keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

plant immunity

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921125/exogenous-cannabinoid-efficacy-merely-a-pharmacokinetic-interaction
#1
Jennifer H Martin, Jennifer Schneider, Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis
Endocannabinoid pharmacology is now relatively well understood with a number of endocannabinoids and endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitters identified and the pharmacokinetics relatively well ascertained. Further, the cannabinoid receptors are now molecularly and pharmacologically characterised and the cell processes involved in endocannabinoid transcription, synthesis, post-translational modification and protein expression are reported. Endogenous cannabinoids have been shown to have key roles in immune and pain pathways and neuro-behavioural signalling including appetite regulation...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919016/metarhizium-brunneum-an-enzootic-wireworm-disease-and-evidence-for-its-suppression-by-bacterial-symbionts
#2
Todd Kabaluk, Erica Li-Leger, Sean Nam
Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are serious agricultural pests, with soil-dwelling larvae attacking subterranean tissues of crop plants and their fruit when in contact with the soil surface. Researchers collect wireworms for laboratory experiments to study their behaviour and test pest control agents but frequently lose them to Metarhizium Petch (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) infection. We found latent M. brunneum infection in 13-100% of live, asymptomatic Agriotes obscurus and A. lineatus wireworms acquired from agricultural fields and in wireworms maintained indoors, indicating its enzootic presence...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918301/mathematical-fundamentals-for-the-noise-immunity-of-the-genetic-code
#3
Elena Fimmel, Lutz Strüngmann
Symmetry is one of the essential and most visible patterns that can be seen in nature. Starting from the left-right symmetry of the human body, all types of symmetry can be found in crystals, plants, animals and nature as a whole. Similarly, principals of symmetry are also some of the fundamental and most useful tools in modern mathematical natural science that play a major role in theory and applications. As a consequence, it is not surprising that the desire to understand the origin of life, based on the genetic code, forces us to involve symmetry as a mathematical concept...
September 13, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917537/hbcag-produced-in-transgenic-tobacco-triggers-th1-and-th2-response-when-intramuscularly-delivered
#4
Marcin Pyrski, Anna Rugowska, Kamil Robert Wierzbiński, Anna Kasprzyk, Maria Bogusiewicz, Piotr Bociąg, Sławomir Samardakiewicz, Marcin Czyż, Maciej Kurpisz, Tomasz Pniewski
Hepatitis B core Antigen (HBcAg) assembled into Capsid-Like Particles (CLPs) is investigated as a therapeutic vaccine in treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in diagnostic tests or as a carrier for various epitopes. While the expression of HBcAg has been thoroughly clarified in E. coli and yeast, it has also been investigated in other expression systems. Stably transformed tobacco expressed HBcAg at a level of 110-250µg/g fresh weight, therefore in view of its large leaf biomass it offers a production platform comparable with transient expression systems regarding the final yield of HBcAg...
September 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915433/trans-golgi-network-early-endosome-a-central-sorting-station-for-cargo-proteins-in-plant-immunity
#5
REVIEW
Erica D LaMontagne, Antje Heese
In plants, the trans-Golgi network (TGN) functionally overlaps with the early endosome (EE), serving as a central sorting hub to direct newly synthesized and endocytosed cargo to the cell surface or vacuole. Here, we focus on the emerging role of the TGN/EE in sorting of immune cargo proteins for effective plant immunity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Specific vesicle coat and regulatory components at the TGN/EE ensure that immune cargoes are correctly sorted and transported to the location of their cellular functions...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911019/early-arabidopsis-root-hair-growth-stimulation-by-pathogenic-strains-of-pseudomonas-syringae
#6
Tamara Pecenková, Martin Janda, Jitka Ortmannová, Vladimíra Hajná, Zuzana Stehlíková, Viktor Žárský
Background and Aims: Selected beneficial Pseudomonas spp. strains have the ability to influence root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. A crucial role for auxin in this long-term (1week), long-distance plant-microbe interaction has been demonstrated. Methods: Arabidopsis seedlings were cultivated in vitro on vertical plates and inoculated with pathogenic strains Pseudomonas syringae pv...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906562/dose-dependent-interactions-between-two-loci-trigger-altered-shoot-growth-in-bg-5%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-krotzenburg-0-kro-0-hybrids-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#7
Dema Alhajturki, Subhashini Muralidharan, Markus Nurmi, Beth A Rowan, John E Lunn, Helena Boldt, Mohamed A Salem, Saleh Alseekh, Christian Jorzig, Regina Feil, Patrick Giavalisco, Alisdair R Fernie, Detlef Weigel, Roosa A E Laitinen
Hybrids occasionally exhibit genetic interactions resulting in reduced fitness in comparison to their parents. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana have highlighted the role of immune conflicts, but less is known about the role of other factors in hybrid incompatibility in plants. Here, we present a new hybrid incompatibility phenomenon in this species. We have characterized a new case of F1 hybrid incompatibility from a cross between the A. thaliana accessions Krotzenburg-0 (Kro-0) and BG-5, by conducting transcript, metabolite and hormone analyses, and identified the causal loci through genetic mapping...
September 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906131/effects-of-immunomodulators-on-the-response-induced-by-vaccines-against-autoimmune-diseases
#8
Dante J Marciani
A promising treatment for T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases is the induction of immune tolerance by modulating the immune response against self-antigens, an objective that may be achieved by vaccination. There are two main types of vaccines currently under development. The tolerogenic vaccines, composed of proteins formed by a cytokine fused to a self-antigen, which usually induce tolerance by eliminating the T-cells that are immune reactive against the self-antigen. The immunogenic vaccines, comprised of a self-antigen plus a sole Th2 adjuvant either free or conjugated, that alleviate autoimmunity by switching the immune response against the self-antigen, from a damaging pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 to an anti-inflammatory Th2 immunity...
September 14, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905991/target-of-rapamycin-signaling-orchestrates-growth-defense-trade-offs-in-plants
#9
David De Vleesschauwer, Osvaldo Filipe, Gena Hoffman, Hamed Soren Seifi, Ashley Haeck, Patrick Canlas, Jonas Van Bockhaven, Evelien De Waele, Kristof Demeestere, Pamela Ronald, Monica Hofte
Plant defense to microbial pathogens is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants merge immune system function with normal growth and development is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of target of rapamycin (TOR), an evolutionary conserved serine/threonine kinase, in the plant defense response. We used rice as a model system and applied a combination of chemical, genetic, genomic and cell-based analyses. We demonstrate that ectopic expression of TOR and Raptor (regulatory-associated protein of mTOR), a protein previously demonstrated to interact with TOR in Arabidopsis, positively regulates growth and development in rice...
September 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902164/slbir3-negatively-regulates-pamp-responses-and-cell-death-in-tomato
#10
Shuhua Huang, Shuming Nie, Shufen Wang, Jianwei Liu, Yanfeng Zhang, Xiaofeng Wang
Bri1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1)-interacting receptor-like kinase (BIR) proteins have been shown to play important roles in regulating growth and development, pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) responses, and cell death in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified four BIR family members in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), including SlBIR3, an ortholog of AtBIR3 from A. thaliana. SlBIR3 is predicted to encode a membrane localized non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinase that, based on protein sequence, does not have autophosphorylation activity but that can be phosphorylated in vivo...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901644/the-truncated-nlr-protein-tir-nbs13-is-a-mos6-importin-%C3%AE-3-interaction-partner-and-required-for-plant-immunity
#11
Charlotte Roth, Daniel Lüdke, Melanie Klenke, Annalena Quathamer, Oliver Valerius, Gerhard H Braus, Marcel Wiermer
Importin-α proteins mediate the translocation of nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Genetically, Arabidopsis IMPORTIN-α3/MOS6 (MODIFIER OF SNC1, 6) is required for basal plant immunity and constitutive disease resistance activated in the auto-immune mutant snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1), suggesting that MOS6 plays a role in nuclear import of proteins involved in plant defense signaling. Here, we sought to identify and characterize defense-regulatory cargo proteins and interaction partners of MOS6...
September 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901254/therapeutics-and-immunoprophylaxis-against-noroviruses-and-rotaviruses
#12
Souvik Ghosh, Yashpal Singh Malik, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Noroviruses and rotaviruses are important viral etiologies of severe gastroenteritis. Noroviruses are the primary cause of non-bacterial diarrheal outbreaks in humans, whilst rotaviruses are a major cause of childhood diarrhea. Although both enteric pathogens substantially impact human health and economies, there are no approved drugs against noroviruses and rotaviruses, so far. On the other hand, whilst the currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been successfully implemented in over 100 countries, the most advanced norovirus vaccine has recently completed phase-I and II trials...
September 12, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900241/propolis-envelope-in-apis-mellifera-colonies-supports-honey-bees-against-the-pathogen-paenibacillus-larvae
#13
Renata S Borba, Marla Spivak
Honey bees have immune defenses both as individuals and as a colony (e.g., individual and social immunity). One form of honey bee social immunity is the collection of antimicrobial plant resins and the deposition of the resins as a propolis envelope within the nest. In this study, we tested the effects of the propolis envelope as a natural defense against Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB) disease. Using colonies with and without a propolis envelope, we quantified: 1) the antimicrobial activity of larval food fed to 1-2 day old larvae; and 2) clinical signs of AFB...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899963/s5h-dmr6-encodes-a-salicylic-acid-5-hydroxylase-that-fine-tunes-salicylic-acid-homeostasis
#14
Yanjun Zhang, Li Zhao, Jiangzhe Zhao, Yujia Li, Jinbin Wang, Rong Guo, Su-Sheng Gan, Chang-Jun Liu, Kewei Zhang
The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays essential roles in biotic and abiotic responses, plant development, and leaf senescence. 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA or gentisic acid) is one of the most commonly occurring aromatic acids in green plants and is assumed to be generated from SA, but the enzymes involved in its production remain obscure. DMR6 (Downy Mildew Resistant 6, At5g24530) has been proven essential in plant immunity of Arabidopsis, but its biochemical properties are not well understood...
September 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898768/immune-enhancing-effects-of-polysaccharides-extracted-from-lilium-lancifolium-thunb
#15
REVIEW
Guifang Pan, Zhongwen Xie, Shixia Huang, Yuling Tai, Qingshuang Cai, Wei Jiang, Jiameng Sun, Yi Yuan
Lilium lancifolium Thunb. is a Chinese traditional plant with various health benefits. In this study, we purified and characterized the water-soluble polysaccharide fraction (LLP-1A) of L. lancifolium. We also investigated the in vitro immune-enhancing activity of LLP-1A in macrophages and the underlying molecular mechanism. Results showed that LLP-1A was mainly composed of mannose and glucose at a molar ratio of 1.77:1, and its molecular weight was approximately 78.61kDa. The Fourier transform-infrared spectra of LLP-1A also revealed typical polysaccharide characteristics: the presence of uronic acid, pyranose rings and β-glycosidic bonds...
September 9, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898429/tgacg-binding-factor-1-tga1-and-tga4-regulate-salicylic-acid-and-pipecolic-acid-biosynthesis-by-modulating-the-expression-of-systemic-acquired-resistance-deficient-1-sard1-and-calmodulin-binding-protein-60g-cbp60g
#16
Tongjun Sun, Lucas Busta, Qian Zhang, Pingtao Ding, Reinhard Jetter, Yuelin Zhang
Salicylic acid (SA) and pipecolic acid (Pip) play important roles in plant immunity. Here we analyzed the roles of transcription factors TGACG-BINDING FACTOR 1 (TGA1) and TGA4 in regulating SA and Pip biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We quantified the expression levels of SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE DEFICIENT 1 (SARD1) and CALMODULIN-BINDING PROTEIN 60g (CBP60g), which encode two master transcription factors of plant immunity, and the accumulation of SA and Pip in tga1-1 tga4-1 mutant plants. We tested whether SARD1 and CBP60g are direct targets of TGA1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation-polymerase chain reaction (ChIP-PCR)...
September 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895881/de-novo-assembly-and-analysis-of-polygonatum-sibiricum-transcriptome-and-identification-of-genes-involved-in-polysaccharide-biosynthesis
#17
Shiqiang Wang, Bin Wang, Wenping Hua, Junfeng Niu, Kaikai Dang, Yi Qiang, Zhezhi Wang
Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharides (PSPs) are used to improve immunity, alleviate dryness, promote the secretion of fluids, and quench thirst. However, the PSP biosynthetic pathway is largely unknown. Understanding the genetic background will help delineate that pathway at the molecular level so that researchers can develop better conservation strategies. After comparing the PSP contents among several different P. sibiricum germplasms, we selected two groups with the largest contrasts in contents and subjected them to HiSeq2500 transcriptome sequencing to identify the candidate genes involved in PSP biosynthesis...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894754/natural-modulators-of-endosomal-toll-like-receptor-mediated-psoriatic-skin-inflammation
#18
REVIEW
Chao-Yang Lai, Yu-Wen Su, Kuo-I Lin, Li-Chung Hsu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that can be initiated by excessive activation of endosomal toll-like receptors (TLRs), particularly TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9. Therefore, inhibitors of endosomal TLR activation are being investigated for their ability to treat this disease. The currently approved biological drugs adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, ustekinumab, ixekizumab, and secukizumab are antibodies against effector cytokines that participate in the initiation and development of psoriasis...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894453/interspecific-potato-breeding-lines-display-differential-colonization-patterns-and-induced-defense-responses-after-ralstonia-solanacearum-infection
#19
Virginia Ferreira, María J Pianzzola, Francisco L Vilaró, Guillermo A Galván, María L Tondo, María V Rodriguez, Elena G Orellano, Marc Valls, María I Siri
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the main hosts of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causative agent of bacterial wilt. This plant pathogen bacteria produce asymptomatic latent infections that promote its global spread, hindering disease control. A potato breeding program is conducted in Uruguay based on the introgression of resistance from the wild native species S. commersonii Dun. Currently, several backcrosses were generated exploiting the high genetic variability of this wild species resulting in advanced interspecific breeding lines with different levels of bacterial wilt resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891100/roq1-mediates-recognition-of-the-xanthomonas-and-pseudomonas-effector-proteins-xopq-and-hopq1
#20
Alex Schultink, Tiancong Qi, Arielle Lee, Adam D Steinbrenner, Brian Staskawicz
Xanthomonas spp are phytopathogenic bacteria that can cause disease on a wide variety of plant species resulting in significant impacts on crop yields. Limited genetic resistance is available in most crop species and current control methods are often inadequate, particularly when environmental conditions favor disease. The plant Nicotiana benthamiana has been shown to be resistant to Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas due to an immune response triggered by the bacterial effector proteins XopQ and HopQ1, respectively...
September 11, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
keyword
keyword
55060
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"