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Cognition and anesthesia

Yu Zhao, Hongqi Zhang
The effects of propofol vs. sevoflurane combined with remifentanil on the pain index, inflammatory factors and postoperative cognitive function in spine fracture patients were studied and analyzed. A total of 62 patients with vertebral fracture were randomly divided into the propofol group (P group, n=41) and the sevoflurane group (S group, n=41). P group used induction anesthesia with propofol, and maintained anesthesia via intravenous injection of remifentanil. While patients in S group received induction anesthesia with sevoflurane, and also remifentanil as the maintained anesthesia...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hui-Ying Xu, Guang-Hua Fu, Gui-Sheng Wu
Objective: To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine at maintenance dose on the postoperative function of elder patients after general anesthesia for laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. Methods: We enrolled a total of 96 elder patients who were admitted to this hospital for laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy under general anesthesia between March 2015 and March 2017, and divided them into two groups, Group A (n = 48) and B (n = 48). Patients in both groups received the same methods for anesthesia induction and maintenance drugs...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Amrita Aranake-Chrisinger, Jenny Zhao Cheng, Maxwell R Muench, Rose Tang, Angela Mickle, Hannah Maybrier, Nan Lin, Troy Wildes, Eric Lenze, Michael Simon Avidan
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common complication in elderly patients, characterised by a fluctuating course of altered consciousness, disordered thinking and inattention. Preliminary research has linked POD with persistent cognitive impairment and decreased quality of life. However, these findings maybe confounded by patient comorbidities, postoperative complications and frailty. Our objective is to determine whether POD is an independent risk factor for persistent impairments in attention and executive function after elective surgery...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Xinlei Wang, Guoyou Ding, Wei Lai, Shiwen Liu, Jun Shuai
Anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment is a recognized clinical phenomenon. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of microRNA-383 (miR-383) expression on propofol-induced learning and memory impairment. In total, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats (weight, 250±10 g) were randomly divided into four groups (n=12 each): Control group, and three groups of rats that were anesthetized with propofol for 6 h and untreated (propofol model group), treated with a constructed lentivirus vector expressing miR-383 mimics (mimic + propofol group), or treated with miR-383 scramble (scramble + propofol group)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Wei Xing, Pinjie Huang, Yang Lu, Weian Zeng, Zhiyi Zuo
Amantadine has been shown to reduce anesthesia and surgery-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. It is known that sepsis can impair brain function. We determined whether amantadine-attenuated sepsis-induced neuroinflammation and dysfunction of learning and memory and whether toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a role in the effects. Six- to eight-week-old mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Amantadine at 30 mg/kg/day was injected intraperitoneally for 3 days. CU-CPT22, a TLR1/TLR2 inhibitor, at 3 mg/kg/day was injected intraperitoneally for 2 days...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Yang Li, Wei-Guang Li, Ze-Guo Feng, Cheng-Gang Zhang, Lian-Jun Huang, Xiao-Rui Yang, Ying-Qun Yu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of propofol and operative trauma on the neurodevelopment and cognitive function of the developing brain and its mechanism. METHODS: A total of 104 postnatal day 13 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (treated by 7.5 mL/kg saline and sham surgery), propofol group (treated by 75 mg/kg propofol), surgery group (with abdominal surgery under local anesthesia) and propofol+surgery group (with abdominal surgery under local anesthesia plus 75 mg/kg propofol anesthesia)...
February 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Stephen J Kaplan, Heather M Seabott, Erika B Cunningham, James D Helman, Alvin Calderon, Richard C Thirlby, Kimberly D Schenarts
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to develop and generate validity evidence for an instrument to measure social capital in residents. DESIGN: Mixed-methods, phased approach utilizing a modified Delphi technique, focus groups, and cognitive interviews. SETTING: Four residency training institutions in Washington state between February 2016 and March 2017. PARTICIPANTS: General surgery, anesthesia, and internal medicine residents ranging from PGY-1 to PGY-6...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Yuchen Wang, Lanlan Ma, Xuejiao Wang, Ling Qin
Auditory steady state response (ASSR) and inhibitory gating (IG) are electrophysiological examinations commonly used to evaluate the sensory and cognitive functions of the brain. In some clinic examinations and animal experiments, general anesthesia is necessary to conduct electrophysiological recordings. However, the effects of anesthesia on ASSR and IG remain unclear. For this reason, we recorded local field potentials though electrodes implanted in different brain areas of rats: the auditory cortex (AC), hippocampus (HC), amygdala (AMY), and prefrontal cortex (PFC), and compared the characteristics of ASSR and IG under anesthetized and conscious conditions...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ruixue Hou, Hong Wang, Lianhua Chen, Yimin Qiu, Shitong Li
Objectives: Clinical observation, as well as randomized controlled trials, indicated an increasing rate of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) with increasing depth of general anesthesia. However, the findings are subject to bias due to varying degree of analgesia. In this trial, we compared the rate of POCD between patients receiving light versus high anesthesia while holding analgesia comparable using nerve block. Methods: Elderly patients (≧60 years) receiving elective total knee replacement were randomized to receive the surgery under general anesthesia at BIS 40-50 (LOBIS group) or BIS 55-65 (HIBIS group)...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
Maëva Ferraris, Antoine Ghestem, Ana F Vicente, Lauriane Nallet-Khosrofian, Christophe Bernard, Pascale P Quilichini
Gamma oscillations are involved in long-range coupling of distant regions which support various cognitive operations. Here we show in adult male rats that synchronized bursts of gamma oscillations bind the hippocampus (HPC) and prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during slow oscillations and slow wave sleep, a brain state that is central for consolidation of memory traces. These gamma bursts entrained the firing of the local HPC and mPFC neuronal populations. Neurons of the nucleus reuniens (NR), which is a structural and functional hub between HPC and mPFC, demonstrated a specific increase in their firing prior to gamma burst onset, suggesting their involvement in HPC-mPFC binding...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Guillaume Herbet, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Hugues Duffau
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prefrontal cortical structures causally involved in verbal and nonverbal semantic cognition in both cerebral hemispheres. METHODS: We retrospectively screened the intraoperative brain mapping data of 584 patients who underwent neurosurgery for neoplastic tumor under local anesthesia with direct cortical electrostimulation. Patients were included if they were right-handed, recently diagnosed with a diffuse low-grade glioma, and had a positive language mapping for verbal (naming task) and nonverbal (visual semantic association task) semantic cognition in the prefrontal cortex (n = 49)...
February 14, 2018: Neurology
Xiaoyu Xiao, Yingxian Zhu, Juyuan Bu, Guowei Li, Zibin Liang, Lukun Yang, Bingzong Hou
This study was designed to explore the effect of 3-methyladenine (3-MA) on sevoflurane anesthesia-induced cognitive dysfunction. A total of 60 C57BL/6 (5-8 months old) mice were randomly arranged into 3 groups: Control, sevoflurane (Sev) and Sev+3-MA group with 3-MA administration was performed during Sev administration. Morris water maze and Y-maze test were performed to examine the behavioral disorders. Moreover, hippocampal neuronal cell apoptosis and expression of autophagy related genes were detected. Sevoflurane induced cognitive dysfunction in mice showing significant longer escape latency, lower number of correct response, higher apoptotic neurons, and higher expression of autophagy related genes...
April 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Haiqing Huang, Jared Tanner, Hari Parvataneni, Mark Rice, Ann Horgas, Mingzhou Ding, Catherine Price
 Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI), we explored: 1) pre- to post-operative changes in functional connectivity in default mode, salience, and central executive networks after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with general anesthesia, and 2) the contribution of cognitive/brain reserve metrics these resting state functional declines. Individuals age 60 and older electing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA; n = 48) and non-surgery peers with osteoarthritis (n = 45) completed baseline cognitive testing and baseline and post-surgery (post-baseline, 48-h post-surgery) brain MRI...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jie Chen, Na Shen, Xiaohui Duan, Yaning Guo
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of dexmedetomidine in improving postoperative cognitive dysfunction from the perspectives of alleviating neuronal mitochondrial membrane oxidative stress and electrophysiological dysfunction. A total of 120 patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia from June 2013 to May, 2016 were selected as the subjects of the study and randomly divided into the propofol + remifentanil and dexmedetomidine groups. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were performed at day 1 before operation and at day 1, 3, 5 and 15 after operation...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kapil Chaudhary, Preranna Bagharwal, Sonia Wadhawan
Anesthetizing an intellectually disabled patient is a challenge due to lack of cognition and communication which makes perioperative evaluation difficult. The presence of associated medical problems and lack of cooperation further complicates the anesthetic technique. An online literature search was performed using keywords anesthesia, intellectually disabled, and mentally retarded and relevant articles were included for review. There is scarcity of literature dealing with intellectually disabled patients. The present review highlights the anesthetic challenges, their relevant evidence-based management, and the role of caretakers in the perioperative period...
October 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Vsevolod V Kuzkov, Maxim Y Obraztsov, Oleg Y Ivashchenko, Nadezhda Y Ivashchenko, Valery M Gorenkov, Mikhail Y Kirov
OBJECTIVE: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is effective for the prevention of stroke, yet can be associated with a postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) that may be affected by the type of anesthesia. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol to volatile induction and maintenance of anesthesia (VIMA) with sevoflurane on cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) and POCD. DESIGN: Single-center, pilot randomized prospective study...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Emma L Cunningham, Bernadette McGuinness, Daniel F McAuley, Jamie Toombs, Tim Mawhinney, Seamus O'Brien, David Beverland, Jonathan M Schott, Michael P Lunn, Henrik Zetterberg, Anthony P Passmore
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that APOE ε4 status and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42, T-tau and P-tau would independently predict the risk of postoperative delirium. BACKGROUND: Delirium following surgery is common and associated with adverse outcomes. Age and cognitive impairment are consistent risk factors for postoperative delirium. METHODS: This observational cohort study recruited 282 participants aged 65 years or older, without a diagnosis of dementia, admitted for primary elective hip or knee arthroplasty...
February 2, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Beverley A Orser, Santhanam Suresh, Alex S Evers
SmartTots ( represents a public-private partnership between the International Anesthesia Research Society and the US Food and Drug Administration. Over the past 7 years, SmartTots has worked in collaboration with various stakeholders to determine whether anesthetic drugs have detrimental effects on the developing brain. SmartTots has funded clinical and preclinical studies, organized meetings, served as a repository of peer-reviewed information, and facilitated the development of consensus-based statements...
February 2, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ferenc Zsila
Inhalational anesthetics are routinely employed in the clinical practice to accomplish general anesthesia. Concerns have recently been emerged regarding deleterious impact of these volatile agents on cognitive performance, immune functions, tumor recurrence and metastasis. These agents have shown to modify the gene expression pattern as well as cell signaling in tumor cells but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain a matter of conjecture. Regulatory/signaling proteins either of cytosolic or membrane origin abundantly contain intrinsically disordered sequences, the conformational pliability of which is pivotal in their biological functions...
February 4, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Ningke Wang, Yangwen Ou, Wenxiang Qing
This study investigated the effects of acupuncture combined with general anesthesia on postoperative immune and cognitive functions in elderly patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy. We recruited 96 elderly patients who received anesthesia for subtotal gastrectomy and randomly divided them into control (n=48) and experimental (n=48) groups. The control group received general anesthesia and the experimental group received combined acupuncture and general anesthesia. We measured hemodynamic immediately before and after anesthesia induction, and immune observations before and after surgery...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
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