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Dorian Farache, Alain Jauneau, Cecile Chemin, Marine Chartrain, Marie-Helene Remy, Andreas Merdes, Laurence Haren
Microtubules are nucleated from multiprotein complexes containing γ-tubulin and associated ″Gamma-tubulin Complex″ Proteins (GCPs). Small complexes (γTuSCs) comprise two molecules of γ-tubulin bound to the C-terminal domains of GCP2 and GCP3. γTuSCs associate laterally into helical structures, providing a structural template for microtubule nucleation. In most eukaryotes, γTuSCs associate with additional GCPs (4, 5 and 6) to form the core of the so-called ″γ-Tubulin Ring Complex″ (γTuRC). GCPs 2-6 constitute a family of homologous proteins...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Barbara Tanno, Gabriele Babini, Simona Leonardi, Paola Giardullo, Ilaria De Stefano, Emanuela Pasquali, Andrea Ottolenghi, Michael J Atkinson, Anna Saran, Mariateresa Mancuso
It has historically been accepted that incorrectly repaired DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are the principal lesions of importance regarding mutagenesis, and long-term biological effects associated with ionizing radiation. However, radiation may also cause dysregulation of epigenetic processes that can lead to altered gene function and malignant transformation, and epigenetic alterations are important causes of miRNAs dysregulation in cancer.Patched1 heterozygous (Ptch1+/-) mice, characterized by aberrant activation of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway, are a well-known murine model of spontaneous and radiation-induced medulloblastoma (MB), a common pediatric brain tumor originating from neural granule cell progenitors (GCPs)...
September 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Joo-Young Jung, Gi Jeong Cheon, Yun-Sang Lee, Seunggyun Ha, Mi-Hye Chae, Yong-An Chung, Do Kyun Yoon, Yong-Whee Bahk
PURPOSE: Currently, traumatic bone diseases are diagnosed by assessing the micro (99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HDP) uptake in injured trabeculae with ongoing osteoneogenesis demonstrated by gamma correction pinhole scan (GCPS). However, the mathematic size quantification of micro-uptake is not yet available. We designed and performed this phantom-based study to set up an in-vitro model of the mathematical calculation of micro-uptake by the pixelized measurement. METHODS: The micro (99m)Tc-HDP deposits used in this study were spontaneously formed both in a large standard flood and small house-made dish phantoms...
September 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
H Forssell, T Kauko, U Kotiranta, T Suvinen
BACKGROUND: Up to 30% of patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) run the risk of progressing to chronic pain with significant disability. This prospective cohort study assessed the effects of baseline pain and general health and psychosocial factors on the presence of clinically significant pain in patients with TMD pain at 1 year after initial consultation. METHODS: 263 primary care patients with TMD pain were included. At the baseline, patients completed a pain questionnaire including a wide range of putative prognostic factors, which were assessed using validated self-report scales...
July 26, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Juan Pablo Zanin, Elizabeth Abercrombie, Wilma J Friedman
Cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCP) proliferate extensively in the external granule layer (EGL) of the developing cerebellum prior to differentiating and migrating. Mechanisms that regulate the appropriate timing of cell cycle withdrawal of these neuronal progenitors during brain development are not well defined. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) is highly expressed in the proliferating GCPs, but is downregulated once the cells leave the cell cycle. This receptor has primarily been characterized as a death receptor for its ability to induce neuronal apoptosis following injury...
2016: ELife
Nikolaos N Giannakopoulos, Eleni N Katsikogianni, Daniel Hellmann, Lydia Eberhard, Michael Leckel, Hans J Schindler, Marc Schmitter
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the short-term effectiveness of three different types of immediate, non-pharmacological intervention for alleviation of the painful symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients (mean age 41.6 ± 16.7 years, 25 females) diagnosed with non-dysfunctional painful TMD received counselling and subsequently were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: patients in Group A received prefabricated oral splints with water-filled elastic pads (Aqualizer(®)), those in Group B were provided with vacuum-formed co-polyester oral splints and those in Group C were given appointments to receive Michigan-type hard splints...
August 2016: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
Mirella Tanori, Arianna Casciati, Francesco Berardinelli, Simona Leonardi, Emanuela Pasquali, Francesca Antonelli, Barbara Tanno, Paola Giardullo, Alessandro Pannicelli, Gabriele Babini, Ilaria De Stefano, Antonella Sgura, Mariateresa Mancuso, Anna Saran, Simonetta Pazzaglia
Mutations in DNA repair pathways are frequent in human cancers. Hence, gaining insights into the interaction of DNA repair genes is key to development of novel tumor-specific treatment strategies. In this study, we tested the functional relationship in development and oncogenesis between the homologous recombination (HR) factor Rad54 and Parp-1, a nuclear enzyme that plays a multifunctional role in DNA damage signaling and repair. We introduced single or combined Rad54 and Parp-1 inactivating germline mutations in Ptc1 heterozygous mice, a well-characterized model of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor...
July 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Richard J Harvey, Kyle Roskilly, Chris Buse, Hannah K Evans, Tatjana Y Hubel, Alan M Wilson
Unmanned aerial systems (UASs), frequently referred to as 'drones', have become more common and affordable and are a promising tool for collecting data on free-ranging wild animals. We used a Phantom-2 UAS equipped with a gimbal-mounted camera to estimate position, velocity and acceleration of a subject on the ground moving through a grid of GPS surveyed ground control points (area ∼1200 m(2)). We validated the accuracy of the system against a dual frequency survey grade GPS system attached to the subject...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Silvia Mateo-Lozano, Marta García, Carlos J Rodríguez-Hernández, Carmen de Torres
During normal development of the nervous system (NS), neural progenitor cells (NPCs) produce specialized populations of neurons and glial cells upon cell fate restriction and terminal differentiation. These sequential processes require the dynamic regulation of thousands of genes. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is temporally and spatially regulated in both neurons and glial cells during development of the NS. In particular, CaSR expression and function have been shown to play a significant role during differentiation of NPCs toward the oligodendrocyte lineage and also in maturation of cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Yeung Ho, Xiting Li, Stephanie Jamison, Heather P Harding, Peter J McKinnon, David Ron, Wensheng Lin
Evidence suggests that activation of pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signaling in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress negatively or positively influences cell transformation by regulating apoptosis. Patched1 heterozygous deficient (Ptch1(+/-)) mice reproduce human Gorlin's syndrome and are regarded as the best animal model to study tumorigenesis of the sonic hedgehog subgroup of medulloblastomas. It is believed that medulloblastomas in Ptch1(+/-) mice results from the transformation of granule cell precursors (GCPs) in the developing cerebellum...
July 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Francesco Ceccarelli, Angelo Gulinatti, Ivan Labanca, Ivan Rech, Massimo Ghioni
In this letter we present a compact photon detection module, based on an 8×8 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs). The use of a dedicated silicon technology for the fabrication of the sensors allows us to combine large active areas (50-μm diameter), high photon detection efficiency (49% at 550-nm wavelength) and low dark count rate. Thanks to a fully parallel architecture, the module provides voltage pulses synchronous to each photon detection for a maximum global count rate exceeding 1 Gcps. These properties makes the system suitable for operation in two different free-running modes...
May 1, 2016: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters: a Publication of the IEEE Laser and Electro-optics Society
J Durham, J Shen, M Breckons, J G Steele, V Araujo-Soares, C Exley, L Vale
Few data are available on the healthcare costs of those suffering from persistent orofacial pain (POFP). This cohort and cost analysis study examined the direct costs of POFP from the perspective of the healthcare provider (specifically, the UK National Health Service) in 2012 pounds sterling and sought to identify whether dichotomized (high, IIb to IV; low, 0 to IIa) graded chronic pain scale (GCPS) status is predictive of the total cost of healthcare over the last 6 mo. The healthcare utilization data of 198 patients with POFP were collected using a structured interview and a validated "use of services and productivity" questionnaire...
September 2016: Journal of Dental Research
Shoshana R Leffler, Emilie Legué, Orlando Aristizábal, Alexandra L Joyner, Charles S Peskin, Daniel H Turnbull
Determining the cellular basis of brain growth is an important problem in developmental neurobiology. In the mammalian brain, the cerebellum is particularly amenable to studies of growth because it contains only a few cell types, including the granule cells, which are the most numerous neuronal subtype. Furthermore, in the mouse cerebellum granule cells are generated from granule cell precursors (gcps) in the external granule layer (EGL), from 1 day before birth until about 2 weeks of age. The complexity of the underlying cellular processes (multiple cell behaviors, three spatial dimensions, time-dependent changes) requires a quantitative framework to be fully understood...
May 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Xuemiao Xu, Huaidong Zhang, Guoqiang Han, Kin Chung Kwan, Wai-Man Pang, Jiaming Fang, Gansen Zhao
Exterior orientation parameters' (EOP) estimation using space resection plays an important role in topographic reconstruction for push broom scanners. However, existing models of space resection are highly sensitive to errors in data. Unfortunately, for lunar imagery, the altitude data at the ground control points (GCPs) for space resection are error-prone. Thus, existing models fail to produce reliable EOPs. Motivated by a finding that for push broom scanners, angular rotations of EOPs can be estimated independent of the altitude data and only involving the geographic data at the GCPs, which are already provided, hence, we divide the modeling of space resection into two phases...
2016: Sensors
Mohammed Abduljawad, Abdulaziz Samran, Jadalkareem Kadour, Mahmoud Al-Afandi, Mohamad Ghazal, Matthias Kern
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: How the placement of fiber posts affects the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with cervical cavities is not well documented. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of fiber posts on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with cervical cavities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into 5 test groups (n=10) according to the restoration strategy: GHT, control group; endodontically treated teeth (ETT) without endodontic posts; GCV, ETT with cervical cavities simulating coronal destruction; GCF, ETT with cervical cavities and carbon fiber posts; GGF, ETT with cervical cavities and glass fiber posts; and GCP, ETT with cervical cavities and composite resin posts...
July 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Laura Di Magno, Alessio Basile, Sonia Coni, Simona Manni, Giulia Sdruscia, Davide D'Amico, Laura Antonucci, Paola Infante, Enrico De Smaele, Danilo Cucchi, Elisabetta Ferretti, Lucia Di Marcotullio, Isabella Screpanti, Gianluca Canettieri
Hedgehog signaling controls proliferation of cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) and its aberrant activation is a leading cause of Medulloblastoma, the most frequent pediatric brain tumor. We show here that the energy sensor AMPK inhibits Hh signaling by phosphorylating a single residue of human Gli1 that is not conserved in other species. Studies with selective agonists and genetic deletion have revealed that AMPK activation inhibits canonical Hh signaling in human, but not in mouse cells. Indeed we show that AMPK phosphorylates Gli1 at the unique residue Ser408, which is conserved only in primates but not in other species...
February 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Zhanfeng Shen, Xinju Yu, Yongwei Sheng, Junli Li, Jiancheng Luo
When conducting image registration in the U.S. state of Alaska, it is very difficult to locate satisfactory ground control points because ice, snow, and lakes cover much of the ground. However, GCPs can be located by seeking stable points from the extracted lake data. This paper defines a process to estimate the deepest points of lakes as the most stable ground control points for registration. We estimate the deepest point of a lake by computing the center point of the largest inner circle (LIC) of the polygon representing the lake...
2015: PloS One
Karen L Perry, Lynda Rutherford, David M R Sajik, Mieghan Bruce
BACKGROUND: Certain postoperative wounds are recognised to be associated with more complications than others and may be termed high-risk. Wound healing can be particularly challenging following high-energy trauma where wound necrosis and infection rates are high. Surgical incision for joint arthrodesis can also be considered high-risk as it requires extensive and invasive surgery and postoperative distal limb swelling and wound dehiscence are common. Recent human literature has investigated the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) over high-risk closed surgical incisions and beneficial effects have been noted including decreased drainage, decreased dehiscence and decreased infection rates...
2015: BMC Veterinary Research
Manuela Ceccarelli, Laura Micheli, Giorgio D'Andrea, Marco De Bardi, Blanca Scheijen, MariaTeresa Ciotti, Luca Leonardi, Siro Luvisetto, Felice Tirone
Cerebellar granule neurons develop postnatally from cerebellar granule precursors (GCPs), which are located in the external granule layer (EGL) where they massively proliferate. Thereafter, GCPs become postmitotic, migrate inward to form the internal granule layer (IGL), further differentiate and form synapses with Purkinje cell dendrites. We previously showed that the Btg family gene, Tis21/Btg2, is required for normal GCP migration. Here we investigated the role in cerebellar development of the related gene, Btg1, which regulates stem cell quiescence in adult neurogenic niches, and is expressed in the cerebellum...
December 1, 2015: Developmental Biology
Rashmi Patel, Chandra Bhan Singh, Visweswar Bhattacharya, Subodh Kumar Singh, Akhtar Ali
The GLI3 protein is a zinc finger transcription factor, expressed early in development. The GLI3 gene exhibits allelic heterogeneity as mutations in this gene are associated with several developmental syndromic and non-syndromic polydactyly. The present study reports two cases: first, a familial case of Greig Cephalopolysyndactyly Syndrome (GCPS); the second is a sporadic case with both postaxial polydactyly (PAP) type A and B. Resequencing of GLI3 gene reveals a previously reported nonsense truncation mutation g...
March 2016: Congenital Anomalies
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