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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775738/humoral-and-mucosal-immune-responses-in-meagre-argyrosomus-regius-juveniles-fed-diets-with-varying-inclusion-levels-of-carob-seed-germ-meal
#1
Francisco Antonio Guardiola, Carolina Barroso, Paula Enes, Ana Couto, Patricia Díaz-Rosales, António Afonso, Erika Kanashiro, Helena Peres, Elisabete Matos, Aires Oliva-Teles, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Benjamín Costas
Many studies have assessed the effects of incorporation of plant feedstuffs in fish diets on growth performance, whereas few studies have addressed the effects of fish meal replacement by plant protein sources on fish immune parameters. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on immune response of different inclusion levels of carob seed germ meal (CSGM) as partial replacement for fish meal in diets for meagre (Argyrosomus regius) juveniles. Fish were fed four experimental diets with increased CSGM inclusion levels [0% (control), 7...
May 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775494/osa-mir164a-targets-osnac60-and-negatively-regulates-rice-immunity-against-the-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#2
Zhaoyun Wang, Yeqiang Xia, Siyuan Lin, Yanru Wang, Baohuan Guo, Xiaoning Song, Shaochen Ding, Liyu Zheng, Ruiying Feng, Shulin Chen, Yalin Bao, Cong Sheng, Xin Zhang, Jianguo Wu, Dongdong Niu, Hailing Jin, Hongwei Zhao
Exploring the regulatory mechanism played by endogenous rice miRNAs in defense responses against the blast disease is of great significance in both resistant variety breeding and disease control management. We identified rice defense-related miRNAs by comparing rice miRNA expression patterns before and after Magnaporthe oryzae strain Guy11 infection. We discovered that osa-miR164a expression reduced upon Guy11 infection at both early and late stages, which was perfectly associated with the induced expression of its target gene, OsNAC60...
May 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774640/regulatory-roles-of-flavonoids-on-inflammasome-activation-during-inflammatory-responses
#3
REVIEW
Young-Su Yi
Inflammation is an innate immune response to noxious stimuli to protect the body from pathogens and dangers. Inflammatory responses consist of two main steps: priming and triggering. In priming, inflammatory cells increase expressions of inflammatory molecules, while in triggering, inflammasomes are activated, resulting in cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Inflammasomes are protein complexes comprising intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) (e.g. nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), and caspases-4/5/11) and pro-caspase-1 with or without a bipartite adaptor molecule ASC...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774148/genetic-variations-in-the-tlr3-locus-are-associated-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#4
Robledo Ávila-Castellano, José-Raúl García-Lozano, Stefan Cimbollek, Alfredo J Lucendo, Juan-Manuel Bozada, Joaquín Quiralte
Background: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an antigen-driven disease mediated by an abnormal immune Th2 response. Objective: The objective of this article is to investigate genes associated with regulating immune responses leading to disease susceptibility. Methods: Twenty-seven tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) selected in five candidate genes ( TLR3, TLR4, FOXP3, FLG and TSLP ) were genotyped in 218 EoE patients and 376 controls...
April 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773668/plants-send-small-rnas-in-extracellular-vesicles-to-fungal-pathogen-to-silence-virulence-genes
#5
Qiang Cai, Lulu Qiao, Ming Wang, Baoye He, Feng-Mao Lin, Jared Palmquist, Hsien-Da Huang, Hailing Jin
Some pathogens and pests deliver small RNAs (sRNAs) into host cells to suppress host immunity. Conversely, hosts also transfer sRNAs into pathogens and pests to inhibit their virulence. Although sRNA trafficking has been observed in a wide variety of interactions, how sRNAs are transferred, especially from hosts to pathogens/pests, is still unknown. Here we show that host Arabidopsis cells secrete exosome-like extracellular vesicles to deliver sRNAs into fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea These sRNA-containing vesicles accumulate at the infection sites and are taken up by the fungal cells...
May 17, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771278/a-pelota-like-gene-regulates-root-development-and-defence-responses-in-rice
#6
Wona Ding, Jing Wu, Jin Ye, Wenjuan Zheng, Shanshan Wang, Xinni Zhu, Jiaqin Zhou, Zhichong Pan, Botao Zhang, Shihua Zhu
Background and Aims: Pelota (Pelo) are evolutionarily conserved genes reported to be involved in ribosome rescue, cell cycle control and meiotic cell division. However, there is little known about their function in plants. The aim of this study was to elucidate the function of an ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS)-derived mutation of a Pelo-like gene in rice (named Ospelo). Methods: A dysfunctional mutant was used to characterize the function of OsPelo. Analyses of its expression and sub-cellular localization were performed...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771153/nature-derived-microbiota-exposure-as-a-novel-immunomodulatory-approach
#7
Noora Nurminen, Jake Lin, Mira Grönroos, Riikka Puhakka, Lenka Kramna, Heli K Vari, Hanna Viskari, Sami Oikarinen, Marja Roslund, Anirudra Parajuli, Iiris Tyni, Ondrej Cinek, Olli Laitinen, Heikki Hyöty, Aki Sinkkonen
AIM:  Current attempts to modulate the human microbiota and immune responses are based on probiotics or human-derived bacterial transplants. We investigated microbial modulation by soil and plant-based material. MATERIALS & METHODS: We performed a pilot study in which healthy adults were exposed to the varied microbial community of a soil- and plant-based material. RESULTS: The method was safe and feasible; exposure was associated with an increase in gut microbial diversity...
May 17, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770510/scf-sniper-4-controls-the-turnover-of-two-redundant-traf-proteins-in-plant-immunity
#8
Jianhua Huang, Chipan Zhu, Xin Li
In mammals, tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factors (TRAFs) are signaling adaptors that regulate diverse physiological processes, including immunity and stress responses. In Arabidopsis, MUSE13 and MUSE14 are redundant TRAF proteins serving as adaptors in the SCFCRP 1 complex to facilitate the turnover of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats (NLR) immune receptors. Degradation of MUSE13 is inhibited by proteasome inhibitor, suggesting that the MUSE13 stability is controlled by the 26S proteasome...
May 16, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767796/specificity-in-nitric-oxide-signalling
#9
Saima Umbreen, Jibril Lubega, Beimi Cui, Qiaona Pan, Jihong Jiang, Gary J Loake
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and their cognate redox signalling networks pervade almost all facets of plant growth, development, immunity and environmental interactions. The emerging evidence implies that specificity in redox signalling is achieved by a multi-layered molecular framework. This encompasses the production of redox cues in the locale of the given protein target and protein tertiary structures that convey the appropriate local chemical environment to support redox-based, post-translational modifications (PTMs)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766569/differential-roles-of-melatonin-in-plant-host-resistance-and-pathogen-suppression-in-cucurbits
#10
Mihir Kumar Mandal, Haktan Suren, Brian Ward, Arezue Boroujerdi, Chandrasekar Kousik
Since the 1950s, research on the animal neurohormone melatonin, has focused on its multi-regulatory effect on patients suffering from insomnia, cancer, and Alzheimer's. In plants, melatonin plays major role in plant growth and development, and is inducible in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, studies on the direct role of melatonin in disease suppression and as a signaling molecule in host-pathogen defense mechanism are lacking. This study provides insight on the predicted biosynthetic pathway of melatonin in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and how application of melatonin, an environmental-friendly immune inducer, can boost plant immunity and suppress pathogen growth where fungicide resistance and lack of genetic resistance are major problems...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763944/baicalin-ameliorates-imiquimod-induced-psoriasis-like-inflammation-in-mice
#11
Chien-Hui Hung, Chien-Neng Wang, Huei-Hsuan Cheng, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Yi-Ting Chen, Ya-Wen Chao, Jia Liang Jiang, Chen-Chen Lee
Baicalin is the main flavonoid from the roots of an important medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis , which shows a variety biological activities. Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease that affects the skin. The unmet need of psoriasis is that many patients do not respond adequately to available clinical treatment. In this study, we found that baicalin showed inhibited dermal inflammation in a murine model of psoriasis via topical application of imiquimod. After a 5-day topical imiquimod application, baicalin or the control vehicle cream was to applied to the lesions of BALB/c mice for a further 4 days...
May 15, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763626/profiling-of-small-rnas-derived-from-cucumber-mosaic-virus-in-infected-nicotiana-benthamiana-plants-by-deep-sequencing
#12
Yanhong Qiu, Yuping Wu, Yongjiang Zhang, Wenjie Xu, Chenguang Wang, Shuifang Zhu
In plants, RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism underlying antiviral immunity. To investigate antiviral responses in Nicotiana benthamiana, we analyzed the profiles of the virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in wild-type N. benthamiana and NbRDR6 mutant plants infected with the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b-deficient mutant. We observed that NbRDR6 regulates RNA silencing by producing vsRNAs that trigger an effective antiviral response, while NbRDR1 may nonredundantly and synergistically function with NbRDR6 to mediate immune responses...
May 12, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761034/the-rice-xa21-ectodomain-fused-to-the-arabidopsis-efr-cytoplasmic-domain-confers-resistance-to-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae
#13
Nicholas C Thomas, Nir Oksenberg, Furong Liu, Daniel Caddell, Alina Nalyvayko, Yen Nguyen, Benjamin Schwessinger, Pamela C Ronald
Rice ( Oryza sativa ) plants expressing the XA21 cell-surface receptor kinase are resistant to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) infection. We previously demonstrated that expressing a chimeric protein containing the ELONGATION FACTOR Tu RECEPTOR (EFR) ectodomain and the XA21 endodomain (EFR:XA21) in rice does not confer robust resistance to Xoo . To test if the XA21 ectodomain is required for Xoo resistance, we produced transgenic rice lines expressing a chimeric protein consisting of the XA21 ectodomain and EFR endodomain (XA21:EFR) and inoculated these lines with Xoo ...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760074/atpep3-is-a-hormone-like-peptide-that-plays-a-role-in-the-salinity-stress-tolerance-of-plants
#14
Kentaro Nakaminami, Masanori Okamoto, Mieko Higuchi-Takeuchi, Takeshi Yoshizumi, Yube Yamaguchi, Yoichiro Fukao, Minami Shimizu, Chihiro Ohashi, Maho Tanaka, Minami Matsui, Kazuo Shinozaki, Motoaki Seki, Kousuke Hanada
Peptides encoded by small coding genes play an important role in plant development, acting in a similar manner as phytohormones. Few hormone-like peptides, however, have been shown to play a role in abiotic stress tolerance. In the current study, 17 Arabidopsis genes coding for small peptides were found to be up-regulated in response to salinity stress. To identify peptides leading salinity stress tolerance, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing these small coding genes and assessed survivability and root growth under salinity stress conditions...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757991/a-review-the-bioactivities-and-pharmacological-applications-of-polygonatum-sibiricum-polysaccharides
#15
REVIEW
Xiaowei Cui, Shiyuan Wang, Hui Cao, Hong Guo, Yujuan Li, Fangxue Xu, Mengmeng Zheng, Xiaozhi Xi, Chunchao Han
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely used in China and is regarded as the most important therapeutic. Polygonatum sibiricum (PS), a natural plant used in traditional Chinese medicine, has various functions associated with a number of its components. There are many compositions in PS including polysaccharides, steroids, anthraquinone, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, lignin, vitamins, various acids, and so on. Of these, polysaccharides play a significant role in PS-based therapeutics. This article summarizes Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharides (PSP) have many pharmacological applications and biological activities, such as their antioxidant activity, anti-aging activity, an anti-fatigue effect, immunity enhancement effect, antibacterial effect, anti-inflammatory effect, hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic effects, anti-osteoporosis effect, liver protection, treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM), anti-cancer effect, and may help prevent Alzheimer's disease, and so on...
May 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757394/a-barley-powdery-mildew-fungus-non-autonomous-retrotransposon-encodes-a-peptide-that-supports-penetration-success-on-barley
#16
Mathias Nottensteiner, Bernd Zechmann, Christopher McCollum, Ralph Hückelhoven
Pathogens overcome plant immunity by the means of secreted effectors. Host effector targets often act in pathogen defense but might also support fungal accommodation or nutrition. The barley ROP GTPase HvRACB is involved in accommodation of fungal haustoria of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh) in barley epidermal cells. We found that HvRACB interacts with the ROP-interactive peptide 1 (ROPIP1) that is encoded on the active non-long terminal repeat retroelement Eg-R1 of Bgh. Over-expression of ROPIP1 in barley epidermal cells and host-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (HIGS) of ROPIP1 suggested that ROPIP1 is involved in virulence of Bgh...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757140/the-plant-specific-transcription-factors-cbp60g-and-sard1-are-targeted-by-a-verticillium-secretory-protein-vdscp41-to-modulate-immunity
#17
Jun Qin, Kailun Wang, Lifan Sun, Haiying Xing, Sheng Wang, Lin Li, She Chen, Hui-Shan Guo, Jie Zhang
The vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects the roots of plants to cause Verticillium wilt. The molecular mechanisms underlying V. dahliae virulence and host resistance remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that a secretory protein, VdSCP41, functions as an intracellular effector that promotes V. dahliae virulence. The Arabidopsis master immune regulators CBP60g and SARD1 and cotton GhCBP60b are targeted by VdSCP41. VdSCP41 binds the C-terminal portion of CBP60g to inhibit its transcription factor activity...
May 14, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756135/microbial-small-molecules-weapons-of-plant-subversion
#18
REVIEW
Ioannis A Stringlis, Hao Zhang, Corné M J Pieterse, Melvin D Bolton, Ronnie de Jonge
Covering: up to 2018Plants live in close association with a myriad of microbes that are generally harmless. However, the minority of microbes that are pathogens can severely impact crop quality and yield, thereby endangering food security. By contrast, beneficial microbes provide plants with important services, such as enhanced nutrient uptake and protection against pests and diseases. Like pathogens, beneficial microbes can modulate host immunity to efficiently colonize the nutrient-rich niches within and around the roots and aerial tissues of a plant, a phenomenon mirroring the establishment of commensal microbes in the human gut...
May 14, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755447/stomatal-closure-and-sa-ja-et-signaling-pathways-are-essential-for-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-fzb42-to-restrict-leaf-disease-caused-by-phytophthora-nicotianae-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#19
Liming Wu, Ziyang Huang, Xi Li, Liumin Ma, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Jia Liu, Rainer Borriss, Zhen Wu, Xuewen Gao
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that induces resistance to a broad spectrum of pathogens. This study analyzed the mechanism by which FZB42 restricts leaf disease caused by Phytophthora nicotianae in Nicotiana benthamiana . The oomycete foliar pathogen P. nicotianae is able to reopen stomata which had been closed by the plant innate immune response to initiate penetration and infection. Here, we showed that root colonization by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 restricted pathogen-mediated stomatal reopening in N...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753709/production-of-polyclonal-antibodies-for-capsicum-chlorosis-virus-cacv-infecting-chilli-in-india-through-recombinant-nucleocapsid-protein-expression-and-its-application
#20
B D Haokip, D Alice, R Selvarajan, K Nagendran, L Rajendran, S K Manoranjitham, G Karthikeyan
Bud necrosis and chlorotic spots causing virus affecting chilli crop in Tamil Nadu (India) was identified as Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV). Specific primers were used for amplification and sequencing of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) gene. Polyclonal antibody against the bacterially expressed NP from the CaCV-TN-CBE isolate was produced using recombinant DNA technology. NP gene was subcloned into the pET-28a (+) vector and expressed by transformation in BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The expressed protein was about ~34 kDa and was confirmed through western blot analysis using Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) polyclonal antiserum from ICRISAT, India...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
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