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plant immunity

K He, Y Wu
Plants are sessile organisms exposed constantly to potential virulent microbes seeking for full pathogenesis in hosts. Different from animals employing both adaptive and innate immune systems, plants only rely on innate immunity to detect and fight against pathogen invasions. Plant innate immunity is proposed to be a two-tiered immune system including pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In PTI, PAMPs, the elicitors derived from microbial pathogens, are perceived by cell surface-localized proteins, known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs)...
2016: Enzymes
Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Francisco J Pérez-Cano, Margarida Castell
Flavonoids, including around 6000 phenolic compounds, are products of the secondary metabolism of plants which can be a part of one's diet via the consumption of many edible plants.[...].
October 21, 2016: Nutrients
Sarvenaz Sabouri-Rad, Sara Sabouri-Rad, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran
Ginseng has gained fame as one of the most popular herbs originating from Eastern countries. Among different species which are known as ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (Korean or Asian ginseng) is the most frequently used one. Ginsenosides have been proposed to account for most of the biological activities of ginseng. The widely appreciated health-promoting effect of ginseng pertains to the beneficial effects of this plant against immune, cardiovascular and sexual diseases and cancer. In addition, there are some new aspects of the pharmacological activity of this plant which justify its use in dermatologic diseases...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Namrita Lall, Vivek Kumar, Debra Meyer, Nomasomi Gasa, Chris Hamilton, Motlalepula Matsabisa, Carel Oosthuizen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Natal gwarri or Natal ebony (Euclea natalensis A.DC.) is a deciduous tree found widespread throughout southern Africa, especially in Kwazulu-Natal and the southern cost. It has been widely used by indigenous communities such as the Zulus, Tsongas and Vendas for symptoms related to tuberculosis (TB). The decoctions made from the plant parts are administered for chest diseases to treat complications such as chest pains, bronchitis, pleurisy and asthma...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yuying Sang, Yaru Wang, Hong Ni, Anne-Claire Cazalé, Yi-Min She, Nemo Peeters, Alberto P Macho
The subversion of plant cellular functions is essential for bacterial pathogens to proliferate in host plants and cause disease. Most bacterial plant pathogens employ a type-III secretion system to inject type-III effector (T3E) proteins inside plant cells, where they contribute to the pathogen-induced alteration of plant physiology. In this work, we found that the Ralstonia solanacearum T3E RipAY suppresses plant immune responses triggered by bacterial elicitors and by the phytohormone salicylic acid. Further biochemical analysis indicated that RipAY associates in planta with thioredoxins from Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Christian Lehmann, Nicholas B Fisher, Barna Tugwell, Anna Szczesniak, Mel Kelly, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is induced by invasion of immune cells causing pancreatic inflammation. Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid, derived from the plant, Cannabis sativa, was shown to lower the incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, an animal model of spontaneous T1D development. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of experimental CBD treatment on early pancreatic inflammation in T1D by intravital microscopy (IVM) in NOD mice...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Pierre Pétriacq, Guillaume Tcherkez, Bertrand Gakière
NAD is a pyridine nucleotide that is involved in cell metabolism and signaling of plant growth and stress. Recently, we reported on the multifaceted nature of NAD-inducible immunity in Arabidopsis. We identified NAD as an integral regulator of multiple defense layers such as production of ROS, deposition of callose, stimulation of cell death and modulation of defense metabolism including the defense hormones SA, JA and ABA, and other defense-associated metabolites. Altogether, NAD-induced immune effects confer resistance to diverse pathogenic microbes...
October 21, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Neha Kumari, Rajesh Kumar, Vandana Mishra, Savita Yadav
CC-NBS-LRR (CNL) plant proteins are related with highly conserved family of disease resistance protein distinguished by a coiled-coil domain, which plays an important role in innate immunity. The present study reports the purification and identification of CNL like protein fragment (CNL-LPF) by two step chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/MS), respectively. Furthermore, current study also illustrated the development of polyclonal antibody against purified CNL-LPF, which was used for immunolocalization of CNL-LPF in cytoplasm of cotyledon, using Fluorescence microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy...
October 20, 2016: Protein Journal
Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Tong Wei, Tsung-Chi Chen, Yuen Ting Ho, Pamela C Ronald
BACKGROUND: The rice receptor kinase XA21 confers robust resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzae(Xoo). We previously reported that XA21 is cleaved in transgenic plants overexpressing XA21 with a GFP tag (Ubi-XA21-GFP) and that the released C-terminal domain is localized to the nucleus. XA21 carries a predicted nuclear localization sequence (NLS) that directs the C-terminal domain to the nucleus in transient assays, whereas alanine substitutions in the NLS disrupt the nuclear localization...
2016: PeerJ
Pingtao Ding, Dmitrij Rekhter, Yuli Ding, Kirstin Feussner, Lucas Busta, Sven Haroth, Shaohua Xu, Xin Li, Reinhard Jetter, Ivo Feussner, Yuelin Zhang
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an immune response induced in the distal parts of plants following defense activation in local tissue. Pipecolic acid (Pip) accumulation orchestrates SAR and local resistance responses. Here we report the identification and characterization of SAR-DEFICIENT 4 (SARD4), which encodes a critical enzyme for Pip biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss of function of SARD4 leads to reduced Pip levels and accumulation of a Pip precursor, Δ1-piperideine-2-carboxylic acid (P2C)...
October 6, 2016: Plant Cell
Qian-Yun Xi, Yong Jiang, Shuai Zhao, Bin Zeng, Fei Wang, Li-Na Wang, Qing-Yan Jiang, Yong-Liang Zhang
There are many reports that dietary supplementation with plant polysaccharides in pigs might promote their growth, but little is known about the maternal effect of ginseng polysaccharides (GPS) on piglets' growth by dietary supplementation to pregnant and lactating sows. In the current study, the effects of dietary supplementation with GPS on the immunity of sows and growth of their piglets were investigated. Results showed no significant difference among the four groups in the total number of piglets, live piglets, weak piglets and birth weight of piglets, indicating the GPS-treatment has no adverse effect on reproduction...
October 18, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Juan Huang, Meiling Yang, Lu Lu, Xiaoming Zhang
RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism that utilizes small RNAs (sRNAs) to direct the regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Plants utilizing RNA silencing machinery to defend pathogen infection was first identified in plant-virus interaction and later was observed in distinct plant-pathogen interactions. RNA silencing is not only responsible for suppressing RNA accumulation and movement of virus and viroid, but also facilitates plant immune responses against bacterial, oomycete, and fungal infection...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shuai Huang, Aruna Balgi, Yaping Pan, Meng Li, Xiaoran Zhang, Lilin Du, Ming Zhou, Michel Roberge, Xin Li
Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins serve as immune receptors in both plants and animals. To identify components required for NLR-mediated immunity, we designed and carried out a chemical genetics screen to search for small molecules that can alter resistance responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. From 13,600 compounds, we identified Ro 8-4304 that is able to specifically suppress the severe autoimmune phenotypes of chs3-2D (chilling sensitive 3, 2D), including the arrested growth morphology and heightened PR (Pathogenesis Related) gene expression...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Plant
Feifei Cheng, Anzhou Ma, Guoqiang Zhuang, Rupert G Fray
In order to cope with pathogens, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense pathogenic attacks and to induce defence responses. The N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing in bacteria regulates diverse physiological processes including those involved in pathogenicity. In this work, we study the interactions between AHL-producing transgenic tobacco plants and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 11528 (P. syringae 11528). Both a reduced incidence of disease and decrease in the growth of P...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Eunchong Park, Ju Han Song, Myun Soo Kim, Su-Ho Park, Tae Sung Kim
CD4(+) T cell activation and adequate differentiation into effector T helper (Th) cells are crucial for mediating adaptive immune responses to cope with foreign pathogens. Despite the significant role of Th cells, excessive increases in their numbers result in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of costunolide, a plant-derived natural compound with an anti-inflammatory activity, in regulating Th cells and the underlying mechanisms. Costunolide significantly decreased cell populations of differentiated Th1, Th2, and Th17 subsets under Th subset-polarizing conditions, while exerting statistically negligible effects on Treg cell differentiation...
October 15, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Xindi C Hu, David Q Andrews, Andrew B Lindstrom, Thomas A Bruton, Laurel A Schaider, Philippe Grandjean, Rainer Lohmann, Courtney C Carignan, Arlene Blum, Simona A Balan, Christopher P Higgins, Elsie M Sunderland
Drinking water contamination with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) poses risks to the developmental, immune, metabolic, and endocrine health of consumers. We present a spatial analysis of 2013-2015 national drinking water PFAS concentrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR3) program. The number of industrial sites that manufacture or use these compounds, the number of military fire training areas, and the number of wastewater treatment plants are all significant predictors of PFAS detection frequencies and concentrations in public water supplies...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology Letters
Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Fazel Zoheiri, Carlo C Lazado
Immunostimulation through the use of sustainable and eco-friendly dietary additives is one of the current prophylactic strategies in fish husbandry. Plant-based immunostimulants are highly considered for this intent, both for their scientific and practical advantages. Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) is a flower-bearing herb that possesses interesting pharmacological importance due to its bioactive compounds. It is commonly used as a spice, food additive, dietary supplement and traditional remedy. The present study evaluated the potential of H...
October 14, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Michelle E Leslie, Sean W Rogers, Antje Heese
Callose deposition within the cell wall is a well-documented plant immune response to pathogenic organisms as well as to pathogen-/microbe- associated molecular patterns (P/MAMPs). However, the molecular mechanisms that modulate pathogen-induced callose deposition are less understood. We reported previously that Arabidopsis plants lacking the vesicle trafficking component DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN 2B (DRP2B) display increased callose deposition in response to the PAMP flg22. Here, we show that increased number of flg22-induced callose deposits in drp2b leaves is fully dependent on the callose synthase POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT 4 (PMR4)...
October 17, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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