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Cognition and anesthesia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622158/general-anesthesia-and-young-brain-what-is-new
#1
Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Ansgar Brambrick
Considering that growing population of very young children is exposed to general anesthesia every year, it is of utmost importance to understand how and whether such practice may affect the development and growth of their very immature and vulnerable brains. Compelling evidence from animal studies suggests that an early exposure to general anesthesia is detrimental to normal brain development leading to structural and functional impairments of neurons and glia, and long-lasting impairments in normal emotional and cognitive development...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620295/slow-and-fast-neocortical-oscillations-in-the-senescence-accelerated-mouse-model-samp8
#2
Patricia Castano-Prat, Maria Perez-Zabalza, Lorena Perez-Mendez, Rosa M Escorihuela, Maria V Sanchez-Vives
The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) model is characterized by accelerated, progressive cognitive decline as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurodegenerative changes, and resembles the etiology of multicausal, sporadic late-onset/age-related AD in humans. Our aim was to find whether these AD-like pathological features, together with the cognitive deficits present in the SAMP8 strain, are accompanied by disturbances in cortical network activity with respect to control mice (SAM resistance 1, SAMR1) and, if so, how the alterations in cortical activity progress with age...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614179/molecular-hydrogen-inhalation-attenuates-postoperative-cognitive-impairment-in-rats
#3
Yuchang Xin, Huiying Liu, Peng Zhang, Liuhui Chang, Keliang Xie
Postoperative cognitive decline is a major clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality after surgery. Many studies have found that molecular hydrogen (H2) has significant neuroprotection against acute and chronic neurological injury by regulating inflammation and apoptosis. In this study, we hypothesized that H2 treatment could ameliorate the development of cognitive impairment following surgery. Adult male rats were subjected to stabilized tibial fracture operation under anesthesia. Two percent of H2 was inhaled for 3 h beginning at 1 h after surgery...
June 13, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609302/association-between-exposure-of-young-children-to-procedures-requiring-general-anesthesia-and-learning-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-a-population-based-birth-cohort
#4
Danqing Hu, Randall P Flick, Michael J Zaccariello, Robert C Colligan, Slavica K Katusic, Darrell R Schroeder, Andrew C Hanson, Shonie L Buenvenida, Stephen J Gleich, Robert T Wilder, Juraj Sprung, David O Warner
BACKGROUND: Exposure of young animals to general anesthesia causes neurodegeneration and lasting behavioral abnormalities; whether these findings translate to children remains unclear. This study used a population-based birth cohort to test the hypothesis that multiple, but not single, exposures to procedures requiring general anesthesia before age 3 yr are associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective study cohort was assembled from children born in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1996 to 2000 (inclusive)...
June 13, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607335/the-surgical-stress-response-and-the-potential-role-of-preoperative-glucocorticoids-on-post-anesthesia-care-unit-recovery
#5
Kristin J Steinthorsdottir, Henrik Kehlet, Eske K Aasvang
The immediate postoperative course in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) remains a challenge across surgical procedures. Postoperative pain, sedation/cognitive dysfunction, nausea and vomiting (PONV), circulatory and respiratory problems and orthostatic intolerance constitute the bulk of the difficulties that may delay the postoperative recovery. A common feature in the observed organ dysfunctions is the inflammatory response to surgery during the acute postoperative recovery phase, suggesting that control of inflammation may improve outcomes and reduce complications...
June 12, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606253/-effect-of-preoperative-depression-on-early-postoperative-cognitive-function-in-laparoscopic-colon-cancer-patients-during-general-anesthesia
#6
Y J Yu, H Y Zhou
Objective: To analyze the effect of preoperative depression on early postoperative cognitive function after general anesthesia during laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. Methods: One hundred and fifty ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ general aneasthesia patients (male70, female 80)from Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital in May of 2015 to April of 2016, aged 50-85, undergoing selective laparoscopic colon cancer patients were included. Evaluated preoperative depression by self-rating depression scale and evaluated postoperative cognitive function on 1, 3, 7 days by post-operative quality recovery scale...
June 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599629/dose-dependent-effects-of-intravenous-methoxamine-infusion-during-hip-joint-replacement-surgery-on-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-blood-tnf-%C3%AE-level-in-elderly-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Shenghui Sun, Defeng Sun, Lin Yang, Jun Han, Ruochuan Liu, Lijie Wang
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), common in elderly patients, is thought to be closely associated with intraoperative instability of hemodynamics and excessive excretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Methoxamine is a blood-pressure increasing drug commonly used for maintaining intraoperative hemodynamics. Methoxamine potentially promotes TNF-α expression, leading to an increased risk of POCD. This study aimed to investigate the dose-dependent effect of methoxamine on the incidence of early POCD and blood TNF-α level...
June 9, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593682/interactive-pediatric-emergency-checklists-to-the-palm-of-your-hand-how-the-pedi-crisis-app-traveled-around-the-world
#8
Jorge A Gálvez, Justin L Lockman, Laura E Schleelein, Allan F Simpao, Luis M Ahumada, Bryan A Wolf, Maully J Shah, Eugenie Heitmiller, Mohamed Rehman
BACKGROUND: Cognitive aids help clinicians manage critical events and have been shown to improve outcomes by providing critical information at the point of care. Critical event guidelines, such as the Society of Pediatric Anesthesia's Critical Events Checklists described in this article, can be distributed globally via interactive smartphone apps. From October 1, 2013 to January 1, 2014, we performed an observational study to determine the global distribution and utilization patterns of the Pedi Crisis cognitive aid app that the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia developed...
June 7, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585095/a-clinical-review-of-inhalation-anesthesia-with-sevoflurane-from-early-research-to-emerging-topics
#9
Jorge D Brioni, Shane Varughese, Raza Ahmed, Berthold Bein
A large number of studies during the past two decades have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of sevoflurane across patient populations. Clinical researchers have also investigated the effects of sevoflurane, its hemodynamic characteristics, its potential protective effects on several organ systems, and the incidence of delirium and cognitive deficiency. This review examines the clinical profiles of sevoflurane and other anesthetic agents, and focuses upon emerging topics such as organ protection, postoperative cognitive deficiency and delirium, and novel ways to improve postanesthesia outcomes...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582277/simulation-based-assessment-identifies-longitudinal-changes-in-cognitive-skills-in-an-anesthesiology-residency-training-program
#10
Avner Sidi, Nikolaus Gravenstein, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Samsun Lampotang
OBJECTIVES: We describe observed improvements in nontechnical or "higher-order" deficiencies and cognitive performance skills in an anesthesia residency cohort for a 1-year time interval. Our main objectives were to evaluate higher-order, cognitive performance and to demonstrate that simulation can effectively serve as an assessment of cognitive skills and can help detect "higher-order" deficiencies, which are not as well identified through more traditional assessment tools. We hypothesized that simulation can identify longitudinal changes in cognitive skills and that cognitive performance deficiencies can then be remediated over time...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573153/optical-imaging-of-the-rat-brain-suggests-a-previously-missing-link-between-top-down-and-bottom-up-nervous-system-function
#11
Susan A Greenfield, Antoine-Scott Badin, Giovanni Ferrati, Ian M Devonshire
Optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes enables the visualization of extensive yet highly transient coalitions of neurons (assemblies) operating throughout the brain on a subsecond time scale. We suggest that operating at the mesoscale level of brain organization, neuronal assemblies may provide a functional link between "bottom-up" cellular mechanisms and "top-down" cognitive ones within anatomically defined regions. We demonstrate in ex vivo rat brain slices how varying spatiotemporal dynamics of assemblies reveal differences not previously appreciated between: different stages of development in cortical versus subcortical brain areas, different sensory modalities (hearing versus vision), different classes of psychoactive drugs (anesthetics versus analgesics), different effects of anesthesia linked to hyperbaric conditions and, in vivo, depths of anesthesia...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565808/rutin-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neuroapoptosis-via-modulating-jnk-and-p38-mapk-pathways-in-the-hippocampi-of-neonatal-rats
#12
Wei Li, De-Yuan Li, Si-Ming Zhao, Zhe-Jun Zheng, Jie Hu, Zong-Zhe Li, Shan-Bai Xiong
An increasing number of infants and children undergo surgery and are exposed to anesthesia as a part of medical care each year. Isoflurane is a commonly used anesthetic in the pediatric population. However, previous studies have reported widespread isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairments in neonatal animal models, raising concerns over the administration of isoflurane in the pediatric population. The current study investigated the effects of rutin, a flavonoid, on isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis in a neonatal rodent model...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551697/association-between-abo-blood-type-and-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-unilateral-total-hip-arthroplasty-surgery-in-china
#13
Jie Li, Jun Zhou, Yunqiang Wan, Li Liu, Cehua Ou
BACKGROUND Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a postoperative complication after surgery and anesthesia. Whether ABO blood types are associated with POCD in elderly patients undergoing unilateral total hip arthroplasty surgery in China is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS Firstly, 142 elderly patients were divided into a POCD group and a non-POCD group according to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and ABO blood types were analyzed. Secondly, according to ABO blood type, the selected 226 patients were divided into 4 groups: type A group, type B group, type AB group, and type O group...
May 28, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549893/anesthetic-neurotoxicity-in-congenital-hand-surgery-an-overview-of-the-evidence-and-advice-for-counseling-parents
#14
REVIEW
Michael S Gart, Santhanam Suresh, Joshua M Adkinson
Millions of children undergo general anesthesia for surgical procedures each year, the implications of which are not fully understood. Animal models demonstrate neurotoxicity and long-term cognitive impairment following exposure to common general anesthetic agents. However, it is unclear if human brains are affected in a similar fashion and what-if any-the implications on cognitive development may be. Furthermore, it is not known if these effects are additive and if they can be avoided by delaying reconstruction...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543437/the-adenoid-its-history-and-a-cautionary-tale
#15
Robert J Ruben
The existence of the adenoid first appears to have been noted by Conrad Victor Schneider in 1661. James Yearsley reported in 1842 one case in which he improved hearing by removal of a mucus membrane from behind the uvula, which indicates some appreciation of a relationship of the nasopharynx to ear disease. Hans Wilhelm Meyer, in 1868, was the first to demonstrate the relationship of the adenoid to ear disease and to develop an effective, although somewhat difficult, surgical operation to remove the adenoid...
June 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539885/intranasal-insulin-prevents-anesthesia-induced-cognitive-impairment-and-chronic-neurobehavioral-changes
#16
Yanxing Chen, Chun-Ling Dai, Zhe Wu, Khalid Iqbal, Fei Liu, Baorong Zhang, Cheng-Xin Gong
General anesthesia increases the risk for cognitive impairment post operation, especially in the elderly and vulnerable individuals. Recent animal studies on the impact of anesthesia on postoperative cognitive impairment have provided some valuable insights, but much remains to be understood. Here, by using mice of various ages and conditions, we found that anesthesia with propofol and sevoflurane caused significant deficits in spatial learning and memory, as tested using Morris Water Maze (MWM) 2-6 days after anesthesia exposure, in aged (17-18 months old) wild-type (WT) mice and in adult (7-8 months old) 3xTg-AD mice (a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)), but not in adult WT mice...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537663/the-significance-of-s100%C3%AE-protein-on-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-in-patients-who-underwent-single-valve-replacement-surgery-under-general-anesthesia
#17
X He, L-J Wen, C Cui, D-R Li, J-F Teng
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of S100β protein on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in patients who underwent single valve replacement surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were applied to evaluate 178 patients who underwent single valve replacement surgery under general anesthesia from June 2014 to December 2015. Patients were assessed 1 day before surgery and on postoperative days 2 and 9...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533746/intraoperative-frontal-alpha-band-power-correlates-with-preoperative-neurocognitive-function-in-older-adults
#18
Charles M Giattino, Jacob E Gardner, Faris M Sbahi, Kenneth C Roberts, Mary Cooter, Eugene Moretti, Jeffrey N Browndyke, Joseph P Mathew, Marty G Woldorff, Miles Berger
Each year over 16 million older Americans undergo general anesthesia for surgery, and up to 40% develop postoperative delirium and/or cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Delirium and POCD are each associated with decreased quality of life, early retirement, increased 1-year mortality, and long-term cognitive decline. Multiple investigators have thus suggested that anesthesia and surgery place severe stress on the aging brain, and that patients with less ability to withstand this stress will be at increased risk for developing postoperative delirium and POCD...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532200/spinal-analgesia-improves-surgical-outcome-after-open-nephrectomy-for-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-randomized-controlled-study
#19
Mascha Thurm, Britt-Inger Kröger Dahlin, Ola Winsö, Börje Ljungberg
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether more effective perioperative analgesia can be part of a multimodal approach to minimizing morbidity and improving postoperative management after the open surgical approaches frequently used in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The aim of the study was to determine whether spinal anesthesia with clonidine can enhance postoperative analgesia, speed up mobilization and reduce the length of hospital stay (LOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, 135 patients with RCC were randomized, in addition to general anesthesia, to receive either spinal analgesia with clonidine or epidural analgesia, stratified to surgical technique...
May 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512633/an-ambulatory-electroencephalography-system-for-freely-moving-horses-an-innovating-approach
#20
Hugo Cousillas, Martial Oger, Céline Rochais, Claire Pettoello, Mathilde Ménoret, Séverine Henry, Martine Hausberger
Electroencephalography (EEG) that has been extensively studied in humans presents also a large interest for studies on animal brain processes. However, since the quality of the recordings is altered by muscular activity, most EEG recordings on animals are obtained using invasive methods with deeply implanted electrodes. This requires anesthesia and can thus only be used in laboratory or clinical settings. As EEG is a very useful tool both for detecting brain alterations due to diseases or accidents and to evaluate the arousal and attentional state of the animal, it seemed crucial to develop a tool that would make such recordings possible in the horse's home environment, with a freely moving horse...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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