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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705227/sensorimotor-learning-neurocognitive-mechanisms-and-individual-differences
#1
REVIEW
R D Seidler, R G Carson
Here we provide an overview of findings and viewpoints on the mechanisms of sensorimotor learning presented at the 2016 Biomechanics and Neural Control of Movement (BANCOM) conference in Deer Creek, OH. This field has shown substantial growth in the past couple of decades. For example it is now well accepted that neural systems outside of primary motor pathways play a role in learning. Frontoparietal and anterior cingulate networks contribute to sensorimotor adaptation, reflecting strategic aspects of exploration and learning...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692658/temporal-specificity-of-the-initial-adaptive-response-in-motor-adaptation
#2
Wilsaan M Joiner, Gary C Sing, Maurice A Smith
Repeated exposure to a novel physical environment eventually leads to a mature adaptive response whereby feedforward changes in motor output mirror both the amplitude and temporal structure of the environmental perturbations. However, adaptive responses at the earliest stages of learning have been found to be not only smaller, but systematically less specific in their temporal structure compared to later stages of learning. This observation has spawned a lively debate as to whether the temporal structure of the initial adaptive response is, in fact, stereotyped and non-specific...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689758/white-matter-microstructure-predicts-cognitive-training-induced-improvements-in-attention-and-executive-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#3
Karuna Subramaniam, Jeevit Gill, Melissa Fisher, Pratik Mukherjee, Srikantan Nagarajan, Sophia Vinogradov
We examined the relationship between white matter microstructure in schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cognitive improvements induced by 70h (~16weeks) of cognitive training. We measured anatomical connectivity in 48 patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and 28 healthy control participants (HC) at baseline, and then examined the relationship between anatomical connectivity at baseline and training-induced cognitive gains in 30 SZ who performed diffusion imaging after completing 70h of training...
July 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688897/gross-motor-ability-predicts-response-to-upper-extremity-rehabilitation-in-chronic-stroke
#4
Sarah Hulbert George, Mohammad Hossein Rafiei, Alexandra Borstad, Hojjat Adeli, Lynne V Gauthier
The majority of rehabilitation research focuses on the comparative effectiveness of different interventions in groups of patients, while much less is currently known regarding individual factors that predict response to rehabilitation. In a recent article, authors presented a prognostic model to identify the sensorimotor characteristics predictive of the extent of motor recovery after Constraint-Induced Movement (CI) therapy amongst individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate motor deficit using the enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN)...
July 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686990/left-frontal-pole-theta-burst-stimulation-decreases-orbitofrontal-and-insula-activity-in-cocaine-users-and-alcohol-users
#5
Colleen A Hanlon, Logan T Dowdle, Brittany Correia, Oliver Mithoefer, Tonisha Kearney-Ramos, Daniel Lench, Millie Griffin, Raymond F Anton, Mark S George
BACKGROUND: Preclinical research has demonstrated a causal relationship between medial prefrontal cortex activity and cocaine self-administration. As a step towards translating those data to a neural circuit-based intervention for patients, this study sought to determine if continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left frontal pole (FP), would attenuate frontal-striatal activity in two substance-dependent populations. METHODS: Forty-nine substance dependent individuals (25 cocaine, 24 alcohol) completed a single-blind, sham-controlled, crossover study wherein they received 6 trains of real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, FP1) each visit...
May 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682215/could-slackline-training-complement-the-fifa-11-programme-regarding-training-of-neuromuscular-control
#6
Tobias Jäger, Julian Kiefer, Inge Werner, Peter A Federolf
The current study compared changes in neuromuscular control between slackline training and the stabilization training elements of the FIFA 11+ programme. Twenty-five students in 2 groups performed a 12-unit training programme. The slackline training group (n = 13) exclusively trained with a slackline. The stabilization training group (n = 12) practised exercises as described in the second part of the FIFA 11+ programme. Improvements in balance were assessed using three tests for dynamic, quasi-static, and perturbed postural control: the star excursion balance test (SEBT), the closed-eye single-leg stance, and the MFT S3-Check...
July 6, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677413/high-intensity-chronic-stroke-motor-imagery-neurofeedback-training-at-home-three-case-reports
#7
Catharina Zich, Stefan Debener, Clara Schweinitz, Annette Sterr, Joost Meekes, Cornelia Kranczioch
Motor imagery (MI) with neurofeedback has been suggested as promising for motor recovery after stroke. Evidence suggests that regular training facilitates compensatory plasticity, but frequent training is difficult to integrate into everyday life. Using a wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system, we implemented a frequent and efficient neurofeedback training at the patients' home. Aiming to overcome maladaptive changes in cortical lateralization patterns we presented a visual feedback, representing the degree of contralateral sensorimotor cortical activity and the degree of sensorimotor cortex lateralization...
July 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677224/brain-changes-following-four-weeks-of-unimanual-motor-training-evidence-from-behavior-neural-stimulation-cortical-thickness-and-functional-mri
#8
Martin V Sale, Lee B Reid, Luca Cocchi, Alex M Pagnozzi, Stephen E Rose, Jason B Mattingley
Although different aspects of neuroplasticity can be quantified with behavioral probes, brain stimulation, and brain imaging assessments, no study to date has combined all these approaches into one comprehensive assessment of brain plasticity. Here, 24 healthy right-handed participants practiced a sequence of finger-thumb opposition movements for 10 min each day with their left hand. After 4 weeks, performance for the practiced sequence improved significantly (P < 0.05 FWE) relative to a matched control sequence, with both the left (mean increase: 53...
July 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677154/brain-changes-following-four-weeks-of-unimanual-motor-training-evidence-from-fmri-guided-diffusion-mri-tractography
#9
Lee B Reid, Martin V Sale, Ross Cunnington, Jason B Mattingley, Stephen E Rose
We have reported reliable changes in behavior, brain structure, and function in 24 healthy right-handed adults who practiced a finger-thumb opposition sequence task with their left hand for 10 min daily, over 4 weeks. Here, we extend these findings by using diffusion MRI to investigate white-matter changes in the corticospinal tract, basal-ganglia, and connections of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Twenty-three participant datasets were available with pre-training and post-training scans. Task performance improved in all participants (mean: 52...
July 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674488/dancing-or-fitness-sport-the-effects-of-two-training-programs-on-hippocampal-plasticity-and-balance-abilities-in-healthy-seniors
#10
Kathrin Rehfeld, Patrick Müller, Norman Aye, Marlen Schmicker, Milos Dordevic, Jörn Kaufmann, Anita Hökelmann, Notger G Müller
Age-related degenerations in brain structure are associated with balance disturbances and cognitive impairment. However, neuroplasticity is known to be preserved throughout lifespan and physical training studies with seniors could reveal volume increases in the hippocampus (HC), a region crucial for memory consolidation, learning and navigation in space, which were related to improvements in aerobic fitness. Moreover, a positive correlation between left HC volume and balance performance was observed. Dancing seems a promising intervention for both improving balance and brain structure in the elderly...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673710/improved-proprioceptive-function-by-application-of-subsensory-electrical-noise-effects-of-aging-and-task-demand
#11
Diana R Toledo, José A Barela, André F Kohn
The application of subsensory noise stimulation over the lower limbs has been shown to improve proprioception and postural control under certain conditions. Whereas the effect specificity seems to depend on several factors, studies are still needed to determine the appropriate method for training and rehabilitation purposes. In the current study, we investigated whether the application of subsensory electrical noise over the legs improves proprioceptive function in young and older adults. We aimed to provide evidence that stronger and age-related differential effects occur in more demanding tasks...
June 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671629/motor-imagery-eeg-classification-for-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-using-fractal-dimension-and-fisher-s-criterion-based-channel-selection
#12
Yi-Hung Liu, Shiuan Huang, Yi-De Huang
Motor imagery is based on the volitional modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMRs); however, the sensorimotor processes in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are impaired, leading to degenerated motor imagery ability. Thus, motor imagery classification in ALS patients has been considered challenging in the brain-computer interface (BCI) community. In this study, we address this critical issue by introducing the Grassberger-Procaccia and Higuchi's methods to estimate the fractal dimensions (GPFD and HFD, respectively) of the electroencephalography (EEG) signals from ALS patients...
July 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669656/motor-skills-training-enhances-%C3%AE-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic-acid-receptor-subunit-mrna-expression-in-the-ipsilateral-sensorimotor-cortex-and-striatum-of-rats-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#13
Keigo Tamakoshi, Kazuto Ishida, Kentaro Kawanaka, Yasuyuki Takamatsu, Hiroyuki Tamaki
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects of acrobatic training (AT) on expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunits in the sensorimotor cortex and striatum after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: ICH without AT (ICH), ICH with AT (ICH + AT), sham operation without AT (SHAM), and sham operation with AT (SHAM + AT). ICH was induced by collagenase injection into the left striatum...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659467/motor-learning-in-a-complex-balance-task-and-associated-neuroplasticity-a-comparison-between-endurance-athletes-and-non-athletes
#14
Oliver Seidel, Daniel Carius, Rouven Kenville, Patrick Ragert
Studies suggested that motor expertise is associated with functional and structural brain alterations, which positively affect sensorimotor performance and learning capabilities. The purpose of the present study was to unravel differences in motor skill learning and associated functional neuroplasticity between endurance athletes (EA) and non-athletes (NA). For this purpose, participants had to perform a multimodal balance task (MBT) training on two sessions which were separated by one week. Before and after MBT-training, a static balance task (SBT) had to be performed...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659458/impaired-visuomotor-generalization-by-inconsistent-attentional-contexts
#15
Tony S L Wang, Joo-Hyun Song
In daily life, people are constantly presented with situations to learn and acquire new motor skills in complex environments, where attention is often distracted by other events. Being able to generalize and perform the acquired motor action in different environments is a crucial part of visuomotor learning. The current study examined whether attentional distraction impairs generalization of visuomotor adaptation or whether consistent distraction can operate as an internal cue to facilitate generalization. Using a dual-task paradigm combining visuomotor rotational adaptation and an attention-demanding secondary task, we showed that switching the attentional context from training (dual-task) to generalization (single-task) reduced the range of transfer of visuomotor adaptation to untrained directions...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652143/specific-or-nonspecific-evaluation-of-band-baseline-and-cognitive-specificity-of-sensorimotor-rhythm-and-gamma-based-neurofeedback
#16
Silvia Erika Kober, Matthias Witte, Christa Neuper, Guilherme Wood
Neurofeedback (NF) is often criticized because of the lack of empirical evidence of its specificity. Our present study thus focused on the specificity of NF on three levels: band specificity, cognitive specificity, and baseline specificity. Ten healthy middle-aged individuals performed ten sessions of SMR (sensorimotor rhythm, 12-15Hz) NF training. A second group (N=10) received feedback of a narrow gamma band (40-43Hz). Effects of NF on EEG resting measurements (tonic EEG) and cognitive functions (memory, intelligence) were evaluated using a pre-post design...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641235/computer-aided-training-sensorimotor-cortex-functions-in-humans-before-the-upper-limb-transplantation-using-virtual-reality-and-sensory-feedback
#17
Marek Kurzynski, Anna Jaskolska, Jaroslaw Marusiak, Andrzej Wolczowski, Przemyslaw Bierut, Lukasz Szumowski, Jerzy Witkowski, Katarzyna Kisiel-Sajewicz
One of the biggest problems of upper limb transplantation is lack of certainty as to whether a patient will be able to control voluntary movements of transplanted hands. Based on findings of the recent research on brain cortex plasticity, a premise can be drawn that mental training supported with visual and sensory feedback can cause structural and functional reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex, which leads to recovery of function associated with the control of movements performed by the upper limbs. In this study, authors - based on the above observations - propose the computer-aided training (CAT) system, which generating visual and sensory stimuli, should enhance the effectiveness of mental training applied to humans before upper limb transplantation...
June 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632000/the-influence-of-intrapersonal-sensorimotor-experiences-on-the-corticospinal-responses-during-action-observation
#18
James W Roberts, Merryn D Constable, Raquel Burgess, James L Lyons, Timothy N Welsh
The coupling of perception and action has been strongly indicated by evidence that the observation of an action primes a response in the observer. It has been proposed that these primed responses may be inhibited when the observer is able to more closely distinguish between self- and other-generated actions - the greater the distinction, then the greater the inhibition of the primed response. This self-other distinction is shown to be enhanced following a period of visual feedback of self-generated action. The present study was designed to examine how sensorimotor experiences pertaining to self-generated action affect primed responses from observed actions...
February 13, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627281/mirroring-meaningful-actions-sensorimotor-learning-modulates-imitation-of-goal-directed-actions
#19
Caroline Catmur, Cecilia Heyes
Imitation is important in the development of social and technological skills throughout the lifespan. Experiments investigating the acquisition and modulation of imitation (and of its proposed neural substrate, the mirror neuron system) have produced evidence that the capacity for imitation depends on associative learning in which connections are formed between sensory and motor representations of actions. However, evidence that the development of imitation depends on associative learning has been found only for non-goal-directed actions...
June 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607750/noninvasive-tongue-stimulation-combined-with-intensive-cognitive-and-physical-rehabilitation-induces-neuroplastic-changes-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#20
Gabriel Leonard, Yves Lapierre, Jen-Kai Chen, Rima Wardini, Joelle Crane, Alain Ptito
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have central nervous system (CNS) lesions that may impede cognitive and sensorimotor function. Few rehabilitative therapies are available. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to study effects of noninvasive tongue stimulation using the Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator (PoNS™) combined with intensive cognitive and physical rehabilitation on working memory, gait, balance and concomitant changes in the brain...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
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