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Sensorimotor training

Manuj Yadav, Densil Cabrera
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to study the effect of room acoustics and phonemes on the perception of loudness of one's own voice (autophonic loudness) for a group of trained singers. METHODS: For a set of five phonemes, 20 singers vocalized over several autophonic loudness ratios, while maintaining pitch constancy over extreme voice levels, within five simulated rooms. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the slope of the autophonic loudness function (logarithm of autophonic loudness as a function of voice sound pressure level) for the five phonemes, with slopes ranging from 1...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Anna Vera Cuppone, Valentina Squeri, Marianna Semprini, Lorenzo Masia, Jürgen Konczak
This study examined the trainability of the proprioceptive sense and explored the relationship between proprioception and motor learning. With vision blocked, human learners had to perform goal-directed wrist movements relying solely on proprioceptive/haptic cues to reach several haptically specified targets. One group received additional somatosensory movement error feedback in form of vibro-tactile cues applied to the skin of the forearm. We used a haptic robotic device for the wrist and implemented a 3-day training regimen that required learners to make spatially precise goal-directed wrist reaching movements without vision...
2016: PloS One
Alison Mary, Vincent Wens, Marc Op de Beeck, Rachel Leproult, Xavier De Tiège, Philippe Peigneux
Decreased neural plasticity is observed with healthy ageing in the primary sensorimotor (SM1) cortex thought to participate in motor learning and memory consolidation processes. In the present magnetoencephalography study, the post-training reorganization of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and its relation with motor learning and early consolidation in 14 young (19-30 years) and 14 old (66-70 years) healthy participants were investigated. At the behavioral level, participants were trained on a motor sequence learning task then retested 20-30 min later for transient offline gains in performance...
October 11, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Weiqing Liu, Dong Wang, Wenjuan Hong, Yi Yu, Jinsong Tang, Jicai Wang, Fang Liu, Xiufeng Xu, Liwen Tan, Xiaogang Chen
Although N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists-induced hypoglutamate rodent models are the most well-established models for preclinical studies of schizophrenia-related deficits, they also evoke a wide spectrum of psychotomimetic side effects. It is significant to increase the specificity of hypoglutamate rodent models. In this study, the recognition memory was evaluated in rats by object recognition test (ORT), sensorimotor gating was evaluated by prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI), and locomotor activity was measured using open field test...
October 7, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Evhen Y Strashko, Аnna A Kapustianska, Lyudmyla E Bobyreva
Matters of physical and medical rehabilitation of children with organic lesions of the nervous system, in particular, with cerebral palsy, are actual in countries around the world. Hippotherapy is neurophysiologically oriented therapy using horses. Determine whether a combination of hippotherapy as a method of rehabilitation in the aftermath of outpatient comprehensive impact on MS on a stationary phase; Study of the effect of hippotherapy as securing and preparation method for learning new postures and movements in children with spastic cerebral palsy forms; The study of the possible optimization of psychophysical state, activation motivations of patients; Determination of the optimal timing of hippotherapy sessions, the number of procedures, the study of possible fatigue factor children...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Marleen Bink, Ilja L Bongers, Arne Popma, Tieme W P Janssen, Chijs van Nieuwenhuizen
BACKGROUND: Estimates of the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are mixed. AIMS: To investigate the long-term additional effects of neurofeedback (NFB) compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents with ADHD. METHOD: Using a multicentre parallel-randomised controlled trial design, 60 adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD receiving NFB+TAU (n=41) or TAU (n=19) were followed up...
March 2016: BJPsych Open
Meghan Elizabeth Huber, Nikita Kuznetsov, Dagmar Sternad
It is well documented that variability in motor performance decreases with practice. Yet, the neural and computational mechanisms that underlie this decline, particularly during long-term practice, are only little understood. Decreasing variability is frequently examined in terms of error corrections from one trial to the next. However, the ubiquitous noise from all levels of the sensorimotor system is also a significant contributor to overt variability. While neuromotor noise is typically assumed and modeled as immune to practice, the current study challenged this notion...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Lorraine K Glumac, Sharon Farley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Tracy Jirikowic, Sarah Westcott McCoy, Robert Price, Marcia A Ciol, Lin-Ya Hsu, Deborah Kartin
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of Sensorimotor Training to Affect Balance, Engagement, and Learning (STABEL), a virtual reality system to train sensory adaptation for balance control, for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). METHODS: Twenty-three children with FASDs received STABEL training in a university laboratory, or home, or were controls. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2) and Pediatric Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction for Balance-2 (P-CTSIB-2) were analyzed by group (lab, home, and control), session (pre-STABEL, 1 week post-STABEL, and 1 month post-STABEL), and group-by-session interaction...
2016: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Valeria Mondini, Anna Lisa Mangia, Angelo Cappello
Motor imagery is a common control strategy in EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, voluntary control of sensorimotor (SMR) rhythms by imagining a movement can be skilful and unintuitive and usually requires a varying amount of user training. To boost the training process, a whole class of BCI systems have been proposed, providing feedback as early as possible while continuously adapting the underlying classifier model. The present work describes a cue-paced, EEG-based BCI system using motor imagery that falls within the category of the previously mentioned ones...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Mansooreh Aliasgharpour, Zahra Abbasi, Shadan Pedram Razi, Anoshiravan Kazemnezhad
BACKGROUND: The restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor disorder that is very common in patients on hemodialysis. Due to pharmacological treatments which have their own side effects, nowadays, studies have turned to non-pharmacological treatments. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to assess the effect of stretching exercises on the severity of restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This clinical trial study was conducted on 33 patients who had been identified using diagnostic criteria from the hemodialysis ward of Hasheminejad Hospital in Tehran...
June 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
Hugo Massé-Alarie, Cyril Schneider
Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a recurrent debilitating condition that costs billions to society. Refractoriness to conventional treatment, lack of improvement, and associated movement disorders could be related to the extensive brain plasticity present in this condition, especially in the sensorimotor cortices. This narrative review on corticomotor plasticity in CLBP will try to delineate how interventions such as training and neuromodulation can improve the condition. The review recommends subgrouping classification in CLBP owing to brain plasticity markers with a view of better understanding and treating this complex condition...
September 8, 2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Michiyuki Kawakami, Toshiyuki Fujiwara, Junichi Ushiba, Atsuko Nishimoto, Kaoru Abe, Kaoru Honaga, Atsuko Nishimura, Katsuhiro Mizuno, Mitsuhiko Kodama, Yoshihisa Masakado, Meigen Liu
BACKGROUND: Hybrid assistive neuromuscular dynamic stimulation (HANDS) therapy improved paretic upper extremity motor function in patients with severe to moderate hemiparesis. We hypothesized that brain machine interface (BMI) training would be able to increase paretic finger muscle activity enough to apply HANDS therapy in patients with severe hemiparesis, whose finger extensor was absent. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of BMI training followed by HANDS therapy in patients with severe hemiparesis...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Jaewon Beom, Sukgyu Koh, Hyung Seok Nam, Wonshik Kim, Yoonjae Kim, Han Gil Seo, Byung-Mo Oh, Sun Gun Chung, Sungwan Kim
Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kristiina M Hormigo, Lyandysha V Zholudeva, Victoria M Spruance, Vitaliy Marchenko, Marie-Pascale Cote, Stephane Vinit, Simon Giszter, Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Michael A Lane
Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent life-altering sensorimotor deficits, among which impaired breathing is one of the most devastating and life-threatening. While clinical and experimental research has revealed that some spontaneous respiratory improvement (functional plasticity) can occur post-SCI, the extent of the recovery is limited and significant deficits persist. Thus, increasing effort is being made to develop therapies that harness and enhance this neuroplastic potential to optimize long-term recovery of breathing in injured individuals...
August 28, 2016: Experimental Neurology
S Becker, M Diers
Many chronic pain syndromes are characterized by enhanced perception of painful stimuli as well as alterations in cortical processing in sensory and motor regions. In this review article the alterations in muscle pain and neuropathic pain are described. Alterations in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic back pain are described as examples for musculoskeletal pain and also in patients with phantom limb pain after amputation and complex regional pain syndrome as examples for neuropathic pain. In addition to altered pain perception, cumulative evidence on alterations in the processing of reward and the underlying mechanisms in chronic pain has been described...
October 2016: Der Schmerz
Mandy Skunde, Stephan Walther, Joe J Simon, Mudan Wu, Martin Bendszus, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: Impaired inhibitory control is considered a behavioural phenotype in patients with bulimia nervosa. However, the underlying neural correlates of impaired general and food-specific behavioural inhibition are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated brain activation during the performance of behavioural inhibition to general and food-related stimuli in adults with bulimia nervosa. METHODS: Women with bulimia and healthy control women underwent event-related fMRI while performing a general and a food-specific no-go task...
August 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Florian Grimm, Armin Walter, Martin Spüler, Georgios Naros, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Alireza Gharabaghi
Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI) neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion (ROM) and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Giulia Tacchino, Marta Gandolla, Stefania Coelli, Riccardo Barbieri, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Anna Maria Bianchi
Two key ingredients of a successful neuro-rehabilitative intervention have been identified as intensive and repetitive training and subject's active participation, which can be coupled in an active robot-assisted training. To exploit these two elements, we recorded electroencephalography, electromyography and kinematics signals from 9 healthy subjects performing a 2×2 factorial design protocol, with subject's volitional intention and robotic glove assistance as factors. We quantitatively evaluated primary sensorimotor, premotor and supplementary motor areas activation during movement execution by computing Event-Related Desynchronization (ERD) patterns associated to mu and beta rhythms...
August 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Bryan S Baxter, Bradley J Edelman, Nicholas Nesbitt, Bin He
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used to alter the excitability of neurons within the cerebral cortex. Improvements in motor learning have been found in multiple studies when tDCS was applied to the motor cortex before or during task learning. The motor cortex is also active during the performance of motor imagination, a cognitive task during which a person imagines, but does not execute, a movement. Motor imagery can be used with noninvasive brain computer interfaces (BCIs) to control virtual objects in up to three dimensions, but to master control of such devices requires long training times...
July 15, 2016: Brain Stimulation
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