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Dirk Louis P Schorkopf, Christos G Spanoudis, Leonard E G Mboera, Agenor Mafra-Neto, Rickard Ignell, Teun Dekker
BACKGROUND: There is a global need for cost-effective and environmentally friendly tools for control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases. One potential way to achieve this is to combine already available tools to gain synergistic effects to reduce vector mosquito populations. Another possible way to improve mosquito control is to extend the active period of a given control agent, enabling less frequent applications and consequently, more efficient and longer lasting vector population suppression...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Maria P Rebollo, Moses J Bockarie
Interventions against neglected tropical diseases (NTD), including lymphatic filariasis (LF), scaled up dramatically after the signing of the London Declaration (LD) in 2012. LF is targeted for elimination by 2020, but some countries are considered not on track to meet the 2020 target using the recommended preventive chemotherapy and morbidity management strategies. In this Opinion article we review the prospects for achieving LF elimination by 2020 in the light of the renewed global action against NTDs and the global efforts to achieve the sustainable development goals (SDGs) by 2030...
October 17, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
R J Kastner, C M Stone, P Steinmann, M Tanner, F Tediosi
In the last few years, the concepts of disease elimination and eradication have again gained consideration from the global health community, with Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) on track to become the first parasitic disease to be eradicated. Given the many complex and interlinking issues involved in committing to a disease eradication initiative, such commitments must be based on a solid assessment of a broad range of factors. In this chapter, we discuss the value and implications of undertaking a systematic and fact-based analysis of the overall situation prior to embarking on an elimination or eradication programme...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Berlin Londono-Renteria, Jenny C Cardenas, Andrea Troupin, Tonya M Colpitts
Chronic exposure to antigens may favor the production of IgG4 antibodies over other antibody types. Recent studies have shown that up to a 30% of normal human IgG4 is bi-specific and is able to recognize two antigens of different nature. A requirement for this specificity is the presence of both eliciting antigens in the same time and at the same place where the immune response is induced. During transmission of most vector-borne diseases, the pathogen is delivered to the vertebrate host along with the arthropod saliva during blood feeding and previous studies have shown the existence of IgG4 antibodies against mosquito salivary allergens...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Maeghan O'Neill, Cristina Ballesteros, Lucienne Tritten, Erica Burkman, Weam I Zaky, Jianguo Xia, Andrew Moorhead, Steven A Williams, Timothy G Geary
The use of microfilaricidal drugs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) necessitates prolonged yearly dosing. Prospects for elimination or eradication of these diseases would be enhanced by the availability of a macrofilaricidal drug. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic, is an appealing candidate. FLBZ has demonstrated potent macrofilaricidal effects in a number of experimental rodent models and in one human trial. Unfortunately, FLBZ was deemed unsatisfactory for use in mass drug administration campaigns due to its limited oral bioavailability...
October 1, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Sébastien D Pion, Céline Montavon, Cédric B Chesnais, Joseph Kamgno, Samuel Wanji, Amy D Klion, Thomas B Nutman, Michel Boussinesq
Since the mid-2000s, the immunochromatographic card test (ICT), a point-of-care test for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigens (CFAs), has been the backbone for mapping and monitoring lymphatic filariasis (LF) worldwide. Recently, there have been instances in which CFA positivity has been associated with Loa loa microfilaremia. Here, we examined the association, at both the community and individual levels, between L. loa and CFA using additional diagnostic tools (quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], Og4C3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and IgG4 antibodies to Wb123 assays) to demonstrate the relationship between L...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Vijaya Lakshmi Nag, Manodeep Sen, Nihar Ranjan Dash, R Bansal, Manoj Kumar, Anand Kumar Maurya
There are few reports of "microfilaria in the urine." We report an elderly woman with gross hematuria who was being investigated for urinary tract tuberculosis. Three consecutive urine samples showed microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti. However, she did not have chyluria. Treatment with diethylcarbamazine cleared up the hematuria within 3 days. Chyluria, hematuria, and hematochyluria are problems of Bancroftian filariasis reported worldwide. The literature review was made to present a simplified way for management...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Alexander Kwarteng, Samuel Terkper Ahuno, Freda Osei Akoto
BACKGROUND: There is compelling evidence that not only do anti-filarials significantly reduce larval forms, but that host immune responses also contribute to the clearance of filarial parasites; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. MAIN TEXT: Filarial infections caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia species (lymphatic filariasis) and Onchocerca volvulus (onchocerciasis) affect almost 200 million individuals worldwide and pose major public health challenges in endemic regions...
October 3, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Jean Frantz Lemoine, Anne Marie Desormeaux, Franck Monestime, Carl Renad Fayette, Luccene Desir, Abdel Nasser Direny, Sarah Carciunoiu, Lior Miller, Alaine Knipes, Patrick Lammie, Penelope Smith, Melissa Stockton, Lily Trofimovich, Kalpana Bhandari, Richard Reithinger, Kathryn Crowley, Eric Ottesen, Margaret Baker
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) have been targeted since 2000 in Haiti, with a strong mass drug administration (MDA) program led by the Ministry of Public Health and Population and its collaborating international partners. By 2012, Haiti's neglected tropical disease (NTD) program had reached full national scale, and with such consistently good epidemiological coverage that it is now able to stop treatment for LF throughout almost all of the country. Essential to this success have been in the detail of how MDAs were implemented...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
James W Kazura
Onchocerciasis is one of the two filarial helminth "neglected tropical diseases" (the other being lymphatic filariasis) that has been targeted for geographically local elimination followed by global eradication. The last known areas of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Americas have recently been reported to be eliminated. In contrast, achieving metrics for interruption of O. volvulus transmission in Africa, thus removing the requirement for continued monitoring and mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin, has been more challenging...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Abdallah M Samy, Arwa H Elaagip, Mohamed A Kenawy, Constância F J Ayres, A Townsend Peterson, Doaa E Soliman
Rapid emergence of most vector-borne diseases (VBDs) may be associated with range expansion of vector populations. Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 is a potential vector of West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, and lymphatic filariasis. We estimated the potential distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus under both current and future climate conditions. The present potential distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed high suitability across low-latitude parts of the world, reflecting the current distribution of the species...
2016: PloS One
Srinivasa Rao Mutheneni, Suryanaryana Murty Upadhyayula, Sriram Kumaraswamy, Madhusudhan Rao Kadiri, Balakrishna Nagalla
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major public health problem in India. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of socioeconomic conditions on LF in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS: A survey was carried out from 2004 to 2007 during which, an epidemiological and socioeconomic data were collected and analysed. The microfilaria (mf) positive samples were taken as cases and matched with control group by sex and age (1:1) for case-control study...
July 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Roman Pavela, Filippo Maggi, Hélène Mbuntcha, Verlaine Woguem, Hervet Paulin Dongmo Fogang, Hilaire Macaire Womeni, Léon Azefack Tapondjou, Luciano Barboni, Marcello Nicoletti, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
In Cameroon, many dietary spices are used by traditional healers to cure several diseases such as cancer and microbial infections. Aframomum daniellii, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus are Cameroonian spices widely used as flavourings and as food additives. Moreover, they are traditionally herbal remedies employed to treat several diseases, as well as to control populations of insect pests. In this research, we analysed the chemical composition of A. daniellii, D. cinerea and E. giganteus essential oils and we evaluated their larvicidal potential against larvae of the filariasis and West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus...
September 28, 2016: Parasitology Research
Suprabhat Mukherjee, Sandip Mukherjee, Samir Bhattacharya, Santi Prasad Sinha Babu
Lymphatic filariasis is a vector borne parasitic disease results morbidities, disabilities and socio-economic loss in each year globally. Inflammatory consequences associated with any form of filariasis have drawn special attention. However, the molecular insight behind inflammation of host macrophage (MФ) is considered as one of the shaded areas in filarial research. Herein major emphasis was given to study the signaling pathway of MФ inflammation induced by surface proteins (SPs) of filarial parasite through in vitro and in vivo approaches...
September 23, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Pelagie M Boko, Moudachirou Ibikounle, Ablawa Onzo-Aboki, Jean-Jacques Tougoue, Yollande Sissinto, Wilfrid Batcho, Dorothe Kinde-Gazard, Achille Kabore
In 2013, Benin developed strategies to control neglected tropical diseases and one of the first step was the disease mapping of the entire country in order to identify endemic districts of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STH). This study was carried out in 30 of the 77 districts of Benin. Of these 30 districts 22 were previously treated for Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) using the Ivermectin and Albendazole combination. In each district, five schools were selected and 50 children aged 8 to 14 years were sampled in each school, making a total of 250 children sampled in the district...
2016: PloS One
Gladys O Odhiambo, Rosemary M Musuva, Maurice R Odiere, Pauline N Mwinzi
BACKGROUND: The Community Directed Intervention (CDI) strategy has been used to conduct various health interventions in Africa, including control of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). Although the CDI approach has shown good results in the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis with respect to treatment coverage using community drug distributors, its utility in the control of schistosomiasis among urban poor is yet to be established. Using a longitudinal qualitative study, we explored the experiences, opportunities, challenges as well as recommendations of Community Health Workers (CHWs) after participation in annual mass drug administration (MDA) activities for schistosomiasis using the CDI approach in an urban setting...
2016: BMC Public Health
Tabitha W Kibuthu, Sammy M Njenga, Amos K Mbugua, Ephantus J Muturi
BACKGROUND: Although many mosquito species develop within agricultural landscapes where they are potentially exposed to agricultural chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides), the effects of these chemicals on mosquito biology remain poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of sublethal concentrations of four agricultural chemicals on the life history traits of Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. METHODS: Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to examine how sublethal concentrations of four agricultural chemicals: an insecticide (cypermethrin), a herbicide (glyphosate), and two nitrogenous fertilizers (ammonium sulfate and diammonium phosphate) alter oviposition site selection, emergence rates, development time, adult body size, and longevity of An...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Purushothaman Jambulingam, Swaminathan Subramanian, S J de Vlas, Chellasamy Vinubala, W A Stolk
BACKGROUND: India has made great progress towards the elimination of lymphatic filariasis. By 2015, most endemic districts had completed at least five annual rounds of mass drug administration (MDA). The next challenge is to determine when MDA can be stopped. We performed a simulation study with the individual-based model LYMFASIM to help clarify this. METHODS: We used a model-variant for Indian settings. We considered different hypotheses on detectability of antigenaemia (Ag) in relation to underlying adult worm burden, choosing the most likely hypothesis by comparing the model predicted association between community-level microfilaraemia (Mf) and antigenaemia (Ag) prevalence levels to observed data (collated from literature)...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Dhananjay Andure, Kiran Pote, Vishal Khatri, Nitin Amdare, Ramchandra Padalkar, Maryada Venkata Rami Reddy
Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito borne parasitic infection and can severely affect the normal working ability of an individual. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent this infection and the development of a potential vaccine could effectively support the on-going mass drug administration program by World Health Organization (WHO). Filarial parasites have complex mechanisms to modulate the host immune responses against them. The glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are the important enzymes effectively involved to counteract the oxidative free radicals produced by the host...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
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