pain, and reduce inflammation. The primary chromophores have been identified as cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondria, and calcium ion channels (possibly mediated by light absorption by opsins). Secondary effects of photon absorption include increases in ATP, a brief burst of reactive oxygen species, an increase in nitric oxide, and modulation of calcium levels. Tertiary effects include activation of a wide range of transcription factors leading to improved cell survival, increased proliferation and migration, and new protein synthesis...
2017: AIMS Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747684/generation-and-validation-of-novel-adeno-associated-viral-vectors-for-the-analysis-of-ca-2-homeostasis-in-motor-neurons
#7
Rosa Pia Norante, Maria Lina Massimino, Paolo Lorenzon, Agnese De Mario, Caterina Peggion, Mattia Vicario, Mattia Albiero, Maria Catia Sorgato, Raffaele Lopreiato, Alessandro Bertoli
A finely tuned Ca(2+) homeostasis in restricted cell domains is of fundamental importance for neurons, where transient Ca(2+) oscillations direct the proper coordination of electro-chemical signals and overall neuronal metabolism. Once such a precise regulation is unbalanced, however, neuronal functions and viability are severely compromised. Accordingly, disturbed Ca(2+) metabolism has often been claimed as a major contributor to different neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that is characterised by selective motor neuron (MN) damage...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747602/inflammation-amplifier-and-gateway-reflex-the-regulation-of-inflammation-by-neuroimmune-interaction
#8
Ikuma Nakagawa, Masaaki Murakami
  Central nervous system (CNS), which is made up of brain and spinal cord, is protected from the invasion of harmful agents, such as various pathogens, chemical products or immune cells by a special structure "Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)". BBB highly preserves the homeostasis of CNS environment. On the other hand, there are many diseases in CNS regions which is associated with infection or autoimmunity, that means there may exist the "gateway" for pathogens or immune cells to attack CNS. Until recently, the molecular mechanism of the gateway formation has not been elucidated...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747407/chronic-hindbrain-administration-of-oxytocin-is-sufficient-to-elicit-weight-loss-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#9
Zachary S Roberts, Tami H Wolden-Hanson, Miles E Matsen, Vitaly Ryu, Cheryl H Vaughan, James L Graham, Peter J Havel, Daniel Wahieb Chukri, Michael W Schwartz, Gregory J Morton, James E Blevins
Oxytocin (OT) administration elicits weight loss in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, nonhuman primates and humans by both reducing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure (EE). Although the neurocircuitry underlying these effects remains uncertain, OT neurons in the paraventricular nucleus are positioned to control both energy intake and sympathetic nervous system outflow to interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) through projections to both the hindbrain nucleus of the solitary tract and spinal cord...
July 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747385/spinal-racgap-%C3%AE-chimaerin-is-required-to-establish-the-midline-barrier-for-proper-corticospinal-axon-guidance
#10
Shota Katori, Yukiko Noguchi-Katori, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Takuji Iwasato
In the developing central nervous system, the midline barrier, which comprises guidance molecule-expressing midline glial somata and processes, plays a pivotal role in midline axon guidance. Accumulating evidence has revealed the molecular mechanisms by which the midline barrier ensures proper midline guidance for axons. In contrast, the mechanisms for establishing the midline barrier remain obscure. Here we report that RacGAP α-chimaerin (α-chimerin) is required for both axonal repulsion at and establishment of the midline barrier in the spinal cord...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747261/enterovirus-d68-infection-in-a-cluster-of-children-with-acute-flaccid-myelitis-buenos-aires-argentina-2016
#11
Victor Ruggieri, Maria Ivana Paz, María Gabriela Peretti, Carlos Rugilo, Rosa Bologna, Cecilia Freire, Silvana Vergel, Andrea Savransky
OBJECTIVE: To report a outbreak of 11 cases of acute asymmetric flaccid myelopathy due to spinal motor neuron injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven children, six male, with a mean age of 3 years presented with acute flaccid myelitis. We analyzed clinical features, etiology, neuroradiological images, treatment, and outcome. RESULTS: Nine children had bilateral and asymmetric flaccid myelitis of the upper limbs, 1 had upper limb monoplegia, and 1 presented with hemiparesis...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747093/prochlorperazine-increases-kcc2-function-and-reduces-spasticity-after-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Sylvie Liabeuf, Laetitia Stuhl-Gourmand, Florian Gackière, Renzo Mancuso, Irene Sanchez-Brualla, Philippe Marino, Frédéric Brocard, Laurent Vinay
In mature neurons, low intracellular chloride level required for inhibition is maintained by the potassium-chloride co-transporter KCC2. Impairment of Cl- extrusion following KCC2 dysfunction has been involved in many CNS disorders such as seizures, neuropathic pain or spasticity after a spinal cord injury (SCI). This makes KCC2 an appealing drug target for restoring Cl-homeostasis and inhibition in pathological conditions. In the present study, we screen the Prestwick Chemical Library® and identify conventional antipsychotics phenothiazine derivatives as enhancers of KCC2 activity...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746221/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hidden-lesions-in-mild-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-patients-with-apparent-symptoms
#13
Yaning Sun, Kunlun Yu, Haonan Wang, Yong Shen, Lingde Kong, Jingtao Zhang
Patients with apparent symptoms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) may only show a mild compressive lesion in ordinary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of CSM patients with "hidden" lesions on kinetic MRI and to determine an effective treatment.Thirty-one patients with obvious spinal cord compression only on kinetic MRI were included in our study. A variety of parameters were calculated from MRI of the cervical spine at different postures. The anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) procedure were used for treatment of CSM...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746078/spinal-microglia-are-required-for-long-term-maintenance-of-neuropathic-pain
#14
Stefania Echeverry, Xiang Qun Shi, Mu Yang, Hao Huang, YiChen Wu, Louis-Etienne Lorenzo, Jimena Perez-Sanchez, Robert P Bonin, Yves De Koninck, Ji Zhang
While spinal microglia play a role in early stages of neuropathic pain etiology, whether they are useful targets to reverse chronic pain at late stages remains unknown. Here, we show that microglia activation in the spinal cord persists for >3 months following nerve injury in rodents, beyond involvement of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine signalling. In this chronic phase, selective depletion of spinal microglia in male rats with the targeted immunotoxin Mac1-saporin and blockade of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB signalling with intrathecal TrkB Fc chimera, but not cytokine inhibition, almost completely reversed pain hypersensitivity...
June 21, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746067/perturbing-nr2b-psd-95-interaction-relieves-neuropathic-pain-by-inactivating-camkii-creb-signaling
#15
Fangxia Xu, Xin Zhao, Lin Liu, Jia Song, Yingjun Zhu, Shuaishuai Chu, Xueming Shao, Xiuxiu Li, Zhengliang Ma, Xiaoping Gu
Neuropathic pain is characterized by central sensitization. The interaction between N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) plays a major role in central sensitization. Here, we aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of disruption of the interaction between NMDAR and PSD-95. Chronic dorsal root ganglia compression model rats were used to mimic sciatica. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were evaluated. The expression of spinal phospho-NR2B, PSD-95, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) was measured using western blotting...
July 25, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745934/spinal-cord-injury-clinical-registries-improving-care-across-the-sci-care-continuum-by-identifying-knowledge-gaps
#16
Marcel F Dvorak, Christiana L Cheng, Nader Fallah, Argelio Santos, Derek Atkins, Suzanne Humphreys, Carly S Rivers, Barry A B White, Chester Ho, Henry Ahn, Brian K Kwon, Sean Christie, Vanessa K Noonan
Timely access and ongoing delivery of care and therapeutic interventions is needed to maximize recovery and function after traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI). To ensure these decisions are evidence-based, access to consistent, reliable, and valid sources of clinical data is required. The Access to Care and Timing Model used data from the Rick Hansen SCI Registry (RHSCIR) to generate a simulation of healthcare delivery for persons after tSCI and to test scenarios aimed at improving outcomes and reducing the economic burden of SCI...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745675/-a-rare-case-of-rapidly-progressing-primary-diffuse-meningeal-sarcomatosis-of-the-brain-and-spinal-cord
#17
A A Yakovlev, S A Yakovlev, A G Smochilin, M V Yakovleva
Currently the differential diagnosis of anaplastic meningiomas often is quite complex. An interpretation of the data of radiological studies does not allow the exclusion of diseases with similar clinical course and character of a lesion, such as primary lymphoma and tuberculosis of the central nervous system, neurosarcoidosis and others. The article presents a clinical case, representing a rare and difficult to diagnose variant of anaplastic meningioma with extremely aggressive nature of the current and widespread involvement of the brain and spinal cord...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745670/-the-administration-of-neurocytoprotectors-in-a-rat-model-of-experimental-spinal-cord-ischemia
#18
G V Ponomarev, A A Shmonin, A G Shumeeva, K T Aliev, T D Vlasov, A A Skoromets
AIM: To study an effect of cortexin on functional recovery and morphology of the spinal cord of rats with spinal cord ischemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Spinal cord ischemia was achieved by ligation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta in 16 rats stratified into two equal groups: the ligation of infrarenal aorta was performed in the control group, aorta ligation was performed also in the experimental group with preliminary intraperitoneally administration of cortexin in a dose of 0...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745630/subpial-adeno-associated-virus-9-aav9-vector-delivery-in-adult-mice
#19
Takahiro Tadokoro, Atsushi Miyanohara, Michael Navarro, Kota Kamizato, Stefan Juhas, Jana Juhasova, Silvia Marsala, Oleksandr Platoshyn, Erik Curtis, Brandon Gabel, Joseph Ciacci, Nada Lukacova, Katarina Bimbova, Martin Marsala
The successful development of a subpial adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) vector delivery technique in adult rats and pigs has been reported on previously. Using subpially-placed polyethylene catheters (PE-10 or PE-5) for AAV9 delivery, potent transgene expression through the spinal parenchyma (white and gray matter) in subpially-injected spinal segments has been demonstrated. Because of the wide range of transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases, there is a strong desire for the development of a potent central nervous system (CNS)-targeted vector delivery technique in adult mice...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745627/spinal-cord-neurons-isolation-and-culture-from-neonatal-mice
#20
Mohamed Eldeiry, Katsuhiro Yamanaka, T Brett Reece, Muhammad Aftab
We present a protocol for the isolation and culture of spinal cord neurons. The neurons are obtained from neonatal C57BL/6 mice and are isolated on postnatal day 1-3. A mouse litter, usually 4-10 pups born from one breeding pair, is gathered for one experiment, and spinal cords are collected individually from each mouse after euthanasia with isoflurane. The spinal column is dissected out and then the spinal cord is released from the column. The spinal cords are then minced to increase the surface area of delivery for an enzymatic protease that allows for the neurons and other cells to be released from the tissue...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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