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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743100/studies-on-secondary-metabolite-profiling-anti-inflammatory-potential-in-vitro-photoprotective-and-skin-aging-related-enzyme-inhibitory-activities-of-malaxis-acuminata-a-threatened-orchid-of-nutraceutical-importance
#1
Biswajit Bose, Hiranjit Choudhury, Pramod Tandon, Suman Kumaria
Malaxis acuminata D. Don., a small, terrestrial orchid, is endemic to tropical Himalayas at an altitude of 1200-2000m asl. The dried pseudobulbs are important ingredients of century old ayurvedic drug 'Ashtavarga' and a polyherbal immune-booster nutraceutical 'Chyavanprash', known to restore vigour, vitality and youthfulness. Considering tremendous medicinal importance of this threatened orchid species, a detailed study was undertaken for the first time to address its antioxidant potential, secondary metabolite contents and biological activities against skin-aging related enzymes (anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, anti-tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase) and anti-inflammatory activity (5-lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase) in different plant parts of wild and in vitro-derived plants of M...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741996/transcriptome-changes-associated-with-tomato-spotted-wilt-virus-infection-in-various-life-stages-of-its-thrips-vector-frankliniella-fusca-hinds
#2
Anita Shrestha, Donald E Champagne, Albert K Culbreath, Dorith Rotenberg, Anna E Whitfield, Rajagopalbabu Srinivasan
Persistent propagative viruses maintain intricate interactions with their arthropod vectors. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome-level responses associated with a persistent propagative phytovirus infection in various life stages of its vector using an Illumina HiSeq sequencing platform. The pathosystem components included a Tospovirus, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), its insect vector, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and a plant host, Arachis hypogaea (L.). We assembled (de novo) reads from three developmental stage groups of virus-exposed and non-virus-exposed F...
July 26, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741129/overexpression-of-ghpfn2-enhances-protection-against-verticillium-dahliae-invasion-in-cotton
#3
Wenyan Wang, Yongduo Sun, Libo Han, Lei Su, Guixian Xia, Haiyun Wang
Growing evidence indicates that actin cytoskeleton is involved in plant innate immune responses, but the functional mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the behavior of a cotton profilin gene (GhPFN2) in response to Verticillium dahliae invasion, and evaluated its contribution to plant defense against this soil-borne fungal pathogen. GhPFN2 expression was up-regulated when cotton root was inoculated with V. dahliae, and the actin architecture was reorganized in the infected root cells, with a clear increase in the density of filamentous actin and the extent of actin bundling...
July 21, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736574/elucidating-the-role-of-highly-homologous-nicotiana-benthamiana-ubiquitin-e2-gene-family-members-in-plant-immunity-through-an-improved-virus-induced-gene-silencing-approach
#4
Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng
BACKGROUND: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been used in many plant species as an attractive post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) method for studying gene function either individually or at large-scale in a high-throughput manner. However, the specificity and efficiency for knocking down members of a highly homologous gene family have remained to date a significant challenge in VIGS due to silencing of off-targets. RESULTS: Here we present an improved method for the selection and evaluation of gene fragments used for VIGS to specifically and efficiently knock down members of a highly homologous gene family...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735164/vesicle-trafficking-in-plant-immunity
#5
REVIEW
Hye Sup Yun, Chian Kwon
To defend against extracellular pathogens, plants primarily depend on cell-autonomous innate immunity due to the lack of the circulatory immune system including mobile immune cells. To extracellularly restrict or kill the pathogens, plant cells dump out antimicrobials. However, since antimicrobials are also toxic to plant cells themselves, they have to be safely delivered to the target sites in a separate vesicular compartment. In addition, because immune responses often requires energy otherwise used for the other metabolic processes, it is very important to properly control the duration and strength of immune responses depending on pathogen types...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733420/sg2-type-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-myb15-controls-defense-induced-lignification-and-basal-immunity-in-arabidopsis
#6
William R Chezem, Altamash Memon, Fu-Shuang Li, Jing-Ke Weng, Nicole Kho Clay
Lignification of cell wall appositions is a conserved basal defense mechanism in the plant innate immune response. However, the genetic pathway controlling defense-induced lignification remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate the Arabidopsis thaliana SG2-type R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB15 as a regulator of defense-induced lignification and basal immunity. Loss of MYB15 reduces the content but not the composition of defense-induced lignin, whereas constitutive expression of MYB15 increases lignin content independently of immune activation...
July 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733419/myc2-orchestrates-a-hierarchical-transcriptional-cascade-that-regulates-jasmonate-mediated-plant-immunity-in-tomato
#7
Minmin Du, Jiuhai Zhao, David T W Tzeng, Yuanyuan Liu, Lei Deng, Tianxia Yang, Qingzhe Zhai, Fangming Wu, Zhuo Huang, Ming Zhou, Qiaomei Wang, Qian Chen, Silin Zhong, Chang-Bao Li, Chuanyou Li
The hormone jasmonate (JA), which functions in plant immunity, regulates resistance to pathogen infection and insect attack through triggering genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming in plants. We show that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (TF) MYC2 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) acts downstream of the JA receptor to orchestrate JA-mediated activation of both the wounding and pathogen responses. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) coupled with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) assays, we identified 655 MYC2-targeted JA-responsive genes...
July 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732267/understanding-the-holobiont-the-interdependence-of-plants-and-their-microbiome
#8
REVIEW
Carmen Sánchez-Cañizares, Beatriz Jorrín, Philip S Poole, Andrzej Tkacz
The holobiont is composed by the plant and its microbiome. In a similar way to ecological systems of higher organisms, the holobiont shows interdependent and complex dynamics [1,2]. While plants originate from seeds, the microbiome has a multitude of sources. The assemblage of these communities depends on the interaction between the emerging seedling and its surrounding environment, with soil being the main source. These microbial communities are controlled by the plant through different strategies, such as the specific profile of root exudates and its immune system...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726109/the-study-of-immunogenicity-of-the-antigenic-protein-of-high-risk-oncogenic-type-of-the-human-papillomavirus-hpv16-l1-produced-in-the-plant-expression-system-on-the-base-of-transgenic-tomato
#9
R K Salyaev, N I Rekoslavskaya, A S Stolbikov, A V Tretyakova
The immunogenicity of plant-made peroral vaccine against cervical cancer was studied in mice during 342 days after vaccination with the material of tomato fruits genetically transformed with HPV16 L1 Ώ 5'UTR TMV. The immune response was found on day 4 after vaccination in blood serum of vaccinated mice. On days 90-100, the rise to maximum value of the level of antibodies to HPV16 L1 was in the range of 500 ng of the standard antibodies to HPV16 L1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, United States). This level of antibodies was retained until the end of the study...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725633/exploiting-leech-saliva-to-treat-osteoarthritis-a-provocative-perspective
#10
Edwin L Cooper, Natalie Mologne
Plant and animal-derived products are crucial components in complementary and alternative medicine. Although modern medicine has provided numerous innovations and advancements, these often fail to reveal new and dependable, inexpensive treatments nor real cures that are relatively free of adverse side effects. We present evidence that hirudotherapy, which utilizes leeches, improves certain diseases, including osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis, a disease in joints, could benefit from use of medicinal peptides found in leech saliva, components of its immune system...
July 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725398/phenological-asynchrony-between-host-plant-and-gypsy-moth-reduces-insect-gut-microbiota-and-susceptibility-to-bacillus-thuringiensis
#11
Vyacheslav V Martemyanov, Irina A Belousova, Sergey V Pavlushin, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Nikita I Ershov, Tatyana Y Alikina, Marsel R Kabilov, Victor V Glupov
The phenological synchrony between the emergence of overwintering herbivorous insects and the budding of host plants is considered a crucial factor in the population dynamics of herbivores. However, the mechanisms driving the interactions between the host plant, herbivores, and their pathogens are often obscure. In the current study, an artificially induced phenological asynchrony was used to investigate how the asynchrony between silver birch Betula pendula and gypsy moth Lymantria dispar affects the immunity of the insect to bacteria, its susceptibility to the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, and the diversity in its midgut microbiota...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725238/a-non-targeted-metabolomics-approach-unravels-the-vocs-associated-with-the-tomato-immune-response-against-pseudomonas-syringae
#12
María Pilar López-Gresa, Purificación Lisón, Laura Campos, Ismael Rodrigo, José Luis Rambla, Antonio Granell, Vicente Conejero, José María Bellés
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants are secondary metabolites that mediate the plant interaction with pathogens and herbivores. These compounds may perform direct defensive functions, i.e., acting as antioxidant, antibacterial, or antifungal agents, or indirectly by signaling the activation of the plant's defensive responses. Using a non-targeted GC-MS metabolomics approach, we identified the profile of the VOCs associated with the differential immune response of the Rio Grande tomato leaves infected with either virulent or avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 pv...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725234/major-novel-qtl-for-resistance-to-cassava-bacterial-blight-identified-through-a-multi-environmental-analysis
#13
Johana C Soto Sedano, Rubén E Mora Moreno, Boby Mathew, Jens Léon, Fabio A Gómez Cano, Agim Ballvora, Camilo E López Carrascal
Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, has been positioned as one of the most promising crops world-wide representing the staple security for more than one billion people mainly in poor countries. Cassava production is constantly threatened by several diseases, including cassava bacterial blight (CBB) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam), it is the most destructive disease causing heavy yield losses. Here, we report the detection and localization on the genetic map of cassava QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) conferring resistance to CBB...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724770/rgs-cam-detects-and-counteracts-viral-rna-silencing-suppressors-in-plant-immune-priming
#14
Eun Jin Jeon, Kazuki Tadamura, Taiki Murakami, Jun-Ichi Inaba, Bo Min Kim, Masako Sato, Go Atsumi, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Chikara Masuta, Kenji S Nakahara
Primary infection of a plant with a pathogen that causes high accumulation of salicylic acid in the plant typically via a hypersensitive response confers enhanced resistance against secondary infection with a broad spectrum of pathogens, including viruses. This phenomenon is called systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which is a plant-priming for adaption to repeated biotic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms of SAR-mediated enhanced inhibition, especially of virus infection, remain unclear. Here, we show that SAR against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) involves a calmodulin-like protein, rgs-CaM...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723948/integrative-functional-analyses-using-rainbow-trout-selected-for-tolerance-to-plant-diets-reveal-nutrigenomic-signatures-for-soy-utilization-without-the-concurrence-of-enteritis
#15
Jason Abernathy, Andreas Brezas, Kevin R Snekvik, Ronald W Hardy, Ken Overturf
Finding suitable alternative protein sources for diets of carnivorous fish species remains a major concern for sustainable aquaculture. Through genetic selection, we created a strain of rainbow trout that outperforms parental lines in utilizing an all-plant protein diet and does not develop enteritis in the distal intestine, as is typical with salmonids on long-term plant protein-based feeds. By incorporating this strain into functional analyses, we set out to determine which genes are critical to plant protein utilization in the absence of gut inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723316/when-green-and-red-mycology-meet-impressions-from-an-interdisciplinary-forum-on-virulence-mechanisms-of-phyto-and-human-pathogenic-fungi
#16
Yidong Yu, Bernhard Hube, Jörg Kämper, Vera Meyer, Sven Krappmann
Fungal infections pose a constant threat to plants and humans, but detailed knowledge about pathogenesis, immunity, or virulence is rather scarce. Due to the fact that a certain overlap in the armoury of infection exists between plant- and human-pathogenic fungi, an interdisciplinary forum was held in October 2016 at the Institute for Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene in Erlangen under the organisational umbrella from two special interest groups of German microbial societies. Scientific exchange and intense discussion of this timely topic was fostered by bringing together renowned experts in their respective fields to present their thoughts and recent findings in the course of a plenary lecture and six themed sessions, accompanied by oral and poster contributions of young researchers...
July 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722654/a-lectin-receptor-kinase-as-a-potential-sensor-for-extracellular-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Chenggang Wang, Mingqi Zhou, Xudong Zhang, Jin Yao, Yanping Zhang, Zhonglin Mou
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) participates in intracellular and extracellular signaling events unrelated to metabolism. In animals, purinergic receptors are required for extracellular NAD(+) (eNAD(+)) to evoke biological responses, indicating that eNAD(+) may be sensed by cell-surface receptors. However, the identity of eNAD(+)-binding receptors still remains elusive. Here, we identify a lectin receptor kinase (LecRK), LecRK-I.8, as a potential eNAD(+) receptor in Arabidopsis. The extracellular lectin domain of LecRK-I...
July 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720596/elongator-regulates-hypocotyl-growth-in-darkness-and-during-photomorphogenesis
#18
Magdalena Woloszynska, Olimpia Gagliardi, Filip Vandenbussche, Steven De Groeve, Luis Alonso Baez, Pia Neyt, Sabine Le Gall, Jorge Fung, Paloma Mas, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Mieke Van Lijsebettens
Elongator promotes RNA polymerase II-mediated transcript elongation through epigenetic activities such as histone acetylation. Elongator regulates growth, development, immune response, sensitivity to drought and abscisic acid. We demonstrate that elo mutants exhibit defective hypocotyl elongation but have a normal apical hook in darkness and are hyposensitive to light during photomorphogenesis. These elo phenotypes are supported by transcriptome changes, i.e. downregulation of circadian clock components, positive regulators of skoto- or photomorphogenesis, hormonal pathways and cell wall biogenesis-related factors...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719054/evolutionary-cell-biology-of-proteins-from-protists-to-humans-and-plants
#19
REVIEW
Helmut Plattner
During evolution, the cell as a fine-tuned machine had to undergo permanent adjustments to match changes in its environment, while "closed for repair work" was not possible. Evolution from protists (protozoa and unicellular algae) to multicellular organisms may have occurred in basically two lineages, Unikonta and Bikonta, culminating in mammals and angiosperms (flowering plants), respectively. Unicellular models for unikont evolution are myxamoebae (Dictyostelium) and increasingly also choanoflagellates, whereas, for bikonts, ciliates are preferred models...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716408/molecular-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-vigna-mungo-map-kinase-associated-with-mungbean-yellow-mosaic-india-virus-infection-and-deciphering-its-role-in-restricting-the-virus-multiplication
#20
Anju Patel, Nrisingha Dey, Shubho Chaudhuri, Amita Pal
Yellow Mosaic Disease caused by the begomovirus Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV) severely affects many economically important legumes. Recent investigations in Vigna mungo - MYMIV incompatible interaction identified a MAPK homolog in the defense signaling pathway. An important branch of immunity involves phosphorylation by evolutionary conserved Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) that transduce signals of pathogen invasion to downstream molecules leading to diverse immune responses. However, most of the knowledge of MAPKs is derived from model crops, and functions of these versatile kinases are little explored in legumes...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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