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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330232/high-quality-metagenomic-dna-from-marine-sediment-samples-for-genomic-studies-through-a-preprocessing-approach
#1
Solly Solomon, Bhavya Kachiprath, G Jayanath, T P Sajeevan, I S Bright Singh, Rosamma Philip
Recent advances in culture-independent studies of microbes had proved to be more reliable and efficient than the conventional ones. The isolation of good quality and quantity of total community DNA are one of the major hurdles in this endeavour. Shearing of DNA during the extraction process and the co-extraction of inhibitory compounds reduce the quality of the isolated nucleic acids making it unsuitable for the construction of large insert metagenomic libraries. In the present study, a multi-level filtration step was brought in which efficiently isolated total bacterial DNA from three different environment samples...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327432/feedback-from-arctic-charr-feed-flavour-stimulation-and-re-feeding-after-feed-deprivation-stimulate-genes-encoding-both-orexigenic-and-anorexigenic-neuropeptides
#2
Anja Striberny, Even H Jørgensen
Despite vast research attention, the knowledge about central mechanisms of appetite regulation in teleost remains inconclusive. A common strategy in studies on appetite regulating mechanisms is to measure the response to feed restriction or - deprivation, but responses vary between fish species and between experiments, and are also likely dependent on the degree of energy perturbation. The anadromous Arctic charr is an interesting model for studying appetite regulation as its feeding cycle comprises months of winter anorexia, and hyperphagia during summer...
March 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326062/compositional-stability-of-the-bacterial-community-in-a-climate-sensitive-sub-arctic-peatland
#3
James T Weedon, George A Kowalchuk, Rien Aerts, Stef Freriks, Wilfred F M Röling, Peter M van Bodegom
The climate sensitivity of microbe-mediated soil processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling offers an interesting case for evaluating the corresponding sensitivity of microbial community composition to environmental change. Better understanding of the degree of linkage between functional and compositional stability would contribute to ongoing efforts to build mechanistic models aiming at predicting rates of microbe-mediated processes. We used an amplicon sequencing approach to test if previously observed large effects of experimental soil warming on C and N cycle fluxes (50-100% increases) in a sub-arctic Sphagnum peatland were reflected in changes in the composition of the soil bacterial community...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325977/salix-transect-of-europe-structured-genetic-variation-and-isolation-by-distance-in-the-nettle-psyllid-trioza-urticae-psylloidea-hemiptera-from-greece-to-arctic-norway
#4
Rungtip Wonglersak, Quentin Cronk, Diana Percy
BACKGROUND: The common nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is co-associated with willows (Salix spp.) in riparian habitats across Europe. We sampled the widespread nettle psyllid, Trioza urticae (Linné, 1758), from Urtica in willow habitats on a megatransect of Europe from the Aegean to the Arctic Ocean. The aim of this study was to use an unusually widespread insect to assess the influence of geographic distances and natural geographic barriers on patterns of genetic variation and haplotype distribution...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325173/patterns-and-processes-influencing-helminth-parasites-of-arctic-coastal-communities-during-climate-change
#5
K V Galaktionov
This review analyses the scarce available data on biodiversity and transmission of helminths in Arctic coastal ecosystems and the potential impact of climate changes on them. The focus is on the helminths of seabirds, dominant parasites in coastal ecosystems. Their fauna in the Arctic is depauperate because of the lack of suitable intermediate hosts and unfavourable conditions for species with free-living larvae. An increasing proportion of crustaceans in the diet of Arctic seabirds would result in a higher infection intensity of cestodes and acanthocephalans, and may also promote the infection of seabirds with non-specific helminths...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324843/variations-in-pu-isotopic-composition-in-soils-from-the-spitsbergen-norway-three-potential-pollution-sources-of-the-arctic-region
#6
E Łokas, R Anczkiewicz, R Kierepko, J W Mietelski
Although the polar regions have not been industrialised, numerous contaminants originating from human activity are detectable in the Arctic environment. This study reports evidence of (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratios in the tundra and initial soils from different parts of west and central Spitsbergen and recognizes possible environmental inputs of non-global fallout Pu. The average atomic ratio of (240)Pu/(239)Pu equal to 0.179 (ranging between 0.129 and 0.201) in tundra soils are comparable to the characteristic ratio for global fallout (0...
March 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322876/predator-prey-subsidy-population-dynamics-on-stepping-stone-domains
#7
Lulan Shen, Robert A Van Gorder
Predator-prey-subsidy dynamics on stepping-stone domains are examined using a variety of network configurations. Our problem is motivated by the interactions between arctic foxes (predator) and lemmings (prey) in the presence of seal carrion (subsidy) provided by polar bears. We use the n-Patch Model, which considers space explicitly as a "Stepping Stone" system. We consider the role that the carrying capacity, predator migration rate, input subsidy rate, predator mortality rate, and proportion of predators surviving migration play in the predator-prey-subsidy population dynamics...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320440/ecological-niche-modeling-of-rabies-in-the-changing-arctic-of-alaska
#8
Falk Huettmann, Emily Elizabeth Magnuson, Karsten Hueffer
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a disease of global significance including in the circumpolar Arctic. In Alaska enzootic rabies persist in northern and western coastal areas. Only sporadic cases have occurred in areas outside of the regions considered enzootic for the virus, such as the interior of the state and urbanized regions. RESULTS: Here we examine the distribution of diagnosed rabies cases in Alaska, explicit in space and time. We use a geographic information system (GIS), 20 environmental data layers and provide a quantitative non-parsimonious estimate of the predicted ecological niche, based on data mining, machine learning and open access data...
March 20, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317109/what-if-plant-functional-types-conceal-species-specific-responses-to-environment-study-on-arctic-shrub-communities
#9
Patrick Saccone, Kristiina Hoikka, Risto Virtanen
Plant functional types (PFT) are increasingly used to outline biome-scale plant-environment relationship and predict global change effects on community structure. However, the potentials and limitations of the PFT approach have to be tested as they can be less sensitive than trait-based or species-level approaches. Here, we compare the responses of deciduous-evergreen shrub PFTs and species to gradual snow-related environmental conditions by also considering effects of aboveground architectural traits and neighboring shrubs...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315362/molecular-analyses-reveal-high-species-diversity-of-trematodes-in-a-sub-arctic-lake
#10
Miroslava Soldánová, Simona Georgieva, Jana Roháčová, Rune Knudsen, Jesper A Kuhn, Eirik H Henriksen, Anna Siwertsson, Jenny C Shaw, Armand M Kuris, Per-Arne Amundsen, Tomáš Scholz, Kevin D Lafferty, Aneta Kostadinova
To identify trematode diversity and life-cycles in the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, Norway, we characterised 120 trematode isolates from mollusc first intermediate hosts, metacercariae from second intermediate host fishes and invertebrates, and adults from fish and invertebrate definitive hosts, using molecular techniques. Phylogenies based on nuclear and/or mtDNA revealed high species richness (24 species or species-level genetic lineages), and uncovered trematode diversity (16 putative new species) from five families typical in lake ecosystems (Allocreadiidae, Diplostomidae, Plagiorchiidae, Schistosomatidae and Strigeidae)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302769/complete-genome-sequence-of-nitrosomonas-cryotolerans-atcc-49181-a-phylogenetically-distinct-ammonia-oxidizing-bacterium-isolated-from-arctic-waters
#11
Marlen C Rice, Jeanette M Norton, Lisa Y Stein, Jessica Kozlowski, Annette Bollmann, Martin G Klotz, Luis Sayavedra-Soto, Nicole Shapiro, Lynne A Goodwin, Marcel Huntemann, Alicia Clum, Manoj Pillay, Neha Varghese, Natalia Mikhailova, Krishna Palaniappan, Natalia Ivanova, Supratim Mukherjee, T B K Reddy, Chew Yee Ngan, Chris Daum, Nikos Kyrpides, Tanja Woyke
Nitrosomonas cryotolerans ATCC 49181 is a cold-tolerant marine ammonia-oxidizing bacterium isolated from seawater collected in the Gulf of Alaska. The high-quality complete genome contains a 2.87-Mbp chromosome and a 56.6-kbp plasmid. Chemolithoautotrophic modules encoding ammonia oxidation and CO2 fixation were identified.
March 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301147/exposure-to-persistent-organic-pollutants-reduces-testosterone-concentrations-and-affects-sperm-viability-and-morphology-during-the-mating-peak-period-in-a-controlled-experiment-on-farmed-arctic-foxes-vulpes-lagopus
#12
Christian Sonne, Peter A Torjesen, Eva Fuglei, Derek C G Muir, Bjorn M Jenssen, Even Jørgensen, Rune Dietz, Øystein Ahlstrøm
We investigated testosterone production and semen parameters in farmed Arctic foxes by dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for 22 months. Eight male foxes were given a diet of POP-contaminated minke whale blubber whereas their eight male siblings were fed a control diet containing pig fat as main fat source. The minke whale-based feed contained a ∑POPs concentration of 802 ng/g ww whereas the pig-based feed contained ∑POPs of 24 ng/g ww. At the end of the experiment, ∑POP concentrations in adipose tissue were 8856±2535 ng/g ww in the exposed foxes and 1264±539 ng/g ww in the control foxes...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300108/climate-change-arctic-set-for-rainy-future
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296897/ice-cover-is-the-principal-driver-of-ecological-change-in-high-arctic-lakes-and-ponds
#14
Katherine Griffiths, Neal Michelutti, Madeline Sugar, Marianne S V Douglas, John P Smol
Recent climate change has been especially pronounced in the High Arctic, however, the responses of aquatic biota, such as diatoms, can be modified by site-specific environmental characteristics. To assess if climate-mediated ice cover changes affect the diatom response to climate, we used paleolimnological techniques to examine shifts in diatom assemblages from ten High Arctic lakes and ponds from Ellesmere Island and nearby Pim Island (Nunavut, Canada). The sites were divided a priori into four groups ("warm", "cool", "cold", and "oasis") based on local elevation and microclimatic differences that result in differing lengths of the ice-free season, as well as about three decades of personal observations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295932/potential-for-an-arctic-breeding-migratory-bird-to-adjust-spring-migration-phenology-to-arctic-amplification
#15
Thomas K Lameris, Ilse Scholten, Silke Bauer, Marleen M P Cobben, Bruno J Ens, Bart A Nolet
Arctic amplification, the accelerated climate warming in the polar regions, is causing a more rapid advancement of the onset of spring in the Arctic than in temperate regions. Consequently, the arrival of many migratory birds in the Arctic is thought to become increasingly mismatched with the onset of local spring, consequently reducing individual fitness and potentially even population levels. We used a dynamic state variable model to study whether Arctic long-distance migrants can advance their migratory schedules under climate warming scenarios which include Arctic amplification, and whether such an advancement is constrained by fuel accumulation or the ability to anticipate climatic changes...
March 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292593/aerosol-particle-size-distribution-of-atmospheric-lead-210-in-northern-finland
#16
Jussi Paatero, Alexandra Ioannidou, Jussi Ikonen, Jukka Lehto
Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected with a high-volume 6-stage cascade impactor at Sodankylä, Finland, 100 km north of the Arctic Circle. The (210)Pb content of the samples were determined with radiochemical separation of in-grown (210)Po followed by alpha spectrometry. Most of the (210)Pb activity was incorporated in accumulation mode aerosol particles. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) ranged from 0.53 μm to 0.98 μm 38-61 per cent of (210)Pb activity was found to be associated with aerosol particles smaller than 0...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291234/collocated-observations-of-cloud-condensation-nuclei-particle-size-distributions-and-chemical-composition
#17
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Adam Kristensson, Yoko Iwamoto, Kirsty Pringle, Carly Reddington, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Urs Baltensperger, Jakub Bialek, Wolfram Birmili, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Ann Mari Fjæraa, Markus Fiebig, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Masaki Furuya, Emanuel Hammer, Liine Heikkinen, Erik Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Hiroyuki Hyono, Maria Kanakidou, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Kento Kinouchi, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Ghislain Motos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Mikhail Paramonov, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Jay Slowik, Andre Sonntag, Erik Swietlicki, Birgitta Svenningsson, Hiroshi Tsurumaru, Alfred Wiedensohler, Cerina Wittbom, John A Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Ken Carslaw, Frank Stratmann, Martin Gysel
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations alongside with submicrometer particle number size distributions and particle chemical composition have been measured at atmospheric observatories of the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure (ACTRIS) as well as other international sites over multiple years. Here, harmonized data records from 11 observatories are summarized, spanning 98,677 instrument hours for CCN data, 157,880 for particle number size distributions, and 70,817 for chemical composition data...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288427/the-trophic-transfer-of-persistent-pollutants-hcb-ddts-pcbs-within-polar-marine-food-webs
#18
Simonetta Corsolini, Gianluca Sarà
Biomagnification (increase in contaminant concentrations at successively higher levels of trophic web), is a process that can transversally impair biodiversity and human health. Most research shows that biomagnification should be higher at poles with northern sites having a major tendency to biomagnify Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) through their marine food webs. We investigated the biomagnification degree into two marine trophic webs combining carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and POP analyses. We showed that the Antarctic trophic web was more depleted than the sub-Arctic one and the differences highlighted for the basal part could explain the difference in length between them...
February 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287128/a-unified-nonlinear-stochastic-time-series-analysis-for-climate-science
#19
Woosok Moon, John S Wettlaufer
Earth's orbit and axial tilt imprint a strong seasonal cycle on climatological data. Climate variability is typically viewed in terms of fluctuations in the seasonal cycle induced by higher frequency processes. We can interpret this as a competition between the orbitally enforced monthly stability and the fluctuations/noise induced by weather. Here we introduce a new time-series method that determines these contributions from monthly-averaged data. We find that the spatio-temporal distribution of the monthly stability and the magnitude of the noise reveal key fingerprints of several important climate phenomena, including the evolution of the Arctic sea ice cover, the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic Nio and the Indian Dipole Mode...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286496/response-of-bacterial-communities-to-different-detritus-compositions-in-arctic-deep-sea-sediments
#20
Katy Hoffmann, Christiane Hassenrück, Verena Salman-Carvalho, Moritz Holtappels, Christina Bienhold
Benthic deep-sea communities are largely dependent on particle flux from surface waters. In the Arctic Ocean, environmental changes occur more rapidly than in other ocean regions, and have major effects on the export of organic matter to the deep sea. Because bacteria constitute the majority of deep-sea benthic biomass and influence global element cycles, it is important to better understand how changes in organic matter input will affect bacterial communities at the Arctic seafloor. In a multidisciplinary ex situ experiment, benthic bacterial deep-sea communities from the Long-Term Ecological Research Observatory HAUSGARTEN were supplemented with different types of habitat-related detritus (chitin, Arctic algae) and incubated for 23 days under in situ conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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