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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705715/acute-treatment-with-doxorubicin-affects-glutamate-neurotransmission-in-the-mouse-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampus
#1
Theresa Currier Thomas, Joshua A Beitchman, Francois Pomerleau, Teresa Noel, Paiboon Jungsuwadee, D Allan Butterfield, Daret K St Clair, Mary Vore, Greg A Gerhardt
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapeutic agent known to cause acute and long-term cognitive impairments in cancer patients. Cognitive function is presumed to be primarily mediated by neuronal circuitry in the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus, where glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. Mice treated with DOX (25 mg/kg i.p.) were subjected to in vivo recordings under urethane anesthesia at 24h post-DOX injection or 5 consecutive days of cognitive testing (Morris Water Maze; MWM). Using novel glutamate-selective microelectrode arrays, amperometric recordings measured parameters of extracellular glutamate clearance and potassium-evoked release of glutamate within the medial FC and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus...
July 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690539/neurimmirs-and-postoperative-delirium-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-total-hip-knee-replacement-a-pilot-study
#2
Rui Dong, Lingling Sun, Yayuan Lu, Xi Yang, Mian Peng, Zongze Zhang
Objective: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a frequent complication after surgery and its occurrence is associated with poor outcomes. The pathophysiology of this complication is not clear, but identification of risk factors is important for positive postoperative outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between the preoperative expression levels of microRNA (miR)-146a, miR-125b, and miR-181c in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum and the development and severity of POD. Methods: Forty elderly patients aged 65 years old and older admitted for elective total hip/knee replacement under spinal anesthesia...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683067/early-postnatal-exposure-to-isoflurane-causes-cognitive-deficits-and-disrupts-development-of-newborn-hippocampal-neurons-via-activation-of-the-mtor-pathway
#3
Eunchai Kang, Danye Jiang, Yun Kyoung Ryu, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Christy D Gray, Michael Xu, Jun H Choi, Sue Junn, Jieun Kim, Jing Xu, Michele Schaefer, Roger A Johns, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming, C David Mintz
Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that early postnatal exposure to anesthetics can lead to lasting deficits in learning and other cognitive processes. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been clarified and there is no treatment currently available. Recent evidence suggests that anesthetics might cause persistent deficits in cognitive function by disrupting key events in brain development. The hippocampus, a brain region that is critical for learning and memory, contains a large number of neurons that develop in the early postnatal period, which are thus vulnerable to perturbation by anesthetic exposure...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676317/anterograde-amnesia-and-disorientation-are-associated-with-in-patients-without-traumatic-brain-injury-taking-opioids-retrograde-amnesia-ra-is-absent-ra-assessment-should-be-integral-to-post-traumatic-amnesia-testing
#4
Jessica McLellan BPsych, Laurence A G Marshman, Maria Hennessy
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) only assesses orientation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). 'Post-traumatic amnesia' (PTA) comprises orientation, anterograde amnesia (AA) and retrograde amnesia (RA). However, RA is often disregarded in formalized PTA assessment. Drugs can potentially confound PTA assessment: e.g. midazolam can cause AA. However, potential drug confounders are also often disregarded in formalized PTA testing. One study of medium-stay elective-surgery orthopaedic patients (without TBI) demonstrated AA in 80% taking opiates after general anesthesia...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672938/edaravone-improves-spatial-memory-and-modulates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-apoptosis-after-abdominal-surgery-in-mice
#5
Ayong Tian, Hong Ma, Rongwei Zhang, Yong Cui, Chengfu Wan
Patients who receive major surgery often develop postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD); however, there is a lack of effective management as the pathogenesis of this disorder has not been fully elucidated. The neuroprotective effects of edaravone have been characterized in both in vitro cultured cells and in experimental animal models. The present study aimed to determine the potential role of edaravone in surgery-induced cognitive decline in mice. Animals were assigned to three groups: Control group (n=32), where mice received local anesthesia; surgery group (n=32), where mice underwent abdominal surgery under anesthesia; and edaravone group (n=32), where mice received abdominal surgery and were administered with edaravone (3 mg/kg)...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652561/chronic-subdural-hematoma-in-elderly-patients-is-this-disease-benign
#6
Masaaki Uno, Hiroyuki Toi, Satoshi Hirai
As the world population becomes progressively older, the overall incidence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is increasing. Peak age of onset for CSDH has also increased, and recently the 80-year-old level has a peak. Many patients with CSDH have had prior treatment with anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs, which have an accompanying risk of CSDH. In elderly patients with CSDH, symptoms of cognitive change (memory disturbance, urinary incontinence, and decreased activity) and disturbance of consciousness at admission were more frequent compared to younger patients with CSDH...
June 26, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639007/is-electroconvulsive-therapy-an-evidence-based-treatment-for-catatonia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Arnaud Leroy, Florian Naudet, Guillaume Vaiva, Andrew Francis, Pierre Thomas, Ali Amad
We aimed to review and discuss the evidence-based arguments for the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the treatment of catatonia. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies focusing on the response to ECT in catatonia were selected in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov and Current Controlled Trials through October 2016 and qualitatively described. Trials assessing pre-post differences using a catatonia or clinical improvement rating scale were pooled together using a random effect model...
June 21, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638328/protocol-for-the-reconstructing-consciousness-and-cognition-reccognition-study
#8
Kaitlyn L Maier, Andrew R McKinstry-Wu, Ben Julian A Palanca, Vijay Tarnal, Stefanie Blain-Moraes, Mathias Basner, Michael S Avidan, George A Mashour, Max B Kelz
Important scientific and clinical questions persist about general anesthesia despite the ubiquitous clinical use of anesthetic drugs in humans since their discovery. For example, it is not known how the brain reconstitutes consciousness and cognition after the profound functional perturbation of the anesthetized state, nor has a specific pattern of functional recovery been characterized. To date, there has been a lack of detailed investigation into rates of recovery and the potential orderly return of attention, sensorimotor function, memory, reasoning and logic, abstract thinking, and processing speed...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565808/rutin-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neuroapoptosis-via-modulating-jnk-and-p38-mapk-pathways-in-the-hippocampi-of-neonatal-rats
#9
Wei Li, De-Yuan Li, Si-Ming Zhao, Zhe-Jun Zheng, Jie Hu, Zong-Zhe Li, Shan-Bai Xiong
An increasing number of infants and children undergo surgery and are exposed to anesthesia as a part of medical care each year. Isoflurane is a commonly used anesthetic in the pediatric population. However, previous studies have reported widespread isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairments in neonatal animal models, raising concerns over the administration of isoflurane in the pediatric population. The current study investigated the effects of rutin, a flavonoid, on isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis in a neonatal rodent model...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554357/accuracy-of-children-s-perioperative-memories
#10
Thomas Hackmann, Rebecca A Haworth, Paul Hong, Joanne Gillespie, Jill Chorney
Children's declarative memories of medical procedures can influence their responses to subsequent events. No previous study has examined the accuracy of children's declarative memories after surgery. We tested the memory of 34 anesthesia-naïve five- to nine-year-old children undergoing ambulatory surgery for accuracy of contextual details, pain, and fear two weeks postoperatively. Parents were not present during induction, and we did not use sedative premedication. Children had a mean contextual recall accuracy of 64...
June 2017: AORN Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539885/intranasal-insulin-prevents-anesthesia-induced-cognitive-impairment-and-chronic-neurobehavioral-changes
#11
Yanxing Chen, Chun-Ling Dai, Zhe Wu, Khalid Iqbal, Fei Liu, Baorong Zhang, Cheng-Xin Gong
General anesthesia increases the risk for cognitive impairment post operation, especially in the elderly and vulnerable individuals. Recent animal studies on the impact of anesthesia on postoperative cognitive impairment have provided some valuable insights, but much remains to be understood. Here, by using mice of various ages and conditions, we found that anesthesia with propofol and sevoflurane caused significant deficits in spatial learning and memory, as tested using Morris Water Maze (MWM) 2-6 days after anesthesia exposure, in aged (17-18 months old) wild-type (WT) mice and in adult (7-8 months old) 3xTg-AD mice (a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)), but not in adult WT mice...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525510/zika-virus-obstetric-and-pediatric-anesthesia-considerations
#12
Jacqueline L Tutiven, Benjamin T Pruden, James S Banks, Mario Stevenson, David J Birnbach
As of November 2016, the Florida Department of Health (FDH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed more than 4000 travel-related Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in the United States with >700 of those in Florida. There have been 139 cases of locally acquired infection, all occurring in Miami, Florida. Within the US territories (eg, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands), >30,000 cases of ZIKV infection have been reported. The projected number of individuals at risk for ZIKV infection in the Caribbean and Latin America approximates 5 million...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485779/effects-of-vitamin-b12-on-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-induced-by-isoflurane-anesthesia-in-rats
#13
H-Y Sha, J-B Zhao, M-X Sha, S-M Guo
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a clinical syndrome associated with cognitive decline in patients after anesthesia. This study aimed to investigate the effect of VB12 (Vitamin B12), a kind of necessary micronutrients promoting the growth and development of the nervous system, on cognitive dysfunction induced by isoflurane anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen-month-old rats were exposed to or were not exposed to 1.4% isoflurane for 2 h. Two hours before isoflurane exposure, rats in groups with VB12 were injected intramuscularly with VB12 at 10 or 20 μg...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485776/isoflurane-and-sevoflurane-affects-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathways-in-hippocampal-formation-of-neonatal-rats
#14
J-F Ma, C-G Li, M-Y Sun, G-F Shao, K-Z Li
OBJECTIVE: General anesthesia impairs spatial learning and memory in neonatal rats. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Wnt pathway was involved in neonatal isoflurane and sevoflurane exposure-induced neurocognitive impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to administration isoflurane or sevoflurane for 6 hours at postnatal 7 days. Wnt inhibitor XAV 939 was administrated 30 min before anesthesia. Morris water maze was used to test the learning and memory at 5-week and 10-week...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465226/repeated-propofol-anesthesia-induced-downregulation-of-hippocampal-mir-132-and-learning-and-memory-impairment-of-rats
#15
Shuo Zhang, Zuodi Liang, Wenchong Sun, Ling Pei
Several studies have reported that neonatal exposure to propofol may cause neurotoxicity in the hippocampus, involving long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. We aimed to detect real-time changes of miR-132 of neonatal rats exposed to propofol anesthesia and to characterize subsequent changes in learning and memory. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with 40 mg/kg propofol at 0, 120, and 240 minutes or with isotonic fat emulsion as controls. Expression levels of miR-132 were assessed, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of p250GAP, a prominent target for miR-132, were evaluated at different time points during development...
April 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461010/effects-of-ketamine-dexmedetomidine-and-propofol-anesthesia-on-emotional-memory-consolidation-in-rats-consequences-for-the-development-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#16
Maria Morena, Andrea Berardi, Andrea Peloso, Daniela Valeri, Maura Palmery, Viviana Trezza, Gustav Schelling, Patrizia Campolongo
Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or emergency care patients, exposed to traumatic events, are at increased risk for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) development. Commonly used sedative/anesthetic agents can interfere with the mechanisms of memory formation, exacerbating or attenuating the memory for the traumatic event, and subsequently promote or reduce the risk of PTSD development. Here, we evaluated the effects of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and propofol on fear memory consolidation and subsequent cognitive and emotional alterations related to traumatic stress exposure...
June 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447764/sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-pregnant-rats-negatively-affects-nerve-function-in-offspring-potentially-via-inhibition-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#17
Yiyao Wang, Yu Li, Qunzhi Xing, Xuechan G Han, Xu Dong, Yiping Lu, Mintao Zhou
Due to the rapid development of medical technology used to perform intrauterine procedures during pregnancy, the number of patients receiving fetal surgery under general anesthesia is increasing. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of anesthetics on the offspring of rats, and to identify the potential mechanisms underlying these effects. On day 14 of pregnancy, Sprague‑Dawley rats were equally divided into the following 3 groups (n=9): Control group (n=3), 3% sevoflurane group (n=3) and 4% sevoflurane group (n=3)...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444766/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediates-distinct-impacts-of-sevoflurane-on-different-subfields-of-immature-hippocampus
#18
Gang Zhu, Lei Tao, Ronglin Wang, Ying Xue, Xingqin Wang, Shaosong Yang, Xude Sun, Guodong Gao, Zixu Mao, Qian Yang
Sevoflurane, a typical inhaled anesthetic, is widely used in patients of all ages during surgery. The negative effects, such as inducing cell death and damaging spatial memory, of sevoflurane on neurodevelopment have raised increasing concerns in recent years. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. This study focused on the crucial role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in sevoflurane-induced hippocampal injury. Three-week-old rats were exposed to sevoflurane or control air for 5 h with or without ER stress inhibitor (4-phenylbutyric acid, 4-PBA) injection...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433649/chronic-nicotine-attenuates-behavioral-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairments-in-a-streptozotocin-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
I M Esteves, C Lopes-Aguiar, M T Rossignoli, R N Ruggiero, A C S Broggini, L S Bueno-Junior, L Kandratavicius, M R Monteiro, R N Romcy-Pereira, J P Leite
Brain glucose metabolism is altered in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD), whose pathologies are reproduced in rodents by intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of streptozotocin (STZ) in subdiabetogenic doses. The icv-STZ model also culminates in central cholinergic dysfunctions, which in turn are known to underlie both the sAD cognitive decline, and synaptic plasticity impairments. Considering the cognitive-enhancing potential of chronic nicotine (Nic), we investigated whether it attenuates icv-STZ-induced impairments in recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in a cognition-relevant substrate: the hippocampal CA1-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pathway...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430628/critical-role-of-matrix-metallopeptidase-9-in-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-age-dependent-cognitive-decline
#20
Jiangjiang Bi, Weiran Shan, Ailin Luo, Zhiyi Zuo
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant clinical syndrome. Neuroinflammation is an important pathological process for POCD. However, it is not clear how systemic inflammation induced by surgery on peripheral tissues or organs is transmitted into the brain. We determined whether matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), a protein that can increase blood-brain barrier permeability, is critical in this transmission. The role of MMP9 in age-dependent cognitive decline was also determined...
February 20, 2017: Oncotarget
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