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Eve-Ellen Govek, Zhuhao Wu, Devrim Acehan, Henrik Molina, Keith Rivera, Xiaodong Zhu, Yin Fang, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Mary Elizabeth Hatten
CNS cortical histogenesis depends on polarity signaling pathways that regulate cell adhesion and motility. Here we report that conditional deletion of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 in cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) results in abnormalities in cerebellar foliation revealed by iDISCO clearing methodology, a loss of columnar organization of proliferating GCPs in the external germinal layer (EGL), disordered parallel fiber organization in the molecular layer (ML), and a failure to extend a leading process and form a neuron-glial junction during migration along Bergmann glia (BG)...
March 23, 2018: iScience
Martin Holt, Toby Lea, Limin Mao, Johann Kolstee, Iryna Zablotska, Tim Duck, Brent Allan, Michael West, Evelyn Lee, Peter Hull, Andrew Grulich, John De Wit, Garrett Prestage
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been rapidly rolled out in large, publicly funded implementation projects in Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Using behavioural surveillance of gay and bisexual men, we analysed the uptake and effect of PrEP, particularly on condom use by gay and bisexual men not using PrEP. METHODS: We collected data from the Melbourne and Sydney Gay Community Periodic Surveys (GCPS), cross-sectional surveys of adult gay and bisexual men in Melbourne, VIC, and Sydney, NSW...
June 6, 2018: Lancet HIV
Jin Li, Zilong Liu
Internal parameter calibration of remote sensing cameras (RSCs) is a necessary step in remote sensing photogrammetry. On-orbit camera calibration widely adopts external ground control points (GCPs) to measure its internal parameters. However, accessible and available GCPs are not easy to achieve when cameras work on a satellite platform. In this paper, we propose an efficient camera self-calibration method using a micro-transceiver in conjunction with deep learning. A supervised learning set is produced by the micro-transceiver, where multiple two-dimensional diffraction grids are produced and transformed into multiple auto-collimating sub-beams equivalent to infinite target-point training examples...
May 28, 2018: Optics Express
Guoqing Zhou, Linjun Jiang, Jingjin Huang, Rongting Zhang, Dequan Liu, Xiang Zhou, Oktay Baysal
With increasing demands in real-time or near real-time remotely sensed imagery applications in such as military deployments, quick response to terrorist attacks and disaster rescue, the on-board geometric calibration problem has attracted the attention of many scientists in recent years. This paper presents an on-board geometric calibration method for linear CCD sensor arrays using FPGA chips. The proposed method mainly consists of four modules-Input Data, Coefficient Calculation, Adjustment Computation and Comparison-in which the parallel computations for building the observation equations and least squares adjustment, are implemented using FPGA chips, for which a decomposed matrix inversion method is presented...
June 2, 2018: Sensors
Niangang Jiao, Feng Wang, Hongjian You, Mudan Yang, Xinghui Yao
With the increasing demand for high-resolution remote sensing images for mapping and monitoring the Earth's environment, geometric positioning accuracy improvement plays a significant role in the image preprocessing step. Based on the statistical learning theory, we propose a new method to improve the geometric positioning accuracy without ground control points (GCPs). Multi-temporal images from the ZY-3 satellite are tested and the bias-compensated rational function model (RFM) is applied as the block adjustment model in our experiment...
May 24, 2018: Sensors
Rocío Bustamante, María A Daza, Susana Canfrán, Paloma García, María Suárez, Ignacio Trobo, Ignacio A Gómez de Segura
OBJECTIVE: To determine the noninferior postoperative analgesic efficacy of cimicoxib compared to buprenorphine following elective ovariohysterectomy in healthy bitches. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial. ANIMALS: A total of 63 healthy dogs. METHODS: To provide perioperative analgesia, cimicoxib 2 mg kg-1 (orally), buprenorphine 0.02 mg kg-1 (two doses, intramuscularly), or both drugs combined, were administered...
February 5, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Shoshana Reiter, Ilana Eli, Maria Mahameed, Alona Emodi-Perlman, Pessia Friedman-Rubin, Maya A Reiter, Ephraim Winocur
AIMS: To describe pain catastrophizing in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients in relation to disability and pain persistence. METHODS: A total of 163 TMD patients underwent a complete TMD evaluation according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD), including the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Patients were divided into subgroups according to their PCS, Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS), and pain persistence scores. The GCPS and pain persistence subgroups were assigned as dependent variables in a stepwise multiple logistic regression model...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
Yufeng Cheng, Mi Wang, Shuying Jin, Luxiao He, Yuan Tian
To increase the field of view (FOV), combining multiple time-delayed and integrated charge-coupled devices (TDI-CCD) into the camera and the pushbroom imaging modality are traditionally used with high-resolution optical satellites. It is becoming increasingly labor- and cost-intensive to build and maintain a calibration field with high resolution and broad coverage. This paper introduces a simple and feasible on-orbit geometric self-calibration approach for high-resolution multi-TDI-CCD optical satellites based on three-view stereoscopic images...
March 19, 2018: Optics Express
Xuehui Yao, Wenchao Zhao, Rui Yang, Jianli Wang, Fukuan Zhao, Shaohui Wang
Background: Guard cell protoplasts (GCPs) isolated from various plants have proven to be especially useful for studies of signal transduction pathways and plant development. But it is not easy to isolate highly purified preparations of large numbers of GCPs from plants. In this research, our focus is on a method to isolate large numbers of guard cells from tomato leaves. The protocols described yield millions of highly purified, viable GCPs, which are also suitable for studies on guard cell physiology...
2018: Plant Methods
Dario Presutti, Manuela Ceccarelli, Laura Micheli, Giuliana Papoff, Simonetta Santini, Simone Samperna, Cristiana Lalli, Lorena Zentilin, Giovina Ruberti, Felice Tirone
Medulloblastoma (MB), the tumor of the cerebellum, is the most frequent brain cancer in childhood and a major cause of pediatric mortality. Based on gene profiling, four MB subgroups have been identified, i.e., Wnt or Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) types, and subgroup 3 or 4. The Shh-type MB has been shown to arise from the cerebellar precursors of granule neurons (GCPs), where a hyperactivation of the Shh pathway leads to their neoplastic transformation. We have previously shown that the gene Tis21 (PC3/Btg2) inhibits the proliferation and promotes the differentiation and migration of GCPs...
2018: PloS One
I-Li Tan, Alexandre Wojcinski, Harikrishna Rallapalli, Zhimin Lao, Reeti M Sanghrajka, Daniel Stephen, Eugenia Volkova, Andrey Korshunov, Marc Remke, Michael D Taylor, Daniel H Turnbull, Alexandra L Joyner
The main cell of origin of the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup of medulloblastoma (MB) is granule cell precursors (GCPs), a SHH-dependent transient amplifying population in the developing cerebellum. SHH-MBs can be further subdivided based on molecular and clinical parameters, as well as location because SHH-MBs occur preferentially in the lateral cerebellum (hemispheres). Our analysis of adult patient data suggests that tumors with Smoothened ( SMO ) mutations form more specifically in the hemispheres than those with Patched 1 ( PTCH1 ) mutations...
March 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ian Down, Garrett Prestage, Graham Brown, Jeanne Ellard, Rebecca Guy, Margaret Hellard, David Wilson, John de Wit, Mark Stoové, Martin Holt
Background: Gay and bisexual men (GBM) with recent HIV infection are a key population to inform HIV-prevention. The National HIV Registry (NHR) provides details about all individuals diagnosed with HIV, but it is unclear how. Methods: Basic sociodemographic characteristics of GBM in the NHR who were diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 were compared with three samples of GBM: men with undiagnosed HIV infection from the Community-Based Study of Undiagnosed HIV and Testing (COUNT) study of HIV prevalence and undiagnosed infection that was conducted during 2013-14; men in the Australian Gay Community Periodic Surveys (GCPS) who were diagnosed with HIV between 2010 and 2014; and men in the HIV Seroconversion Study (SCS) who were also diagnosed in those years...
March 6, 2018: Sexual Health
Jana Chumová, Lucie Trögelová, Hana Kourová, Jindřich Volc, Vadym Sulimenko, Petr Halada, Ondřej Kučera, Oldřich Benada, Anna Kuchařová, Anastasiya Klebanovych, Pavel Dráber, Geoffrey Daniel, Pavla Binarová
γ-Tubulin is essential for microtubule nucleation and also plays less understood roles in nuclear and cell-cycle-related functions. High abundancy of γ-tubulin in acentrosomal Arabidopsis cells facilitated purification and biochemical characterization of large molecular species of γ-tubulin. TEM, fluorescence, and atomic force microscopy of purified high molecular γ-tubulin forms revealed the presence of linear filaments with a double protofilament substructure, filament bundles and aggregates. Filament formation from highly purified γ-tubulin free of γ-tubulin complex proteins (GCPs) was demonstrated for both plant and human γ-tubulin...
May 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Anna Lövgren, Catharina Österlund, Aurelija Ilgunas, Ewa Lampa, Fredrik Hellström
OBJECTIVE: Dental students have been identified as a group with high risks of developing both temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and psychosocial conditions. Our primary aim was to evaluate the cross-sectional prevalence of TMD diagnoses, as defined in the Diagnostic Criteria (DC)/TMD, among dental students. The secondary aim was to evaluate the prevalence and association of behavioural and psychosocial factors in relation to DC/TMD diagnoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted among undergraduate dental students during the second semester of their third year at the Department of Odontology, Medical Faculty, Umeå University, Sweden...
February 18, 2018: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
Saki Ito, Riko Kitazawa, Ryuma Haraguchi, Takeshi Kondo, Ayaka Ouchi, Yasuo Ueda, Sohei Kitazawa
BACKGROUND: A proper balance between the activator and the repressor form of GLI3, a zinc-finger transcription factor downstream of hedgehog signaling, is essential for proper development of various organs during development. Mutations in different domains of the GLI3 gene underlie several congenital diseases including Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) and Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS). CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we describe the case of an overlapped phenotype of these syndromes with agenesis of the gallbladder and the pancreas, bearing a c...
January 3, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
Qinghong Sheng, Qi Wang, Hui Xiao, Qing Wang
The geometric calibration of a spaceborne thermal-infrared camera with a high spatial resolution and wide coverage can set benchmarks for providing an accurate geographical coordinate for the retrieval of land surface temperature. The practice of using linear array whiskbroom Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) arrays to image the Earth can help get thermal-infrared images of a large breadth with high spatial resolutions. Focusing on the whiskbroom characteristics of equal time intervals and unequal angles, the present study proposes a spaceborne linear-array-scanning imaging geometric model, whilst calibrating temporal system parameters and whiskbroom angle parameters...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
Tomoo Owa, Shinichiro Taya, Satoshi Miyashita, Mariko Yamashita, Toma Adachi, Koyo Yamada, Miwa Yokoyama, Shogo Aida, Tomoki Nishioka, Yukiko U Inoue, Ryo Goitsuka, Takuro Nakamura, Takayoshi Inoue, Kozo Kaibuchi, Mikio Hoshino
Cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) and granule cells (GCs) represent good models to study neuronal development. Here, we report that the transcription factor myeloid ectopic viral integration site 1 homolog (Meis1) plays pivotal roles in the regulation of mouse GC development. We found that Meis1 is expressed in GC lineage cells and astrocytes in the cerebellum during development. Targeted disruption of the Meis1 gene specifically in the GC lineage resulted in smaller cerebella with disorganized lobules...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yuh-Ru Julie Lee, Yuji Hiwatashi, Takashi Hotta, Tingting Xie, John H Doonan, Bo Liu
The augmin complex plays an essential role in microtubule (MT)-dependent MT nucleation by recruiting the γ-tubulin complex to MT walls to generate new MTs [1]. The complex contains eight subunits (designated AUG) including AUG8, which is an MT-associated protein (MAP). When this complex is isolated from etiolated seedlings consisting of primarily interphase cells in Arabidopsis thaliana, AUG8 is an integral component [2]. EDE1 (Endosperm DEfective 1) is homologous to AUG8 [3]. Here, we demonstrate that EDE1, but not AUG8, is associated with acentrosomal spindle and phragmoplast MT arrays in patterns indistinguishable from those of the AUG1-7 subunits and the γ-tubulin complex proteins (GCPs) that exhibit biased localization toward MT minus ends...
December 18, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Barbara Tanno, Simona Leonardi, Gabriele Babini, Paola Giardullo, Ilaria De Stefano, Emanuela Pasquali, Anna Saran, Mariateresa Mancuso
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common pediatric brain tumor, comprising four distinct molecular variants, one of which characterized by activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway, driving 25-30% of sporadic MB. SHH-dependent MBs arise from granule cell precursors (GCPs), are fatal in 40-70% of cases and radioresistance strongly contributes to poor prognosis and tumor recurrence. Patched1 heterozygous (Ptch1+/- ) mice, carrying a germ-line heterozygous inactivating mutation in the Ptch1 gene, the Shh receptor and negative regulator of the pathway, are uniquely susceptible to MB development after radiation damage in neonatal cerebellum...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maria Amengual, Hannah Leigh, Eva Rioja
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the 24-hour postoperative respiratory effects of either intravenous fentanyl administered as a constant rate infusion or boluses of methadone, in dogs following spinal surgery, assessed by serial arterial blood gas analyses. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical study. ANIMALS: Thirty-two healthy dogs (American Society of Anesthesiologists I/II) anaesthetized for elective caudal thoracic and/or lumbar decompression spinal surgery...
September 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
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