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Cognition and anesthesia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938523/hypothermia-induced-by-anesthesia-regulates-various-signals-expressions-in-the-hippocampus-of-animals
#1
Huimei Hao, Shanshan Wang
Though important for a variety of medical procedures, general anesthesia is not a problem free. Some anesthetics have been suggested to affect a number of signals, which are associated with memory consolidation and cognition. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the molecular mechanism of anesthesia-regulated processes. We found that under hypothermic condition, anesthetic of isoflurane enhances various signals expression in hippocampus, including Hspd1, Actb, Mgst1, THBS4, Syp, C1QC, Serpine, Plat, and Ngf, which were related to cellular stress, neural plasticity responses, and hippocampal injury...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934019/cochlear-implantation-under-conscious-sedation-with-local-anesthesia-safety-efficacy-costs-and-satisfaction
#2
Samion Shabashev, Yasser Fouad, T Kate Huncke, J Thomas Roland
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety, efficiency, cost effectiveness, and satisfaction of patients undergoing cochlear implantation under conscious sedation versus general anesthesia. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review of 20 patients who underwent cochlear implantation under conscious sedation which was compared to 20 age-matched patients where surgery was performed under general anesthesia. METHODS: Perioperative times, length of stay, anesthesia drug costs, postoperative complications, and patient satisfaction were compared between the two groups...
September 21, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927746/-proposal-of-screening-for-diffuse-low-grade-gliomas-in-the-population-from-20-to-40years
#3
Emmanuel Mandonnet, Luc Taillandier, Hugues Duffau
Diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) are cerebral tumors occurring in young adults, with an inescapable progression to higher grade of malignancy, resulting in functional impairment and death. DLGG evolve in several phases: an asymptomatic period despite a slow radiological growth; a period in which inaugural symptoms occur, usually epilepsy with possible mild cognitive disorders; then a phase with malignant transformation generating disabling neurological deficits; and ultimately the terminal stage. Early maximal surgical resection significantly increases overall survival while preserving quality of life...
September 15, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926473/hydrogen-gas-attenuates-sevoflurane-neurotoxicity-through-inhibiting-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BA-light-chain-enhancer-of-activated-b-cells-signaling-and-proinflammatory-cytokine-release-in-neonatal-rats
#4
Yiwei Shi, Gang Wang, Jinyuan Li, Wenli Yu
Anesthesia neurotoxicity in developing brain has gained increasing attention. However, knowledge regarding its mitigating strategies remains scant. Sevoflurane, a commonly used anesthetic, is responsible for learning and memory deficits in neonates. Molecular hydrogen is reported to be a potential neuroprotective agent because of its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydrogen gas on sevoflurane neurotoxicity. The newborn rats were treated with sevoflurane and/or hydrogen gas for 2 h...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920038/comparing-the-effect-of-preoperative-administration-of-melatonin-and-passiflora-incarnata-on-postoperative-cognitive-disorders-in-adult-patients-undergoing-elective-surgery
#5
Faranak Rokhtabnak, Mohammad Reza Ghodraty, Alireza Kholdebarin, Ali Khatibi, Seyedeh Somayeh Seyed Alizadeh, Zahra Sadat Koleini, Mohammad Mahdi Zamani, Alireza Pournajafian
BACKGROUND: Anxiety is a preoperative complication, which most patients encounter. The use of a premedication to reduce preoperative anxiety with minimal cognitive impairment is crucial. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to compare the sedative effect of preoperative melatonin and Passiflora incarnata in patients undergoing elective surgery regarding their potential for postoperative cognitive disorders. METHODS: In this clinical trial, 52 patients American society of anesthesiologists grade (ASA) I and II of both genders were selected to receive either Passiflora incarnata (1000 mg nature made) (n = 26) or melatonin (6 mg) (n = 26) as premedication one hour before surgery...
February 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914327/repeated-2-sevoflurane-administration-in-7%C3%A2-and-60-day-old-rats-neurotoxicity-and-neurocognitive-dysfunction
#6
He Huang, Cun-Ming Liu, Jie Sun, Wen-Jie Jin, Yu-Qing Wu, Jing Chen
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is one of the most widely used inhalation anesthetics in pediatric anesthesia. A large number of studies have demonstrated that repeated treatment with high concentrations or long durations of sevoflurane anesthesia during the neonatal period can induce neuroapoptosis and long-term learning disability. In clinical practice, we observed that a subset of patients underwent minor surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia more than once from birth to adolescence. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate whether a 2% concentration of sevoflurane (clinically relevant usage of sevoflurane) for 1 h (a short duration) can induce neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive dysfunction in adolescent rats that received sevoflurane (2% for 1 h) during the neonatal period...
September 15, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891911/delineating-the-trajectory-of-cognitive-recovery-from-general-anesthesia-in-older-adults-design-and-rationale-of-the-torie-trajectory-of-recovery-in-the-elderly-project
#7
Joshua S Mincer, Mark G Baxter, Patrick J McCormick, Mary Sano, Arthur E Schwartz, Jess W Brallier, Heather G Allore, Bradley N Delman, Margaret C Sewell, Prantik Kundu, Cheuk Ying Tang, Angela Sanchez, Stacie G Deiner
BACKGROUND: Mechanistic aspects of cognitive recovery after anesthesia and surgery are not yet well characterized, but may be vital to distinguishing the contributions of anesthesia and surgery in cognitive complications common in the elderly such as delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. This article describes the aims and methodological approach to the ongoing study, Trajectory of Recovery in the Elderly (TORIE), which focuses on the trajectory of cognitive recovery from general anesthesia...
September 7, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890046/effect-of-multiple-neonatal-sevoflurane-exposures-on-hippocampal-apolipoprotein-e%C3%A2-levels-and-learning-and-memory-abilities
#8
Junli Jiang, Chunchun Tang, Juanjuan Ren, Chao Zhang, Liang Dong, Zhaoqiong Zhu
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane anesthesia is widely used in pediatric patients. In this study, we investigated whether early multiple exposures to sevoflurane induced cognitive dysfunction by altering the hippocampal expression of ApoE later in development. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2.6% sevoflurane at postnatal day 7 (P7), P14, and P21 for 2 h. The ability of learning and memory was assessed using the Morris water maze at P37 and P97. The hippocampal volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at P37 and P97...
August 31, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882161/general-anesthesia-versus-local-anesthesia-in-stereotaxy-galaxy-for-parkinson-s-disease-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
R A Holewijn, D Verbaan, R M A de Bie, P R Schuurman
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to investigate if deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for Parkinson's disease (PD) under general anesthesia further improves outcome by lessening postoperative cognitive, mood, and behavioral adverse effects; shorten surgical time and hospital admittance; and produce comparable symptomatic and functional improvement to surgery under local anesthesia. METHODS/DESIGN: The study will be a single-center, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint trial comparing DBS under general anesthesia with DBS under local anesthesia...
September 7, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881691/critical-role-of-matrix-metallopeptidase-9-in-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-age-dependent-cognitive-decline
#10
Jiangjiang Bi, Weiran Shan, Ailin Luo, Zhiyi Zuo
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant clinical syndrome. Neuroinflammation is an important pathological process for POCD. However, it is not clear how systemic inflammation induced by surgery on peripheral tissues or organs is transmitted into the brain. We determined whether matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), a protein that can increase blood-brain barrier permeability, is critical in this transmission. The role of MMP9 in age-dependent cognitive decline was also determined...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874335/mobile-apps-for-teaching-intubation-scoping-review-and-critical-analysis-in-elearning
#11
Clyde Matava, Anne-Marie Leo, Fahad Alam
BACKGROUND: Airway management is a core skill in anesthesia ensuring adequate oxygenation and delivery of inhalational agents for the patient. OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to critically evaluate the quality of airway management apps and target revised Bloom's Taxonomy cognitive levels. METHODS: An electronic search using the keywords "airway" and "airway management" was conducted in May 2015 across the App Store, Google Play, BlackBerry World, and Windows Store...
September 5, 2017: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870150/hydrogen-sulfide-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neuroapoptosis-and-cognitive-impairment-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#12
Xueyuan Hu, Li Luan, Wei Guan, Shuai Zhang, Bei Li, Wei Ji, Honggang Fan
BACKGROUND: Isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairment has been previously reported. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to be a neuromodulator that is thought to have anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative benefits. However, it is not known if H2S is protective against anesthesia-induced apoptosis and cognitive defects. METHODS: In this study, postnatal day 7 (P7) Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (normal saline), H2S group (NaHS 28 μM/kg), isoflurane group (normal saline +0...
September 5, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869897/thalidomide-alleviates-postoperative-pain-and-spatial-memory-deficit-in-aged-rats
#13
Peng Guo, Si-Ping Hu
Pain is a major risk factor of post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in aged population. We investigated the effects of thalidomide, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, on POCD in aged rats, and also explored the underlying mechanisms. Laparotomy was performed under anesthesia in aged rats (24-25 months) to establish POCD models. Thalidomide (5-50mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered immediately after laparotomy. Within 12h after the operation, pain symptoms were assessed by rat grimace scale (RGS)...
September 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866718/hypersomnia-and-cognitive-impairment-in-a-patient-with-bipolar-disorder-a-case-report
#14
Katarzyna Szaulińska, Anna Antosik-Wójcińska, Ewa Paszkowska, Łukasz Święcicki, Marek Jarema, Adam Wichniak
OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common clinical problem that can have serious health consequences and complicate the course of mental disorders. It is estimated that the prevalence of sleep apnea in patients with bipolar disorder can be 21-47.5%. Some symptoms of OSA are the same as the symptoms of depression: daytime drowsiness, cognitive dysfunction, decreased drive, apathy, depressed mood, anhedonia. METHODS: We present a case of a patient whose depressive symptoms persisted despite repeated changes of pharmacological treatment and were exacerbated by severe sleep disorder...
June 18, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858130/effect-of-bispectral-index-guided-anesthesia-on-consumption-of-anesthetics-and-early-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-after-liver-transplantation-an-observational-study
#15
Ying-Hao Cao, Ping Chi, Yan-Xing Zhao, Xi-Chen Dong
The objective of this study was to summarize the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after 7days following liver transplantation (LT), and to evaluate the effectiveness of bispectral index (BIS) guided anesthetic intervention in reducing POCD. Additional serum concentrations of S100β and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were detected during surgery to determine whether they were reliable predictors of POCD.Patients who underwent LT at Beijing YouAn Hospital Affiliated to Capital University of Medical Science from January 2014 to December 2015 were enrolled...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855142/plasma-melatonin-levels-in-hip-fracture-patients-with-and-without-delirium-a-confirmation-study
#16
Rikie M Scholtens, Barbara C van Munster, Martijn van Faassen, Marijn F van Kempen, Ido P Kema, Sophia E de Rooij
BACKGROUND: Melatonin plays a major role in maintaining circadian rhythm. Changes in melatonin metabolism might lead to circadian rhythm disturbances which are often observed in delirious patients. AIM: To assess if high morning plasma melatonin concentrations were associated with delirium. METHODS: Consecutive hip fracture patients aged ≥65 years were included. Delirium was assessed daily with the Confusion Assessment METHOD: Blood samples were collected at 11...
September 8, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852014/anesthetic-alterations-of-collective-terahertz-oscillations-in-tubulin-correlate-with-clinical-potency-implications-for-anesthetic-action-and-post-operative-cognitive-dysfunction
#17
Travis J A Craddock, Philip Kurian, Jordane Preto, Kamlesh Sahu, Stuart R Hameroff, Mariusz Klobukowski, Jack A Tuszynski
Anesthesia blocks consciousness and memory while sparing non-conscious brain activities. While the exact mechanisms of anesthetic action are unknown, the Meyer-Overton correlation provides a link between anesthetic potency and solubility in a lipid-like, non-polar medium. Anesthetic action is also related to an anesthetic's hydrophobicity, permanent dipole, and polarizability, and is accepted to occur in lipid-like, non-polar regions within brain proteins. Generally the protein target for anesthetics is assumed to be neuronal membrane receptors and ion channels, however new evidence points to critical effects on intra-neuronal microtubules, a target of interest due to their potential role in post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD)...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842280/electroacupuncture-alleviates-surgery-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-by-increasing-%C3%AE-7-nachr-expression-and-inhibiting-inflammatory-pathway-in-aged-rats
#18
Pei-Rong Liu, Ying Zhou, Yu Zhang, Shu Diao
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common disorder of cognitive functions in aged patients following anesthesia and surgery. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR) plays a regulatory role in cognitive processes and is involved in cognitive deficits. This study aims to observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the cognitive function in aged POCD rats, and its regulation on expressions of hippocampal α7-nAChR and proinflammatory factors. Ninety healthy Sprague-Dawley male aged rats were randomly divided into three groups (each n=30): control group (sham operation), model group (partial hepatectomy), and electroacupuncture (EA) group...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840475/histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-entinostat-ms-275-restores-anesthesia-induced-alteration-of-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission-in-the-developing-rat-hippocampus
#19
Srdjan M Joksimovic, Hari Prasad Osuru, Azra Oklopcic, Mark P Beenhakker, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Slobodan M Todorovic
Recent evidence strongly supports the idea that common general anesthetics (GAs) such as isoflurane (Iso) and nitrous oxide (N2O; laughing gas), as well as sedative drugs such as midazolam are neurotoxic for the developing mammalian brain having deleterious effects on neural circuits involved in cognition, learning and memory. However, to date, very little is known about epigenetic mechanisms involved in GA-induced plasticity of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, the main memory-processing region in the brain...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840256/-neurophysiological-monitoring-during-surgical-procedures
#20
REVIEW
P Michels, A Bräuer, M Bauer, M Söhle
The application of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is gaining more and more importance in daily clinical practice. The use of IONM allows the localization of neural structures and to control functioning of the peripheral and central nervous systems in anesthetized patients. This enables surgeons to identify and to protect neural structures and cerebral areas. The use of IONM also enables anesthesiologists to adjust anesthesia and cardiopulmonary therapy to the individual needs of the patient...
August 24, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
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