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Kevin Wylie, Ian Bennett, Milan Marić
The effect of diffuse compositional interfaces on copolymer self-assembly was studied via gradient copolymers (GCP). Poly(methyl methacrylate)-grad-(styrene) (PMMA-grad-PSt) copolymers were synthesized in semi-batch mode using nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) with varied monomer injection protocols to produce varied diffuse interfaces (number average molecular weights (Mn) ranged from 62 000 g mol(-1) to 94 000 g mol(-1) with dispersities (Đ) between 1.35 and 1.59). The GCPs were spun into thin films on substrates made neutral by (St-ran-MMA-ran-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) terpolymers and annealed at elevated temperature to produce vertically oriented microphase-separated domains...
April 12, 2017: Soft Matter
Danielle E Whittaker, Kimberley L H Riegman, Sahrunizam Kasah, Conor Mohan, Tian Yu, Blanca Pijuan Sala, Husam Hebaishi, Angela Caruso, Ana Claudia Marques, Caterina Michetti, María Eugenia Sanz Smachetti, Apar Shah, Mara Sabbioni, Omer Kulhanci, Wee-Wei Tee, Danny Reinberg, Maria Luisa Scattoni, Holger Volk, Imelda McGonnell, Fiona C Wardle, Cathy Fernandes, M Albert Basson
The mechanisms underlying the neurodevelopmental deficits associated with CHARGE syndrome, which include cerebellar hypoplasia, developmental delay, coordination problems, and autistic features, have not been identified. CHARGE syndrome has been associated with mutations in the gene encoding the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler CHD7. CHD7 is expressed in neural stem and progenitor cells, but its role in neurogenesis during brain development remains unknown. Here we have shown that deletion of Chd7 from cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCps) results in reduced GCp proliferation, cerebellar hypoplasia, developmental delay, and motor deficits in mice...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Zhenling Ma, Xiaoliang Wu, Li Yan, Zhenliang Xu
With the development of space technology and the performance of remote sensors, high-resolution satellites are continuously launched by countries around the world. Due to high efficiency, large coverage and not being limited by the spatial regulation, satellite imagery becomes one of the important means to acquire geospatial information. This paper explores geometric processing using satellite imagery without ground control points (GCPs). The outcome of spatial triangulation is introduced for geo-positioning as repeated observation...
January 26, 2017: Sensors
Rüdiger Emshoff, Felix Bertram, Dagmar Schnabl, Iris Emshoff
AIMS: To assess the association between chronic tension-type headache coexistent with chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain and severe limitations in physical and emotional functioning. METHODS: Sample size estimation was used to determine that this case-control study should include 126 subjects. Subjects suffering from chronic TMD who were aged between 18 and 68 were recruited in routine clinical practice. Of the 126 included subjects, 63 had TMD pain associated with chronic tension-type headache (cases) and 63 had TMD pain without a history of tension-type headache (controls)...
January 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
M Bayat, A J Abbasi, A A Noorbala, S Z Mohebbi, M Moharrami, M S Yekaninejad
OBJECTIVES: This case-control study aimed to compare patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and healthy controls in terms of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) considering Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) scores, pain duration, psychological impairment and demographic characteristics. METHODS: A total of 75 patients with TMD and 75 healthy controls were recruited. The short version of Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) was administered for evaluating the OHRQoL...
January 23, 2017: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
Manuela Ceccarelli, Laura Micheli, Felice Tirone
Medulloblastoma (MB), tumor of the cerebellum, remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in childhood. We previously showed, in a mouse model of spontaneous MB (Ptch1(+/-)/Tis21(-/-)), that a defect of the migration of cerebellar granule neuron precursor cells (GCPs) correlates with an increased frequency of MB. This occurs because GCPs, rather than migrating internally and differentiating, remain longer in the proliferative area at the cerebellar surface, becoming targets of transforming insults...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Giulia Gentile, Manuela Ceccarelli, Laura Micheli, Felice Tirone, Sebastiano Cavallaro
We have recently generated a novel medulloblastoma (MB) mouse model with activation of the Shh pathway and lacking the MB suppressor Tis21 (Patched1(+/-)/Tis21(KO) ). Its main phenotype is a defect of migration of the cerebellar granule precursor cells (GCPs). By genomic analysis of GCPs in vivo, we identified as drug target and major responsible of this defect the down-regulation of the promigratory chemokine Cxcl3. Consequently, the GCPs remain longer in the cerebellum proliferative area, and the MB frequency is enhanced...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Rosa Ramírez Cota, Neus Teixidó-Travesa, Artur Ezquerra, Susana Eibes, Cristina Lacasa, Joan Roig, Jens Lüders
Regulation of the γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC) through targeting and activation restricts nucleation of microtubules to microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs), aiding in the assembly of ordered microtubule arrays. However, the mechanistic basis of this important regulation remains poorly understood. Here we show that in human cells γTuRC integrity, determined by the presence of γ-tubulin complex proteins (GCPs) 2-6, is a prerequisite for interaction with the targeting factor NEDD1, impacting on essentially all γ-tubulin dependent functions...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Sarrabeth Stone, Yeung Ho, Xiting Li, Stephanie Jamison, Heather P Harding, David Ron, Wensheng Lin
In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, activation of pancreatic ER kinase (PERK) coordinates an adaptive program known as the integrated stress response (ISR) by phosphorylating translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). Phosphorylated eIF2α is quickly dephosphorylated by the protein phosphatase 1 and growth arrest and DNA damage 34 (GADD34) complex. Data indicate that the ISR can either promote or suppress tumor development. Our previous studies showed that the ISR is activated in medulloblastoma in both human patients and animal models, and that the decreased ISR via PERK heterozygous deficiency attenuates medulloblastoma formation in Patched1 heterozygous deficient (Ptch1+/-) mice by enhancing apoptosis of pre-malignant granule cell precursors (GCPs) during cell transformation...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Doocheon Seo, Jaehong Oh, Changno Lee, Donghan Lee, Haejin Choi
Kompsat-3A, which was launched on 25 March 2015, is a sister spacecraft of the Kompsat-3 developed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI). Kompsat-3A's AEISS-A (Advanced Electronic Image Scanning System-A) camera is similar to Kompsat-3's AEISS but it was designed to provide PAN (Panchromatic) resolution of 0.55 m, MS (multispectral) resolution of 2.20 m, and TIR (thermal infrared) at 5.5 m resolution. In this paper we present the geometric calibration and validation work of Kompsat-3A that was completed last year...
October 24, 2016: Sensors
Dorian Farache, Alain Jauneau, Cécile Chemin, Marine Chartrain, Marie-Hélène Rémy, Andreas Merdes, Laurence Haren
Microtubules are nucleated from multiprotein complexes containing γ-tubulin and associated γ-tubulin complex proteins (GCPs). Small complexes (γTuSCs) comprise two molecules of γ-tubulin bound to the C-terminal domains of GCP2 and GCP3. γTuSCs associate laterally into helical structures, providing a structural template for microtubule nucleation. In most eukaryotes γTuSCs associate with additional GCPs (4, 5, and 6) to form the core of the so-called γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC). GCPs 2-6 constitute a family of homologous proteins...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Barbara Tanno, Gabriele Babini, Simona Leonardi, Paola Giardullo, Ilaria De Stefano, Emanuela Pasquali, Andrea Ottolenghi, Michael J Atkinson, Anna Saran, Mariateresa Mancuso
It has historically been accepted that incorrectly repaired DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are the principal lesions of importance regarding mutagenesis, and long-term biological effects associated with ionizing radiation. However, radiation may also cause dysregulation of epigenetic processes that can lead to altered gene function and malignant transformation, and epigenetic alterations are important causes of miRNAs dysregulation in cancer.Patched1 heterozygous (Ptch1+/-) mice, characterized by aberrant activation of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway, are a well-known murine model of spontaneous and radiation-induced medulloblastoma (MB), a common pediatric brain tumor originating from neural granule cell progenitors (GCPs)...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Joo-Young Jung, Gi Jeong Cheon, Yun-Sang Lee, Seunggyun Ha, Mi-Hye Chae, Yong-An Chung, Do Kyun Yoon, Yong-Whee Bahk
PURPOSE: Currently, traumatic bone diseases are diagnosed by assessing the micro (99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HDP) uptake in injured trabeculae with ongoing osteoneogenesis demonstrated by gamma correction pinhole scan (GCPS). However, the mathematic size quantification of micro-uptake is not yet available. We designed and performed this phantom-based study to set up an in-vitro model of the mathematical calculation of micro-uptake by the pixelized measurement. METHODS: The micro (99m)Tc-HDP deposits used in this study were spontaneously formed both in a large standard flood and small house-made dish phantoms...
September 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
H Forssell, T Kauko, U Kotiranta, T Suvinen
BACKGROUND: Up to 30% of patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) run the risk of progressing to chronic pain with significant disability. This prospective cohort study assessed the effects of baseline pain and general health and psychosocial factors on the presence of clinically significant pain in patients with TMD pain at 1 year after initial consultation. METHODS: 263 primary care patients with TMD pain were included. At the baseline, patients completed a pain questionnaire including a wide range of putative prognostic factors, which were assessed using validated self-report scales...
January 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Juan Pablo Zanin, Elizabeth Abercrombie, Wilma J Friedman
Cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCP) proliferate extensively in the external granule layer (EGL) of the developing cerebellum prior to differentiating and migrating. Mechanisms that regulate the appropriate timing of cell cycle withdrawal of these neuronal progenitors during brain development are not well defined. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) is highly expressed in the proliferating GCPs, but is downregulated once the cells leave the cell cycle. This receptor has primarily been characterized as a death receptor for its ability to induce neuronal apoptosis following injury...
2016: ELife
Nikolaos N Giannakopoulos, Eleni N Katsikogianni, Daniel Hellmann, Lydia Eberhard, Michael Leckel, Hans J Schindler, Marc Schmitter
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the short-term effectiveness of three different types of immediate, non-pharmacological intervention for alleviation of the painful symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients (mean age 41.6 ± 16.7 years, 25 females) diagnosed with non-dysfunctional painful TMD received counselling and subsequently were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: patients in Group A received prefabricated oral splints with water-filled elastic pads (Aqualizer(®)), those in Group B were provided with vacuum-formed co-polyester oral splints and those in Group C were given appointments to receive Michigan-type hard splints...
August 2016: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
Mirella Tanori, Arianna Casciati, Francesco Berardinelli, Simona Leonardi, Emanuela Pasquali, Francesca Antonelli, Barbara Tanno, Paola Giardullo, Alessandro Pannicelli, Gabriele Babini, Ilaria De Stefano, Antonella Sgura, Mariateresa Mancuso, Anna Saran, Simonetta Pazzaglia
Mutations in DNA repair pathways are frequent in human cancers. Hence, gaining insights into the interaction of DNA repair genes is key to development of novel tumor-specific treatment strategies. In this study, we tested the functional relationship in development and oncogenesis between the homologous recombination (HR) factor Rad54 and Parp-1, a nuclear enzyme that plays a multifunctional role in DNA damage signaling and repair. We introduced single or combined Rad54 and Parp-1 inactivating germline mutations in Ptc1 heterozygous mice, a well-characterized model of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor...
July 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Richard J Harvey, Kyle Roskilly, Chris Buse, Hannah K Evans, Tatjana Y Hubel, Alan M Wilson
Unmanned aerial systems (UASs), frequently referred to as 'drones', have become more common and affordable and are a promising tool for collecting data on free-ranging wild animals. We used a Phantom-2 UAS equipped with a gimbal-mounted camera to estimate position, velocity and acceleration of a subject on the ground moving through a grid of GPS surveyed ground control points (area ∼1200 m(2)). We validated the accuracy of the system against a dual frequency survey grade GPS system attached to the subject...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Silvia Mateo-Lozano, Marta García, Carlos J Rodríguez-Hernández, Carmen de Torres
During normal development of the nervous system (NS), neural progenitor cells (NPCs) produce specialized populations of neurons and glial cells upon cell fate restriction and terminal differentiation. These sequential processes require the dynamic regulation of thousands of genes. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is temporally and spatially regulated in both neurons and glial cells during development of the NS. In particular, CaSR expression and function have been shown to play a significant role during differentiation of NPCs toward the oligodendrocyte lineage and also in maturation of cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Yeung Ho, Xiting Li, Stephanie Jamison, Heather P Harding, Peter J McKinnon, David Ron, Wensheng Lin
Evidence suggests that activation of pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signaling in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress negatively or positively influences cell transformation by regulating apoptosis. Patched1 heterozygous deficient (Ptch1(+/-)) mice reproduce human Gorlin's syndrome and are regarded as the best animal model to study tumorigenesis of the sonic hedgehog subgroup of medulloblastomas. It is believed that medulloblastomas in Ptch1(+/-) mice results from the transformation of granule cell precursors (GCPs) in the developing cerebellum...
July 2016: American Journal of Pathology
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