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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160240/remapping-cortical-modulation-for-electrocorticographic-brain-computer-interfaces-a-somatotopy-based-approach-in-individuals-with-upper-limb-paralysis
#1
Alan D Degenhart, Shivayogi V Hiremath, Ying Yang, Stephen T Foldes, Jennifer L Collinger, Michael L Boninger, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology aims to provide individuals with paralysis a means to restore function. Electrocorticography (ECoG) uses disc electrodes placed on either the surface of the dura or the cortex to record field potential activity. ECoG has been proposed as a viable neural recording modality for BCI systems, potentially providing stable, long-term recordings of cortical activity with high spatial and temporal resolution. Previously we have demonstrated that a subject with spinal cord injury (SCI) could control an ECoG-based BCI system with up to three degrees of freedom [Wang et al...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159914/gaba-concentration-in-sensorimotor-cortex-following-high-intensity-exercise-and-relationship-to-lactate-levels
#2
James P Coxon, Robin F H Cash, Joshua J Hendrikse, Nigel C Rogasch, Ellen Stavrinos, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel
High-intensity exercise increases the concentration of circulating lactate. Cortical uptake of blood borne lactate increases during and following exercise, however the potential relationship with changes in the concentration of neurometabolites remains unclear. While changes in neurometabolite concentration have previously been demonstrated in primary visual cortex following exercise, it remains unknown whether these changes extend to regions such as sensorimotor cortex (SM) or executive regions such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154367/effects-of-amphetamine-on-sensorimotor-gating-and-neurocognition-in-antipsychotic-medicated-schizophrenia-patients
#3
Neal R Swerdlow, Savita G Bhakta, Jo A Talledo, Daniel M Franz, Erica L Hughes, Brinda K Rana, Gregory A Light
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle is being explored both as an indicator of target engagement for, and a biomarker predicting sensitivity to, pro-cognitive effects of drugs. We now report the effects of the pro-attentional drug, d-amphetamine, on PPI and neurocognition in antipsychotic-medicated schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects (HS) who were also tested in a targeted cognitive training (TCT) module. 44 HS and 38 schizophrenia patients completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of a single dose of amphetamine (10 mg po) on PPI and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) performance; TCT results were previously reported from 60 of these subjects...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150270/m-biceps-femoris-a-wolf-in-sheep-s-clothing-the-downside-of-a-lower-limb-injury-prevention-training
#4
Thomas Ertelt, Thomas Gronwald
Both, hamstring and ACL injuries are among the most typical injuries, particularly in change of direction and high speed running sports. They're also difficult to treat. Therefore, in the past few years, sports medicine practitioners and exercise scientists have mainly been focusing on the development and implementation of preventive programs in order to reduce the number of lower limb injuries, mainly by improving knee alignment. A number of studies have been able to prove the success of these training interventions, which are mainly addressing sensorimotor abilities and plyometric activities...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148845/speech-recovery-and-language-plasticity-can-be-facilitated-by-sensori-motor-fusion-training-in-chronic-non-fluent-aphasia-a-case-report-study
#5
Célise Haldin, Audrey Acher, Louise Kauffmann, Thomas Hueber, Emilie Cousin, Pierre Badin, Pascal Perrier, Diandra Fabre, Dominic Perennou, Olivier Detante, Assia Jaillard, Hélène Lœvenbruck, Monica Baciu
The rehabilitation of speech disorders benefits from providing visual information which may improve speech motor plans in patients. We tested the proof of concept of a rehabilitation method (Sensori-Motor Fusion, SMF; Ultraspeech player) in one post-stroke patient presenting chronic non-fluent aphasia. SMF allows visualisation by the patient of target tongue and lips movements using high-speed ultrasound and video imaging. This can improve the patient's awareness of his/her own lingual and labial movements, which can, in turn, improve the representation of articulatory movements and increase the ability to coordinate and combine articulatory gestures...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148137/brain-computer-interfaces-with-multi-sensory-feedback-for-stroke-rehabilitation-a-case-study
#6
Danut C Irimia, Woosang Cho, Rupert Ortner, Brendan Z Allison, Bogdan E Ignat, Guenter Edlinger, Christoph Guger
Conventional therapies do not provide paralyzed patients with closed-loop sensorimotor integration for motor rehabilitation. This work presents the recoveriX system, a hardware and software platform that combines a motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interface (BCI), functional electrical stimulation (FES), and visual feedback technologies for a complete sensorimotor closed-loop therapy system for poststroke rehabilitation. The proposed system was tested on two chronic stroke patients in a clinical environment...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123403/effects-of-short-term-piano-training-on-measures-of-finger-tapping-somatosensory-perception-and-motor-related-brain-activity-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy
#7
Ana Alves-Pinto, Stefan Ehrlich, Gordon Cheng, Varvara Turova, Tobias Blumenstein, Renée Lampe
Playing a musical instrument demands the integration of sensory and perceptual information with motor processes in order to produce a harmonic musical piece. The diversity of brain mechanisms involved and the joyful character of playing an instrument make musical instrument training a potential vehicle for neurorehabilitation of motor skills in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). This clinical condition is characterized by motor impairments that can affect, among others, manual function, and limit severely the execution of basic daily activities...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107970/motor-expertise-facilitates-the-accuracy-of-state-extrapolation-in-perception
#8
Nicolas Ludolph, Jannis Plöger, Martin A Giese, Winfried Ilg
Predicting the behavior of objects in the environment is an important requirement to overcome latencies in the sensorimotor system and realize precise actions in rapid situations. Internal forward models that were acquired during motor training might not only be used for efficiently controlling fast motor behavior but also to facilitate extrapolation performance in purely perceptual tasks. In this study, we investigated whether preceding virtual cart-pole balancing training facilitates the ability to extrapolate the virtual pole motion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102804/sensorimotor-training-alters-action-understanding
#9
Caroline Catmur, Emma L Thompson, Orianna Bairaktari, Frida Lind, Geoffrey Bird
The discovery of 'mirror' neurons stimulated intense interest in the role of motor processes in social interaction. A popular assumption is that observation-related motor activation, exemplified by mirror neurons' matching properties, evolved to subserve the 'understanding' of others' actions. Alternatively, such motor activation may result from sensorimotor learning. Sensorimotor training alters observation-related motor activation, but studies demonstrating training-dependent changes in motor activation have not addressed the functional role of such activation...
November 2, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102766/facilitating-effects-of-buyang-huanwu-decoction-on-axonal-regeneration-after-peripheral-nerve-transection
#10
Ki-Joong Kim, Uk Namgung
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In traditional Asian medicine, Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD) has been used for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Recent experimental studies have begun to provide evidence on the protective effects of BYHWD on injured peripheral nerves. AIM OF THE STUDY: To examine whether BYHWD was effective in inducing axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve transection, and if so, how it acted on the nerve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sciatic nerve in rats was transected and resutured 0, 1, or 4 weeks later...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097987/multisensory-rehabilitation-training-improves-spatial-perception-in-totally-but-not-partially-visually-deprived-children
#11
Giulia Cappagli, Sara Finocchietti, Gabriel Baud-Bovy, Elena Cocchi, Monica Gori
Since it has been shown that spatial development can be delayed in blind children, focused sensorimotor trainings that associate auditory and motor information might be used to prevent the risk of spatial-related developmental delays or impairments from an early age. With this aim, we proposed a new technological device based on the implicit link between action and perception: ABBI (Audio Bracelet for Blind Interaction) is an audio bracelet that produces a sound when a movement occurs by allowing the substitution of the visuo-motor association with a new audio-motor association...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092520/a-brain-controlled-lower-limb-exoskeleton-for-human-gait-training
#12
Dong Liu, Weihai Chen, Zhongcai Pei, Jianhua Wang
Brain-computer interfaces have been a novel approach to translate human intentions into movement commands in robotic systems. This paper describes an electroencephalogram-based brain-controlled lower-limb exoskeleton for gait training, as a proof of concept towards rehabilitation with human-in-the-loop. Instead of using conventional single electroencephalography correlates, e.g., evoked P300 or spontaneous motor imagery, we propose a novel framework integrated two asynchronous signal modalities, i.e., sensorimotor rhythms (SMRs) and movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs)...
October 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084283/increased-engagement-of-the-cognitive-control-network-associated-with-music-training-in-children-during-an-fmri-stroop-task
#13
Matthew Sachs, Jonas Kaplan, Alissa Der Sarkissian, Assal Habibi
Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075937/the-impact-of-different-visual-feedbacks-in-user-training-on-motor-imagery-control-in-bci
#14
Dariusz Zapała, Piotr Francuz, Ewelina Zapała, Natalia Kopiś, Piotr Wierzgała, Paweł Augustynowicz, Andrzej Majkowski, Marcin Kołodziej
The challenges of research into brain-computer interfaces (BCI) include significant individual differences in learning pace and in the effective operation of BCI devices. The use of neurofeedback training is a popular method of improving the effectiveness BCI operation. The purpose of the present study was to determine to what extent it is possible to improve the effectiveness of operation of sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interfaces (SMR-BCI) by supplementing user training with elements modifying the characteristics of visual feedback...
October 26, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075195/falls-and-fall-prevention-in-older-persons-geriatrics-meets-spaceflight
#15
REVIEW
Nandu Goswami
This paper provides a general overview of key physiological consequences of microgravity experienced during spaceflight and of important parallels and connections to the physiology of aging. Microgravity during spaceflight influences cardiovascular function, cerebral autoregulation, musculoskeletal, and sensorimotor system performance. A great deal of research has been carried out to understand these influences and to provide countermeasures to reduce the observed negative consequences of microgravity on physiological function...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067311/mnemonic-strategy-training-of-the-elderly-at-risk-for-dementia-enhances-integration-of-information-processing-via-cross-frequency-coupling
#16
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Ioannis Tarnanas, Mark Wiederhold, Brenda Wiederhold, Magda Tsolaki, Elgar Fleisch
INTRODUCTION: We sought to identify whether intensive 10-week mobile health mnemonic strategy training (MST) could shift the resting-state brain network more toward cortical-level integration, which has recently been proven to reflect the reorganization of the brain networks compensating the cognitive decline. METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were selected and participated in 10-week training lasting 90 min/d of memory training...
November 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060810/self-regulation-of-primary-motor-cortex-activity-with-motor-imagery-induces-functional-connectivity-modulation-a-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-study
#17
Meena M Makary, Eun Seulgi, Kyungmo Park
Recent developments in data acquisition of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have led to rapid preprocessing and analysis of brain activity in a quasireal-time basis, what so called real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NFB). This information is fed back to subjects allowing them to gain a voluntary control over their own region-specific brain activity. Forty-one healthy participants were randomized into an experimental (NFB) group, who received a feedback directly proportional to their brain activity from the primary motor cortex (M1), and a control (CTRL) group who received a sham feedback...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060808/impact-of-actuator-impedance-characteristics-on-motor-control-of-assisted-hand-movements
#18
Gustavo Sandri Heidner, Billy C Vermillion, Sang Wook Lee
Robotic devices hold potential to improve hand rehabilitation outcome by providing consistent sensorimotor training. However, most robotic devices focus on simply reproducing `predefined' kinematics of manual tasks without properly considering how human adapts to external assistance, while inherent impedance of the actuator could have a significant impact on the neural adaptation of human subjects. We thus examined the effects of the impedance characteristics of the actuators on human motor adaptation under external assistance...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060686/sparse-coding-of-ecog-signals-identifies-interpretable-components-for-speech-control-in-human-sensorimotor-cortex
#19
Kristofer E Bouchard, Alejandro F Bujan, Edward F Chang, Friedrich T Sommer
The concept of sparsity has proven useful to understanding elementary neural computations in sensory systems. However, the role of sparsity in motor regions is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the functional properties of sparse structure in neural activity collected with high-density electrocorticography (ECoG) from speech sensorimotor cortex (vSMC) in neurosurgical patients. Using independent components analysis (ICA), we found individual components corresponding to individual major oral articulators (i...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056453/audiomotor-perceptual-training-enhances-speech-intelligibility-in-background-noise
#20
Jonathon P Whitton, Kenneth E Hancock, Jeffrey M Shannon, Daniel B Polley
Sensory and motor skills can be improved with training, but learning is often restricted to practice stimuli. As an exception, training on closed-loop (CL) sensorimotor interfaces, such as action video games and musical instruments, can impart a broad spectrum of perceptual benefits. Here we ask whether computerized CL auditory training can enhance speech understanding in levels of background noise that approximate a crowded restaurant. Elderly hearing-impaired subjects trained for 8 weeks on a CL game that, like a musical instrument, challenged them to monitor subtle deviations between predicted and actual auditory feedback as they moved their fingertip through a virtual soundscape...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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