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memory and anaesthesia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752006/short-term-and-long-term-effects-of-dexamethasone-on-cognitive-dysfunction-induced-by-sevoflurane-in-adult-rats
#1
Tuğba Karaman, Serkan Karaman, Serkan Doğru, Hakan Tapar, Aynur Şahin, Mustafa Süren
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is common after anaesthesia in elderly patients. However, it may appear in patients of all ages. The main pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction remains unclear, although there is some evidence that brain inflammation may alter cognitive abilities. In the present study, we aim to evaluate short-term and long-term effects of dexamethasone on cognitive dysfunction induced by sevoflurane anaesthesia in adult rats. METHODS: Seven-month-old 30 male Wistar albino rats were randomised into three groups: sevoflurane group (exposure to sevoflurane), sevoflurane + dexamethasone group (exposure to sevoflurane and dexamethasone injection), and control group (exposure to 100% oxygen)...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673212/awareness-during-general-anaesthesia-in-the-first-4-000-incidents-reported-to-webairs
#2
K Leslie, M D Culwick, H Reynolds, J A Hannam, A F Merry
The aim of this study was to analyse the incidents related to awareness during general anaesthesia in the first 4,000 cases reported to webAIRS-an anaesthetic incident reporting system established in Australia and New Zealand in 2009. Included incidents were those in which the reporter selected "neurological" as the main category and "awareness/dreaming/nightmares" as a subcategory, those where the narrative report included the word "awareness" and those identified by the authors as possibly relevant to awareness...
July 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575197/visual-recognition-memory-is-impaired-in-rhesus-monkeys-repeatedly-exposed-to-sevoflurane-in-infancy
#3
M C Alvarado, K L Murphy, M G Baxter
Background: . Experimental studies in animals have shown that exposure to general anaesthesia in infancy can cause loss of cells in the central nervous system and long-term impairments in neurocognitive function. Some human epidemiological studies have shown increased risk of learning disability after repeated anaesthesia exposure in early childhood. Thus, we investigated in a highly translational rhesus monkey model, whether repeated exposure in infancy to the inhalation anaesthetic sevoflurane is associated with impaired visual recognition memory during the first two yr of life...
May 31, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558697/does-an-electronic-cognitive-aid-have-an-effect-on-the-management-of-severe-gynaecological-turp-syndrome-a-prospective-randomised-simulation-study
#4
Michael St Pierre, Georg Breuer, Dieter Strembski, Christopher Schmitt, Bjoern Luetcke
BACKGROUND: Lack of familiarity with the content of current guidelines is a major factor associated with non-compliance by clinicians. It is conceivable that cognitive aids with regularly updated medical content can guide clinicians' task performance by evidence-based practices, even if they are unfamiliar with the actual guideline. Acute hyponatraemia as a consequence of TURP syndrome is a rare intraoperative event, and current practice guidelines have changed from slow correction to rapid correction of serum sodium levels...
May 30, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376941/systematic-evaluation-of-skeletal-fractures-caused-by-induction-of-electroconvulsive-seizures-in-rat-state-a-need-for-attention-and-refinement-of-the-procedure
#5
Maria Ekemohn, Marie Kjær Nielsen, Matilda Grahm, Anders Tingström, Birgitte Kousholt, Gregers Wegener, Cecilie Bay-Richter
OBJECTIVE: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most efficient treatments for major depression. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), the animal model of ECT, is widely used to study both mechanisms of action and adverse effects of ECT. As the treatment itself serves as an instant anaesthetic and anaesthetic agents may affect memory functions and behaviour, ECS is traditionally administered without muscle relaxation and anaesthesia. A major problem of unmodified ECS, which has only been addressed peripherally in the literature, is that some animals sustain spinal fractures and subsequent hind leg paralysis (paraplegia)...
April 5, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349227/effects-of-bilateral-vestibular-deafferentation-in-rat-on-hippocampal-theta-response-to-somatosensory-stimulation-acetylcholine-release-and-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus
#6
Phillip Aitken, Yiwen Zheng, Paul F Smith
Vestibular dysfunction has been shown to cause spatial memory impairment. Neurophysiological studies indicate that bilateral vestibular loss (BVL), in particular, is associated with an impairment of the response of hippocampal place cells and theta rhythm. However, the specific neural pathways through which vestibular information reaches the hippocampus are yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the hypothesised 'theta-generating pathway' from the brainstem vestibular nucleus to the hippocampus...
March 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320312/the-effect-of-an-electronic-cognitive-aid-on-the-management-of-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-during-caesarean-section-a-prospective-randomised-simulation-study
#7
Michael St Pierre, Bjoern Luetcke, Dieter Strembski, Christopher Schmitt, Georg Breuer
BACKGROUND: Cognitive aids have come to be viewed as promising tools in the management of perioperative critical events. The majority of published simulation studies have focussed on perioperative crises that are characterised by time pressure, rare occurrence, or complex management steps (e.g., cardiac arrest emergencies, management of the difficult airway). At present, there is limited information on the usefulness of cognitive aids in critical situations with moderate time pressure and complexity...
March 20, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235512/transient-global-amnesia-in-immediate-postoperative-period-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#8
Anudeep Jafra, Tanvir Samra, Vasudha Gupta, M Seran Kumar Reddy
INTRODUCTION: Transient Global Amnesia (TGA) is short-term inability to form new memories despite otherwise normal neurological function. There is associated anterograde and retrograde amnesia. The memory loss is often accompanied by repetitive questioning and temporal disorientation while higher cognitive functions are preserved. The symptoms usually resolve by 24h. CASE REPORT: We present an interesting case of 31year old female who was planned for robotically assisted right sided pyeloplasty...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137660/effects-of-moderate-treadmill-exercise-and-fluoxetine-on-behavioural-and-cognitive-deficits-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-dysfunction-and-alternations-in-hippocampal-bdnf-and-mrna-expression-of-apoptosis-related-proteins-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic
#9
Sakineh Shafia, Abbas Ali Vafaei, Seyed Afshin Samaei, Ahmad Reza Bandegi, Alireza Rafiei, Reza Valadan, Zahra Hosseini-Khah, Raziyeh Mohammadkhani, Ali Rashidy-Pour
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition that develops after an individual has experienced a major trauma. Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like fluoxetine are the first-line choice in PTSD drug treatment but their moderate response rates and side effects indicate an urgent need for the development of new treatment. Physical activity is known to improve symptoms of certain neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study investigated the effects of moderate treadmill exercise, the antidepressant fluoxetine and the combined treatment on behavioural deficits, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction...
March 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044337/the-role-and-limitations-of-eeg-based-depth-of-anaesthesia-monitoring-in-theatres-and-intensive-care
#10
REVIEW
Z Hajat, N Ahmad, J Andrzejowski
In this article we will look at some of the principles in processed EEG monitoring as applied to bispectral index (BIS). We outline why BIS should be regarded as a 'memory' monitor which in most circumstances reflects the depth of sedation or anaesthesia in particular patients. Its limitation in paralysed and non-paralysed patients must be understood in order for this monitor to be used safely. Finally, its emerging use in critical care will be explored.
January 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003411/dorsal-vs-ventral-differences-in-fast-up-state-associated-oscillations-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-the-urethane-anesthetized-rat
#11
Sabine Gretenkord, Adrian Rees, Miles A Whittington, Sarah E Gartside, Fiona E N LeBeau
Cortical slow oscillations (0.1-1 Hz), which may play a role in memory consolidation, are a hallmark of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and also occur under anesthesia. During slow oscillations the neuronal network generates faster oscillations on the active Up-states and these nested oscillations are particularly prominent in the PFC. In rodents the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) consists of several subregions: anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prelimbic (PrL), infralimbic (IL), and dorsal peduncular cortices (DP)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914975/techniques-for-chronic-monitoring-of-brain-activity-in-freely-moving-sheep-using-wireless-eeg-recording
#12
N Perentos, A U Nicol, A Q Martins, J E Stewart, P Taylor, A J Morton
BACKGROUND: Large mammals with complex central nervous systems offer new possibilities for translational research into basic brain function. Techniques for monitoring brain activity in large mammals, however, are not as well developed as they are in rodents. NEW METHOD: We have developed a method for chronic monitoring of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in unrestrained sheep. We describe the methods for behavioural training prior to implantation, surgical procedures for implantation, a protocol for reliable anaesthesia and recovery, methods for EEG data collection, as well as data pertaining to suitability and longevity of different types of electrodes...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842634/a-review-of-the-peri-operative-management-of-paediatric-burns-identifying-adverse-events
#13
H Rode, C Brink, K Bester, M P Coleman, T Baisey, R Martinez
BACKGROUND: Burn injuries are common in poverty-stricken countries. The majority of patients with large and complex burns are referred to burn centres. Of the children who qualify for admission, according to burn admission criteria, about half require some kind of surgical procedure to obtain skin cover. These range from massive full-thickness fire burns to skin grafts for small, residual unhealed wounds. Burn anaesthetic procedures are of the most difficult to perform and are known for high complication rates...
November 2, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755648/anaesthetic-interventions-for-prevention-of-awareness-during-surgery
#14
REVIEW
Anthony G Messina, Michael Wang, Marshall J Ward, Chase C Wilker, Brett B Smith, Daniel P Vezina, Nathan Leon Pace
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia is usually associated with unconsciousness. 'Awareness' is when patients have postoperative recall of events or experiences during surgery. 'Wakefulness' is when patients become conscious during surgery, but have no postoperative recollection of the period of consciousness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of two types of anaesthetic interventions in reducing clinically significant awareness:- anaesthetic drug regimens; and- intraoperative anaesthetic depth monitors...
October 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624061/the-effect-of-anaesthesia-on-the-infant-brain
#15
Andrew Davidson
Pre-clinical studies have consistently found that most general anaesthetics produce accelerated apoptosis in the developing brain. The effect has been seen in species ranging from the nematode to the non-human primate. A variety of other effects are also seen. There is also some evidence that animals exposed to anaesthesia are at increased risk of deficits in memory and learning. The effects are only seen with prolonged exposure. There are numerous problems in translating these findings to human clinical scenarios...
September 10, 2016: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572468/naringenin-pre-treatment-inhibits-neuroapoptosis-and-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-in-rats-exposed-to-isoflurane-anesthesia-by-regulating-the-pi3-akt-pten-signalling-pathway-and-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammation
#16
Fu-Zhou Hua, Jun Ying, Jing Zhang, Xi-Feng Wang, Yan-Hui Hu, Ying-Ping Liang, Qin Liu, Guo-Hai Xu
The volatile anaesthetic isoflurane is one of the most frequently employed general anaesthetics in neonates, children and adults. Accumulating evidence demonstrated that exposure to anaesthetics is associated with widespread neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Thus, the identification and development of compounds capable of preventing or reducing these adverse effects is of great clinical importance. For this purpose, the present study aimed to assess the effects of a flavonoid, naringenin, on isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairment...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569857/hippocampal-and-striatal-m1-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-are-down-regulated-following-bilateral-vestibular-loss-in-rats
#17
Phillip Aitken, Alice Benoit, Yiwen Zheng, Bruno Philoxene, Anne Le Gall, Pierre Denise, Stephane Besnard, Paul F Smith
Permanent vestibular loss has detrimental effects on the hippocampus, resulting in a disruption to spatial learning and memory, hippocampal theta rhythm and place cell field spatial coherence. Little is known about the vestibular system-related hippocampal cholinergic transmission. Since the pharmacological blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors within the hippocampus produces deficits in learning and memory, we hypothesized that ACh receptors may at least partly support the integration of vestibular input...
December 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502769/the-post-anaesthesia-n-acetylcysteine-cognitive-evaluation-panacea-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
David R Skvarc, Olivia M Dean, Linda K Byrne, Laura J Gray, Kathryn Ives, Stephen E Lane, Matthew Lewis, Cameron Osborne, Richard Page, Douglas Stupart, Alyna Turner, Michael Berk, Andrew J Marriott
BACKGROUND: Some degree of cognitive decline after surgery occurs in as many as one quarter of elderly surgical patients, and this decline is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Cognition may be affected across a range of domains, including memory, psychomotor skills, and executive function. Whilst the exact mechanisms of cognitive change after surgery are not precisely known, oxidative stress and subsequent neuroinflammation have been implicated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) acts via multiple interrelated mechanisms to influence oxidative homeostasis, neuronal transmission, and inflammation...
2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501155/cognitive-decline-in-the-elderly-after-surgery-and-anaesthesia-results-from-the-oxford-project-to-investigate-memory-and-ageing-optima-cohort
#19
D Patel, A D Lunn, A D Smith, D J Lehmann, K L Dorrington
Concerns have been raised about the effects on cognition of anaesthesia for surgery, especially in elderly people. We recorded cognitive decline in a cohort of 394 people (198 women) with median (IQR) age at recruitment of 72.6 (66.6-77.8) years, of whom 109 had moderate or major surgery during a median (IQR) follow-up of 4.1 (2.0-7.6) years. Cognitive decline was more rapid in people who on recruitment were: older, p = 0.0003; male, p = 0.027; had worse cognition, p < 0.0001; or carried the ε4 allele of apoliprotein E (APOEε4), p = 0...
October 2016: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252027/ketamine-alone-or-combined-with-midazolam-or-dexmedetomidine-does-not-affect-anxiety-like-behaviours-and-memory-in-adult-wistar-rats
#20
Ana Magalhães, Ana Valentim, Carlos Venâncio, Mariana Pereira, Pedro Melo, Teresa Summavielle, Luis Antunes
Ketamine administration has been associated with controversial behavioural impairments and psychotic episodes. Even though ketamine alone and in combination with midazolam or dexmedetomidine are frequently used in laboratory animals, the side-effects of such protocols are not well known. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effects of ketamine alone and in combination with midazolam or dexmedetomidine on emotional reactivity, as well as the effects on learning and memory in adult rats at least 48 h after anaesthesia...
April 2017: Laboratory Animals
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