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Resident myocardial stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386845/sub-physiological-oxygen-levels-optimal-for-growth-and-survival-of-human-atrial-cardiac-stem-cells
#1
Deepthi Sreerengam RajendranNair, Jayakumar Karunakaran, Renuka R Nair
Cardiac stem cells reside in niches where the oxygen levels are close to 3%. For cytotherapy, cells are conventionally expanded in ambient oxygen (21% O2) which represents hyperoxia compared to the oxygen tension of niches. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are then transplanted to host tissue with lower-O2 levels. The high-O2 gradient can reduce the efficacy of cultured cells. Based on the assumption that minimizing injury due to O2 gradients will enhance the yield of functionally efficient cells, CDCs were cultured in 3% O2 and compared with cells maintained in ambient O2...
April 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295048/cardiac-repair-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-with-trophoblast-stem-cells
#2
Guannan Li, Jianzhou Chen, Xinlin Zhang, Guixin He, Wei Tan, Han Wu, Ran Li, Yuhan Chen, Rong Gu, Jun Xie, Biao Xu
Various stem cells have been explored for the purpose of cardiac repair. However, any individual stem cell population has not been considered as the ideal source. Recently, trophoblast stem cells (TSCs), a newly described stem cell type, have demonstrated extensive plasticity. The present study evaluated the therapeutic effect of TSCs transplantation for heart regeneration in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI) and made a direct comparison with the most commonly used mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Transplantation of TSCs and MSCs led to a remarkably improved cardiac function in contrast with the PBS control, but only the TSCs exhibited the potential of differentiation into cardiomyocytes in vivo...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255084/myocardial-aging-as-a-t-cell-mediated-phenomenon
#3
Gustavo Campos Ramos, Anne van den Berg, Vânia Nunes-Silva, Johannes Weirather, Laura Peters, Matthias Burkard, Mike Friedrich, Jürgen Pinnecker, Marco Abeßer, Katrin G Heinze, Kai Schuh, Niklas Beyersdorf, Thomas Kerkau, Jocelyne Demengeot, Stefan Frantz, Ulrich Hofmann
In recent years, the myocardium has been rediscovered under the lenses of immunology, and lymphocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathies with different etiologies. Aging is an important risk factor for heart diseases, and it also has impact on the immune system. Thus, we sought to determine whether immunological activity would influence myocardial structure and function in elderly mice. Morphological, functional, and molecular analyses revealed that the age-related myocardial impairment occurs in parallel with shifts in the composition of tissue-resident leukocytes and with an accumulation of activated CD4(+) Foxp3(-) (forkhead box P3) IFN-γ(+) T cells in the heart-draining lymph nodes...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192031/neural-crest-stem-cells-can-differentiate-to-a-cardiomyogenic-lineage-with-an-ability-to-contract-in-response-to-pulsed-infrared-stimulation
#4
Jordan M Greenberg, Vicente Lumbreras, Daniel Pelaez, Suhrud M Rajguru, Herman S Cheung
INTRODUCTION: Cellular cardiomyoplasty has rapidly risen to prominence in the clinic following a myocardial infarction; however, low engraftment of transplanted cells limits the therapeutic benefit to these procedures. Recently, lineage-specific stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes have gained much attention to assist in the repair of an injured heart tissue; however, questions regarding the ideal cell source remain. In the present study, we have identified a source that is easy to extract stem cells from and show that the cells present have a high plasticity toward the cardiomyogenic lineage...
October 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063988/engineered-extracellular-microenvironment-with-a-tunable-mechanical-property-for-controlling-cell-behavior-and-cardiomyogenic-fate-of-cardiac-stem-cells
#5
Min-Young Choi, Jong-Tae Kim, Won-Jin Lee, Yunki Lee, Kyung Min Park, Young-Il Yang, Ki Dong Park
Endogenous cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are known to play a certain role in the myocardial homeostasis of the adult heart. The extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding CSCs provides mechanical signals to regulate a variety of cell behaviors, yet the impact in the adult heart of these mechanical properties of ECM on CSC renewal and fate decisions is mostly unknown. To elucidate CSC mechanoresponses at the individual cell and myocardial level, we used the sol-to-gel transitional gelatin-poly(ethylene glycol)-tyramine (GPT) hydrogel with a tunable mechanical property to construct a three-dimensional (3D) matrix for culturing native myocardium and CSCs...
January 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591224/tnf-receptor-signaling-inhibits-cardiomyogenic-differentiation-of-cardiac-stem-cells-and-promotes-a-neuroadrenergic-like-fate
#6
Tariq Hamid, Yuanyuan Xu, Mohamed Ameen Ismahil, Qianhong Li, Steven P Jones, Aruni Bhatnagar, Roberto Bolli, Sumanth D Prabhu
Despite expansion of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs; c-kit(+)Lin(-)) after myocardial infarction, endogenous repair processes are insufficient to prevent adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF). This suggests that the microenvironment in post-ischemic and failing hearts compromises CSC regenerative potential. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), are increased after infarction and in HF; whether they modulate CSC function is unknown. As the effects of TNF are specific to its two receptors (TNFRs), we tested the hypothesis that TNF differentially modulates CSC function in a TNFR-specific manner...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516007/bringing-cardiac-stem-cell-therapy-from-bench-to-bedside-lessons-from-the-past-and-future-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Miruna Mihaela Micheu, Alexandru Scafa-Udrişte, Maria DorobanŢu
Findings in the cardiology field from the last three decades of the 20th century were ruled by the theory that the heart is a post-mitotic organ, incapable to regenerate. Recent studies have brought evidences regarding the existence of some cells residing in the adult heart, having stem properties. These cardiac stem cells (CSCs) govern myocardial homeostasis and repair by differentiating into new cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells and vascular endothelial cells and also by releasing proangiogenic and procardiogenic cytokines...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453275/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-a-novel-potential-therapeutic-avenue-for-cardiac-regeneration
#8
REVIEW
S Safari, F Malekvandfard, S Babashah, A Alizadehasl, M Sadeghizadeh, M Motavaf
Coronary artery diseases (CADs) represent a significant cause of death worldwide. During recent decades the rate of cardiovascular mortality has been declined as a result of modern medicine and surgery. However, despite the fact that cardiac cells, including cardiomyocytes (CMCs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and vascular endothelial cells (VEC), can be regenerated by cardiac adult stem cell, the regenerative capacity of these cells are limited and inadequate to functionally regenerate heart damaged tissue...
June 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345618/bone-marrow-is-a-reservoir-for-cardiac-resident-stem-cells
#9
Na Liu, Xin Qi, Zhibo Han, Lu Liang, Deling Kong, Zhongchao Han, Shihua Zhao, Zuo-Xiang He, Zongjin Li
Resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) represent a responsive stem cell reservoir within the adult myocardium and have a significant function in myocardial homeostasis and injury. However, the distribution, origin, homing and possible therapeutic benefits of CSCs are still under discussion. Here we investigated whether bone marrow (BM) stem cells could contribute to repopulating the pool of CSCs in heart. The engraftment of BM cells in heart was detected at a low level after BM transplantation (BMT) and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) could increase BM cells engraftment but not significant...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341741/challenges-to-success-in-heart-failure-cardiac-cell-therapies-in-patients-with-heart-diseases
#10
Hidemasa Oh, Hiroshi Ito, Shunji Sano
Heart failure remains the leading cause of death worldwide, and is a burgeoning problem in public health due to the limited capacity of postnatal hearts to self-renew. The pathophysiological changes in injured hearts can sometimes be manifested as scar formation or myocardial degradation, rather than supplemental muscle regeneration to replenish lost tissue during the healing processes. Stem cell therapies have been investigated as a possible treatment approach for children and adults with potentially fatal cardiovascular disease that does not respond to current medical therapies...
June 21, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298624/differentiation-associated-microrna-alterations-in-mouse-heart-derived-sca-1-cd31-and-sca-1-cd31-cells
#11
Qiong Wu, Jinxi Zhan, Yun Li, Xiaoxia Wang, Lu Xu, Juan Yu, Shiming Pu, Zuping Zhou
Cardiac resident stem/progenitor cells (CSC/CPCs) are critical to the cellular and functional integrity of the heart because they maintain myocardial cell homeostasis. Several populations of CSC/CPCs have been identified based on expression of different stem cell-associated antigens. Sca-1(+) cells in the cardiac tissue may be the most common CSC/CPCs. However, they are a heterogeneous cell population and, in transplants, clinicians might transplant more endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, or other cells than stem cells...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222265/from-bone-marrow-to-cardiac-atrial-appendage-stem-cells-for-cardiac-repair-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Marc Hendrikx, Yanick Fanton, Leen Willems, Annick Daniels, Jeroen Declercq, Severina Windmolders, Karen Hensen, Remco Koninckx, Luc Jamaer, Jasperina Dubois, Dagmara Dilling-Boer, Jos Vandekerkhof, Filip Hendrikx, Eric Bijnens, Nick Heuts, Boris Robic, Virginie Bito, Marcel Ameloot, Paul Steels, Jean-Luc Rummens
Traditionally the heart is considered a terminally differentiated organ. However, at the beginning of this century increased mitotic activity was reported in ischemic and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy hearts, compared to healthy controls, underscoring the potential of regeneration after injury. Due to the presence of adult stem cells in bone marrow and their purported ability to differentiate into other cell lineages, this cell population was soon estimated to be the most suited candidate for cardiac regeneration...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27109964/first-evidence-of-cardiac-stem-cells-from-the-left-ventricular-apical-tip-in-patients-with-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation
#13
M Cameli, F M Righini, S Sparla, D Tacchini, A Dokollari, C G Sassi, C Di Tommaso, V Curci, S Censini, E Incampo, F Cassano, G Droandi, S Bernazzali, M Focardi, F Ietta, L Sartiani, R Romagnoli, G Marotta, A Mugelli, L Paulesu, G Sani, P Tanganelli, M Maccherini, S Mondillo
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have challenged the dogma that the adult heart is a postmitotic organ and raise the possibility of the existence of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs). Our study aimed to explore if these CSCs are present in the "ventricular tip" obtained during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation from patients with end-stage heart failure (HF) and the relationship with LV dysfunctional area extent. METHODS: Four consecutive patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and end-stage HF submitted to LVAD implantation were studied...
March 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27056755/edaravone-promotes-activation-of-resident-cardiac-stem-cells-by-transplanted-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-a-rat-myocardial-infarction-model
#14
Guang-Wei Zhang, Tian-Xiang Gu, Xue-Jun Sun, Chunyue Wang, Xun Qi, Xiao-Bing Wang, Jesse Li-Ling
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of edaravone on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplanted to treat acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: After pretreatment or treatment with edaravone under conditions of deep hypoxia and serum deprivation, the rat BMSCs were evaluated for reactive oxygen species (ROS), Akt pathway, apoptosis, migration, and paracrine function mediating cardiac stem cell (CSC) activation. Edaravone-pretreated BMSCs, control-released edaravone, and BMSCs were respectively transplanted into a rat AMI model...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903387/harnessing-the-secretome-of-cardiac-stem-cells-as-therapy-for-ischemic-heart-disease
#15
REVIEW
Ramin Khanabdali, Ayeshah A Rosdah, Gregory J Dusting, Shiang Y Lim
Adult stem cells continue to promise opportunities to repair damaged cardiac tissue. However, precisely how adult stem cells accomplish cardiac repair, especially after ischemic damage, remains controversial. It has been postulated that the clinical benefit of adult stem cells for cardiovascular disease results from the release of cytokines and growth factors by the transplanted cells. Studies in animal models of myocardial infarction have reported that such paracrine factors released from transplanted adult stem cells contribute to improved cardiac function by several processes...
August 1, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26820972/generation-and-characterization-of-human-cardiac-resident-and-non-resident-mesenchymal-stem-cell
#16
Baskar Subramani, Sellamuthu Subbannagounder, Sekar Palanivel, Chithra Ramanathanpullai, Sivakumar Sivalingam, Azhari Yakub, Manjunath SadanandaRao, Arivudainambi Seenichamy, Ashok Kumar Pandurangan, Jun Jie Tan, Rajesh Ramasamy
Despite the surgical and other insertional interventions, the complete recuperation of myocardial disorders is still elusive due to the insufficiency of functioning myocardiocytes. Thus, the use of stem cells to regenerate the affected region of heart becomes a prime important. In line with this human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) have gained considerable interest due to their potential use for mesodermal cell based replacement therapy and tissue engineering. Since MSCs are harvested from various organs and anatomical locations of same organism, thus the cardiac regenerative potential of human cardiac-derived MSCs (hC-MSCs) and human umbilical cord Wharton's Jelly derived MSC (hUC-MSCs) were tested concurrently...
October 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26662989/microrna-and-cardiac-regeneration
#17
Massimiliano Gnecchi, Federica Pisano, Riccardo Bariani
Heart diseases are a very common health problem in developed as well as developing countries. In particular, ischemic heart disease and heart failure represent a plague for the patients and for the society. Loss of cardiac tissue after myocardial infarction or dysfunctioning tissue in nonischemic cardiomyopathies may result in cardiac failure. Despite great advancements in the treatment of these diseases, there is a substantial unmet need for novel therapies, ideally addressing repair and regeneration of the damaged or lost myocardium...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26515110/resident-c-kit-cells-in-the-heart-are-not-cardiac-stem-cells
#18
Nishat Sultana, Lu Zhang, Jianyun Yan, Jiqiu Chen, Weibin Cai, Shegufta Razzaque, Dongtak Jeong, Wei Sheng, Lei Bu, Mingjiang Xu, Guo-Ying Huang, Roger J Hajjar, Bin Zhou, Anne Moon, Chen-Leng Cai
Identifying a bona fide population of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) is a critical step for developing cell-based therapies for heart failure patients. Previously, cardiac c-kit(+) cells were reported to be CSCs with a potential to become myocardial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vitro and after cardiac injury. Here we provide further insights into the nature of cardiac c-kit(+) cells. By targeting the c-kit locus with multiple reporter genes in mice, we find that c-kit expression rarely co-localizes with the expression of the cardiac progenitor and myogenic marker Nkx2...
October 30, 2015: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26426466/aging-effects-on-cardiac-progenitor-cell-physiology
#19
REVIEW
Marcello Rota, Polina Goichberg, Piero Anversa, Annarosa Leri
Cardiac aging has been confounded by the concept that the heart is a postmitotic organ characterized by a predetermined number of myocytes, which is established at birth and largely preserved throughout life until death of the organ and organism. Based on this premise, the age of cardiac cells should coincide with that of the organism; at any given time, the heart would be composed of a homogeneous population of myocytes of identical age. The discovery that stem cells reside in the heart and generate cardiac cell lineages has imposed a reconsideration of the mechanisms implicated in the manifestations of the aging myopathy...
October 2015: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26280107/identification-of-cardiac-stem-cells-within-mature-cardiac-myocytes
#20
Galina Belostotskaya, Alexey Nevorotin, Michael Galagudza
Cardiac stem cells are described in a number of mammalian species including humans. Cardiac stem cell clusters consisting of both lineage-negative and partially committed cells are generally identified between contracting cardiac myocytes. In the present study, c-kit(+), Sca(+), and Isl1(+) stem cells were revealed to be located inside the sarcoplasm of cardiac myocytes in myocardial cell cultures derived from newborn, 20-, and 40-day-old rats. Intracellularly localized cardiac stem cells had a coating or capsule with a few pores that opened into the host cell sarcoplasm...
2015: Cell Cycle
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