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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931087/microbial-analysis-of-zetaproteobacteria-and-co-colonizers-of-iron-mats-in-the-troll-wall-vent-field-arctic-mid-ocean-ridge
#1
Jan Vander Roost, Ingunn Hindenes Thorseth, Håkon Dahle
Over the last decade it has become increasingly clear that Zetaproteobacteria are widespread in hydrothermal systems and that they contribute to the biogeochemical cycling of iron in these environments. However, how chemical factors control the distribution of Zetaproteobacteria and their co-occurring taxa remains elusive. Here we analysed iron mats from the Troll Wall Vent Field (TWVF) located at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The samples were taken at increasing distances from high-temperature venting chimneys towards areas with ultraslow low-temperature venting, encompassing a large variety in geochemical settings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927964/behavioral-responses-of-beluga-whales-delphinapterus-leucas-to-environmental-variation-in-an-arctic-estuary
#2
Paul A Anderson, Russell B Poe, Laura A Thompson, Nansen Weber, Tracy A Romano
Some Arctic estuaries serve as substrate rubbing sites for beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the summer, representing a specialized resource for the species. Understanding how environmental variation affects the species' behavior is essential to management of these habitats in coming years as the climate changes. Spatiotemporal and environmental variables were recorded for behavioral observations, during which focal groups of whales in an estuary were video-recorded for enumeration and behavioral analysis...
September 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923083/prevention-of-c5ar1-signaling-delays-microglial-inflammatory-polarization-favors-clearance-pathways-and-suppresses-cognitive-loss
#3
Michael X Hernandez, Shan Jiang, Tracy A Cole, Shu-Hui Chu, Maria I Fonseca, Melody J Fang, Lindsay A Hohsfield, Maria D Torres, Kim N Green, Rick A Wetsel, Ali Mortazavi, Andrea J Tenner
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic inhibition of C5aR1, a receptor for the complement activation proinflammatory fragment, C5a, suppressed pathology and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. To validate that the effect of the antagonist was specifically via C5aR1 inhibition, mice lacking C5aR1 were generated and compared in behavior and pathology. In addition, since C5aR1 is primarily expressed on cells of the myeloid lineage, and only to a lesser extent on endothelial cells and neurons in brain, gene expression in microglia isolated from adult brain at multiple ages was compared across all genotypes...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920828/paenibacillus-arcticus-sp-nov-isolated-from-arctic-soil
#4
In-Tae Cha, Eui-Sang Cho, Yesol Yoo, Yoon Ji Seok, Inhye Park, Hee Seon Lim, Jung-Min Park, Seong Woon Roh, Young-Do Nam, Hak-Jong Choi, Yoo Kyung Lee, Myung-Ji Seo
A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, strictly aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain MME2_R6T, was isolated from Arctic soil, and it was identified by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. This strain was psychrotolerant, growing at 4‒24 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain MME2_R6T was closest to Paenibacillus swuensis DY6T, with 93.9 % similarity. However, in phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain MME2_R6T showed that it clustered with Paenibacillus contaminans CKOBP-6T and the sequencing similarity between the two species was 93...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919459/genome-content-metabolic-pathways-and-biotechnological-potential-of-the-psychrophilic-arctic-bacterium-psychrobacter-sp-dab_al43b-a-source-and-a-host-of-novel-psychrobacter-specific-vectors
#5
Robert Lasek, Lukasz Dziewit, Anna Ciok, Przemyslaw Decewicz, Krzysztof Romaniuk, Zuzanna Jedrys, Daniel Wibberg, Andreas Schlüter, Alfred Pühler, Dariusz Bartosik
Psychrobacter sp. DAB_AL43B, isolated from ornithogenic soil collected on the Arctic island of Spitsbergen, is a newly sequenced psychrophilic strain susceptible to conjugation and electrotransformation. Its genome consists of a circular chromosome (3.3 Mb) and four plasmids (4.4-6.4kb). In silico genome mining and microarray-based phenotypic analysis were performed to describe the metabolic potential of this strain and identify possible biotechnological applications. Metabolic reconstruction indicated that DAB_AL43B prefers low-molecular-weight carboxylates and amino acids as carbon and energy sources...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918981/potential-impacts-of-shipping-noise-on-marine-mammals-in-the-western-canadian-arctic
#6
William D Halliday, Stephen J Insley, R Casey Hilliard, Tyler de Jong, Matthew K Pine
As the Arctic warms and sea ice decreases, increased shipping will lead to higher ambient noise levels in the Arctic Ocean. Arctic marine mammals are vulnerable to increased noise because they use sound to survive and likely evolved in a relatively quiet soundscape. We model vessel noise propagation in the proposed western Canadian Arctic shipping corridor in order to examine impacts on marine mammals and marine protected areas (MPAs). Our model predicts that loud vessels are audible underwater when >100km away, could affect marine mammal behaviour when within 2km for icebreakers vessels, and as far as 52km for tankers...
September 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918622/emission-changes-dwarf-the-influence-of-feeding-habits-on-temporal-trends-of-per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-in-two-arctic-top-predators
#7
Heli Routti, Jon Aars, Eva Fuglei, Linda Hanssen, Karen Lone, Anuschka Polder, Åshild Ø Pedersen, Sabrina Tartu, Jeffrey M Welker, Nigel G Yoccoz
We monitored concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in relation to climate-associated changes in feeding habits and food availability in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) (192 plasma and 113 liver samples, respectively) sampled from Svalbard, Norway, during 1997-2014. PFASs concentrations became greater with increasing dietary trophic level, as bears and foxes consumed more marine as opposed to terrestrial food, and as the availability of sea ice habitat increased...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915877/vole-abundance-and-reindeer-carcasses-determine-breeding-activity-of-arctic-foxes-in-low-arctic-yamal-russia
#8
Dorothee Ehrich, Maite Cerezo, Anna Y Rodnikova, Natalya A Sokolova, Eva Fuglei, Victor G Shtro, Aleksandr A Sokolov
BACKGROUND: High latitude ecosystems are at present changing rapidly under the influence of climate warming, and specialized Arctic species at the southern margin of the Arctic may be particularly affected. The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), a small mammalian predator endemic to northern tundra areas, is able to exploit different resources in the context of varying tundra ecosystems. Although generally widespread, it is critically endangered in subarctic Fennoscandia, where a fading out of the characteristic lemming cycles and competition with abundant red foxes have been identified as main threats...
September 16, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915375/the-presence-of-mercury-and-other-trace-metals-in-surface-soils-in-the-norwegian-arctic
#9
Katharina Halbach, Øyvind Mikkelsen, Torunn Berg, Eiliv Steinnes
Svalbard is an important study area for investigating the long-range transport of mercury (Hg) and other trace elements to the Arctic. Few studies have focused on their concentrations in Arctic soils. With ongoing climate change leading to thawing permafrost ground the soil compartment is of increasing importance in the Arctic. In this study, elemental composition and soil organic matter (SOM) content of surface and mineral soils in Svalbard are presented. The aim is to provide new data on soils in the Arctic and to gain more knowledge about the role of the soil in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg)...
September 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915315/on-the-causes-of-trends-in-the-seasonal-amplitude-of-atmospheric-co2
#10
Shilong Piao, Zhuo Liu, Yilong Wang, Philippe Ciais, Yitong Yao, Shushi Peng, Frédéric Chevallier, Pierre Friedlingstein, Ivan A Janssens, Josep Peñuelas, Stephen Sitch, Tao Wang
No consensus has yet been reached on the major factors driving the observed increase in the seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2 in the northern latitudes. In this study, we used atmospheric CO2 records from 26 northern hemisphere stations with a temporal coverage longer than 15 years, and an atmospheric transport model prescribed with net biome productivity (NBP) from an ensemble of nine terrestrial ecosystem models, to attribute change in the seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2 . We found significant (P<0...
September 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911272/exploring-health-navigating-design-momentary-contentment-in-a-cancer-context
#11
Ulrika Sandén, Lars Harrysson, Hans Thulesius, Fredrik Nilsson
PURPOSE: The technocratic and medicalized model of healthcare is rarely optimal for patients. By connecting two different studies we explore the possibilities of increasing quality of life in cancer care. METHODS: The first study captures survival strategies in a historically isolated Arctic village in Norway resulting in Momentary contentment theory, which emerged from analysing four years of participant observation and interview data. The second study conceptualizes everyday life of cancer patients based on in-depth interviews with 19 cancer patients; this was conceptualized as Navigating a new life situation...
2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910698/temperature-inocula-and-substrate-contrasting-electroactive-consortia-diversity-and-performance-in-microbial-fuel-cells
#12
E S Heidrich, J Dolfing, M J Wade, W T Sloan, C Quince, T P Curtis
The factors that affect microbial community assembly and its effects on the performance of bioelectrochemical systems are poorly understood. Sixteen microbial fuel cell (MFC) reactors were set up to test the importance of inoculum, temperature and substrate: Arctic soil versus wastewater as inoculum; warm (26.5°C) versus cold (7.5°C) temperature; and acetate versus wastewater as substrate. Substrate was the dominant factor in determining performance and diversity: unexpectedly the simple electrogenic substrate delivered a higher diversity than a complex wastewater...
July 22, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898051/effect-of-alzheimer-familial-chromosomal-mutations-on-the-amyloid-fibril-interaction-with-different-pet-tracers-insight-from-molecular-modeling-studies
#13
Kanagasabai Balamurugan, Natarajan Arul Murugan, Bengt Långström, Agneta Nordberg, Hans Ågren
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Along with an increasing number of elderly worldwide it poses a great challenge for the society and healthcare. Although sporadic AD is the common form of AD, 2-3% of the AD cases are expected to be due to mutations in the beta region of the amyloid precursor protein which is referred to as autosomal dominant AD (ADAD). These mutations may cause changes in the secondary structure of the amyloid beta fibrils and may alter the fibrillization rate leading to changes in the disease development and could also affect the binding to tracers used in diagnosis...
September 12, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890319/arctic-a%C3%AE-40-blocks-the-nicotine-induced-neuroprotective-effect-of-chrna7-by-inhibiting-the-erk1-2-pathway-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#14
Ye Ju, Toru Asahi, Naoya Sawamura
Amyloid β protein (Aβ) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Point mutations in the Aβ sequence, which cluster around the central hydrophobic core of the peptide, are associated with familial AD (FAD). Several mutations have been identified, with the Arctic mutation exhibiting a purely cognitive phenotype that is typical of AD. Our previous findings suggest that Arctic Aβ40 binds to and aggregates with CHRNA7, thereby inhibiting the calcium response and signaling pathways downstream of the receptor...
September 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887467/long-term-impact-of-amazon-river-runoff-on-northern-hemispheric-climate
#15
S Jahfer, P N Vinayachandran, Ravi S Nanjundiah
Amazon discharges a large volume of freshwater into the ocean, yet its impact on climate is largely unknown. Climate projections show that a warmer northern tropical Atlantic Ocean together with a warmer equatorial Pacific lead to extreme droughts in the Amazonia, considerably reducing the Amazon runoff. Here we present results from coupled model simulations and observations on the climatic response to a significant reduction in Amazon runoff into the Atlantic Ocean. Climate model simulation without Amazon runoff resulted in cooler equatorial Atlantic, weakening the Hadley cell and thereby the atmospheric meridional cells...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885934/medical-encounters-during-a-joint-canadian-u-s-exercise-in-the-high-arctic-exercise-arctic-ram
#16
Wendy Sullivan-Kwantes, Paul Dhillon, Len Goodman, Joseph J Knapik
The Arctic Ram Exercise was conducted in February 2016, near Resolute Bay on Cornwallis Island in Nunavut, Canada, to demonstrate the ability of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) to rapidly deploy to the arctic as an immediate response team. This report describes medical problems experienced by the 187 CAF and 28 U.S. forces involved in the exercise. Sixty-six airborne soldiers performed tactical static line jumps and linked up with soldiers on the ground for the exercise. Medical events were recorded by medics on the drop zone and by medical personnel at the Unit Medical Station in Resolute Bay...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885011/atmospheric-transport-and-deposition-of-bromoanisoles-along-a-temperate-to-arctic-gradient
#17
Terry F Bidleman, Eva Brorström-Lundén, Katarina Hansson, Hjalmar Laudon, Olle Nygren, Mats Tysklind
Bromoanisoles (BAs) arise from O-methylation of bromophenols, produced by marine algae and invertebrates. BAs undergo sea-air exchange and are transported over the oceans. Here we report 2,4-DiBA and 2,4,6-TriBA in air and deposition on the Swedish west coast (Råö) and the interior of arctic Finland (Pallas). Results are discussed in perspective with previous measurements in the northern Baltic region in 2011-2013. BAs in air decreased from south to north in the order Råö > northern Baltic > Pallas...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884406/similarities-and-differences-in-barriers-and-opportunities-affecting-climate-change-adaptation-action-in-four-north-american-landscapes
#18
Whitney R Lonsdale, Heidi E Kretser, Cheryl-Lesley B Chetkiewicz, Molly S Cross
Climate change presents a complex set of challenges for natural resource managers across North America. Despite recognition that climate change poses serious threats to species, ecosystems, and human communities, implementation of adaptation measures is not yet happening on a broad scale. Among different regions, a range of climate change trajectories, varying political contexts, and diverse social and ecological systems generate a myriad of factors that can affect progress on climate change adaptation implementation...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881250/airborne-radionuclides-in-the-proglacial-environment-as-indicators-of-sources-and-transfers-of-soil-material
#19
Edyta Łokas, Przemysław Wachniew, Paweł Jodłowski, Michał Gąsiorek
A survey of artificial ((137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu, (241)Am) and natural ((226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, (210)Pb) radioactive isotopes in proglacial soils of an Arctic glacier have revealed high spatial variability of activity concentrations and inventories of the airborne radionuclides. Soil column (137)Cs inventories range from below the detection limit to nearly 120 kBq m(-2), this value significantly exceeding direct atmospheric deposition. This variability may result from the mixing of materials characterised by different contents of airborne radionuclides...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879355/rare-earth-elements-in-freshwater-marine-and-terrestrial-ecosystems-in-the-eastern-canadian-arctic
#20
Gwyneth Anne MacMillan, John Chételat, Joel P Heath, Raymond Mickpegak, Marc Amyot
Few ecotoxicological studies exist for rare earth elements (REEs), particularly field-based studies on their bioaccumulation and food web dynamics. REE mining has led to significant environmental impacts in several countries (China, Brazil, U.S.), yet little is known about the fate and transport of these contaminants of emerging concern. Northern ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to REE enrichment from prospective mining projects at high latitudes. To understand how REEs behave in remote northern food webs, we measured REE concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (∂(15)N, ∂(13)C) in biota from marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic (N = 339)...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
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