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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430356/crispr-cas9-an-rna-guided-highly-precise-synthetic-tool-for-plant-genome-editing
#1
REVIEW
Yeliz Demirci, Baohong Zhang, Turgay Unver
CRISPR/Cas 9 is a newly developed and naturally occurred genome editing tool, which is originally used by bacteria for immune defence. In the past years, it has been quickly employed and modified to precisely edit genome sequences in both plants and animals. Compared with the well-developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), CRISPR/Cas 9 has lots of advantages, including easier to design and implement, higher targeting efficiency, and less expensive. Thus, it is becoming one of the most powerful tools for knockout of an individual gene as well as insertion of one gene and/or control of gene transcription...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430023/harnessing-effector-triggered-immunity-for-durable-disease-resistance
#2
Meixiang Zhang, Gitta Coaker
Genetic control of plant diseases has traditionally included the deployment of single immune receptors with nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) domain architecture. These NLRs recognize corresponding pathogen effector proteins inside plant cells, resulting in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Although ETI triggers robust resistance, deployment of single NLRs can be rapidly overcome by pathogen populations within a single or a few growing seasons. In order to generate more durable disease resistance against devastating plant pathogens, a multi-tiered strategy that incorporates stacked NLRs combined with other sources of disease resistance is necessary...
April 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430017/two-nramp6-isoforms-function-as-iron-and-manganese-transporters-and-contribute-to-disease-resistance-in-rice
#3
Cristina Peris-Peris, Albert Serra-Cardona, Ferrán Sánchez-Sanuy, Sonia Campo, Joaquin Ariño, Blanca San Segundo
Metal ions are essential elements for all living organisms. However, metals can be toxic when present in excess. In plants, metal homeostasis is partly achieved through the function of metal transporters, including the diverse natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMP). Among them, the OsNramp6 gene encodes a previously uncharacterized member of the rice NRAMP family that undergoes alternative splicing to produce different NRAMP6 proteins. In this work, we determined the metal transport activity and biological role of the full-length and the shortest NRAMP6 proteins (l-NRAMP6 and s-NRAMP6, respectively)...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429900/theanine-the-unique-amino-acid-in-the-tea-plant-as-an-oral-hepatoprotective-agent
#4
Dongxu Wang, Qiang Gao, Taotao Wang, Frank Qian, Yijun Wang
For thousands of years, humans have consumed tea made from leaves of Camellia sinensis, first as a medicinal herb and then as a widely popular beverage. In the past 10 years, theanine, a tea-derived, unique, nonproteinic amino acid, has been extensively studied for its health benefits. Recently, multiple lines of evidence have proven its beneficial effects on hepatic and immune functions. One possible mechanism for its biological activity involves the downregulation of the inflammatory response through the induction of nitric oxide production and glutathione synthesis...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428809/leucine-rich-repeat-containing-variable-lymphocyte-receptors-as-modules-to-target-plant-expressed-proteins
#5
André C Velásquez, Kinya Nomura, Max D Cooper, Brantley R Herrin, Sheng Yang He
BACKGROUND: The ability to target and manipulate protein-based cellular processes would accelerate plant research; yet, the technology to specifically and selectively target plant-expressed proteins is still in its infancy. Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) are ubiquitously present protein domains involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. LRRs confer the binding specificity to the highly diverse variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) antibodies (including VLRA, VLRB and VLRC types) that jawless vertebrates make as the functional equivalents of jawed vertebrate immunoglobulin-based antibodies...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424667/editorial-plant-immunity-against-viruses
#6
EDITORIAL
Jian-Zhong Liu, Feng Li, Yule Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424511/response-of-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-roots-to-the-presence-of-beneficial-and-pathogenic-fungi-by-transcriptome-analysis
#7
Kun Hao, Feng Wang, Xiangqun Nong, Mark Richard McNeill, Shaofang Liu, Guangjun Wang, Guangchun Cao, Zehua Zhang
Entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae obtain survival benefit meanwhile promote the nutrient absorption of root as an endophyte. However, little is known concerning molecular mechanisms in the process. We performed the transcriptome sequencing of A. hypogaea roots inoculated M. anisopliae and pathogenic Fusarium axysporum, respectively. There were 81323 unigenes from 132023 transcripts. Total 203 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) respond to the two fungi, including specific 76 and 34 DEGs distributed respectively in M...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423944/emerging-roles-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-plant-response-to-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses
#8
Naghmeh Nejat, Nitin Mantri
Spectacular progress in high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and expression profiling using next-generation sequencing technologies have recently revolutionized molecular biology and allowed massive advances in identifying the genomic regions and molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation of growth, development, and stress response. Through recent research, non-coding RNAs, in particular long non-coding RNAs, have emerged as key regulators of transcription in eukaryotes. Long non-coding RNAs are vastly heterogeneous groups of RNAs that execute a broad range of essential roles in various biological processes at the epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional levels...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423458/dissecting-virulence-function-from-recognition-cell-death-suppression-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-by-xopq-hopq1-family-effectors-relies-on-eds1-dependent-immunity
#9
Norman Adlung, Ulla Bonas
Many Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria express effector proteins of the XopQ/HopQ1 family which are translocated into plant cells via the type III secretion system during infection. In Nicotiana benthamiana, recognition of XopQ/HopQ1 proteins induces an effector-triggered immunity (ETI) reaction which is not associated with strong cell death but renders plants immune against Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria strains. Additionally, XopQ suppresses cell death in N. benthamiana when transiently co-expressed with cell death inducers...
April 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421694/molecular-engineering-and-plant-expression-of-an-immunoglobulin-heavy-chain-scaffold-for-delivery-of-a-dengue-vaccine-candidate
#10
Mi-Young Kim, Craig Van Dolleweerd, Alastair Copland, Matthew John Paul, Sven Hofmann, Gina R Webster, Emily Julik, Ivonne Ceballos-Olvera, Jorge Reyes-Del Valle, Moon-Sik Yang, Yong-Suk Jang, Rajko Reljic, Julian K Ma
In order to enhance vaccine uptake by the immune cells in vivo, molecular engineering approach was employed to construct a Polymeric Immunoglobulin G Scaffold (PIGS) that incorporates multiple copies of an antigen and targets the Fc gamma receptors on antigen-presenting cells. These self-adjuvanting immunogens were tested in the context of dengue infection, for which there is currently no globally licensed vaccine yet. Thus, the consensus domain III sequence (cEDIII) of dengue glycoprotein E was incorporated into PIGS and expressed in both tobacco plants and Chinese Ovary Hamster cells...
April 19, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421104/evolving-tale-of-tcps-new-paradigms-and-old-lacunae
#11
REVIEW
Namrata Dhaka, Vasudha Bhardwaj, Manoj K Sharma, Rita Sharma
Teosinte Branched1/Cycloidea/Proliferating cell factors (TCP) genes are key mediators of genetic innovations underlying morphological novelties, stress adaptation, and evolution of immune response in plants. They have a remarkable ability to integrate and translate diverse endogenous, and environmental signals with high fidelity. Compilation of studies, aimed at elucidating the mechanism of TCP functions, shows that it takes an amalgamation and interplay of several different factors, regulatory processes and pathways, instead of individual components, to achieve the incredible functional diversity and specificity, demonstrated by TCP proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419665/lettuce-produced-hepatitis-c-virus-e1e2-heterodimer-triggers-immune-responses-in-mice-and-antibody-production-after-oral-vaccination
#12
Jihong Liu Clarke, Lisa Paruch, Mihaela-Olivia Dobrica, Iuliana Caras, Catalin Tucureanu, Adrian Onu, Sonya Ciulean, Crina Stavaru, Andre Eerde, Yanliang Wang, Hege Steen, Sissel Haugslien, Catalina Petrareanu, Catalin Lazar, Ioan Popescu, Ralph Bock, Jean Dubuisson, Norica Branza-Nichita
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major etiologic agent for severe liver diseases (e.g., cirrhosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Approximately 140 million people have chronic HCV infections and about 500,000 die yearly from HCV-related liver pathologies. To date, there is no licenced vaccine available to prevent HCV infection and production of an HCV vaccine remains a major challenge. Here we report the successful production of the HCV E1E2 heterodimer, an important vaccine candidate, in an edible crop (lettuce, Lactuca sativa) using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression technology...
April 17, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418377/the-magnaporthe-oryzae-nitrooxidative-stress-response-suppresses-rice-innate-immunity-during-blast-disease
#13
Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, David Hartline, Janet D Wright, Christian Elowsky, Travis J Bourret, Richard A Wilson
Understanding how microorganisms manipulate plant innate immunity and colonize host cells is a major goal of plant pathology. Here, we report that the fungal nitrooxidative stress response suppresses host defences to facilitate the growth and development of the important rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae in leaf cells. Nitronate monooxygenases encoded by NMO genes catalyse the oxidative denitrification of nitroalkanes. We show that the M. oryzae NMO2 gene is required for mitigating damaging lipid nitration under nitrooxidative stress conditions and, consequently, for using nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen sources...
April 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416753/synergistic-effects-of-the-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-ctla-4-combined-with-the-growth-inhibitor-lycorine-in-a-mouse-model-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#14
Xiezhao Li, Peng Xu, Chongshan Wang, Naijin Xu, Abai Xu, Yawen Xu, Takuya Sadahira, Motoo Araki, Koichiro Wada, Eiji Matsuura, Masami Watanabe, Junxia Zheng, Pinghua Sun, Peng Huang, Yasutomo Nasu, Chunxiao Liu
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) management has undergone a major transformation over the past decade; immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical trials and show promising results. However, the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with metastatic RCC (mRCC) is still limited. Lycorine, an alkaloid extracted from plants of the Amaryllidaceae family, is touted as a potential anti-cancer drug because of its demonstrative growth inhibition capacity (induction of cell cycle arrest and inhibition of vasculogenic mimicry formation)...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416116/activation-of-a-plant-nlr-complex-through-heteromeric-association-with-an-autoimmune-risk-variant-of-another-nlr
#15
Diep T N Tran, Eui-Hwan Chung, Anette Habring-Müller, Monika Demar, Rebecca Schwab, Jeffery L Dangl, Detlef Weigel, Eunyoung Chae
When independently evolved immune receptor variants meet in hybrid plants, they can activate immune signaling in the absence of non-self recognition. Such autoimmune risk alleles have recurrently evolved at the DANGEROUS MIX2 (DM2) nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-encoding locus in A. thaliana. One of these activates signaling in the presence of a particular variant encoded at another NLR locus, DM1. We show that the risk variants of DM1 and DM2d NLRs signal through the same pathway that is activated when plant NLRs recognize non-self elicitors...
April 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415906/effect-of-piplartine-and-cinnamides-on-leishmania-amazonensis-plasmodium-falciparum-and-on-peritoneal-cells-of-swiss-mice
#16
Keline Medeiros de Araújo-Vilges, Stefan Vilges de Oliveira, Shirley Claudino Pereira Couto, Harold Hilarion Fokoue, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero, Massuo Jorge Kato, Luiz Antonio Soares Romeiro, José Roberto Souza Almeida Leite, Selma Aparecida Souza Kuckelhaus
CONTEXT: Plants of the Piperaceae family produce piplartine that was used to synthesize the cinnamides. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of piplartine (1) and cinnamides (2-5) against the protozoa responsible for malaria and leishmaniasis, and peritoneal cells of Swiss mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cultures of Leishmania amazonensis, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes, and peritoneal cells were incubated, in triplicate, with different concentrations of the compounds (0 to 256 μg/mL)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414956/geosmin-as-a-source-of-the-earthy-musty-smell-in-fruits-vegetables-and-water-origins-impact-on-foods-and-water-and-review-of-the-removing-techniques
#17
REVIEW
Viacheslav Liato, Mohammed Aïder
The earthy-musty smell produced by Streptomyces sp. is assigned to geosmin and is responsible for the major organoleptic defects found in drinking water, fruits and vegetables such as grapes, mushrooms, carrots, and beet. Geosmin is also found in juices and musts before fermentation and its presence has been associated with partial presence of Botrytis cinerea. It has a variable detection threshold depending on the matrix and the detection level ranges from 5 to 50 ng/L. On the sensory level, very few individuals are immune to geosmin and although the intensity of the defect caused by this molecule decreases rapidly in the nose, a bad taste is very persistent in the mouth...
April 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413947/novel-signaling-interface-constituted-with-membrane-receptor-like-kinases-emerged-from-the-study-of-interaction-and-transphosphorylation-of-bri1-and-bak1
#18
Cheng Li, Shan Zhang, Xiaofeng Wang
BRI1 and BAK1 are Receptor-Like Kinases (RLKs), one of the largest gene families in plants participating in various cell signal transduction from cell surface to cytoplasm with oligomerization and phosphorylation to regulate plant growth, development, immunity, and environmental responses. Based on the recent investigations on the BRI1 and BAK1 and other RLKs involving in the receptor complex formation, trans phosphorylation, phosphorylation sites identification, downstream substrates identification, and so on, it is recovered that the receptors oligomerization and phosphorylation integrate multiple distinct signaling to realize signaling modulation, divergence, convergence, and specificity...
April 14, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412634/chitosan-induced-immunity-in-camellia-sinensis-l-o-kuntze-against-blister-blight-disease-is-mediated-by-nitric-oxide
#19
Swarnendu Chandra, Nilanjan Chakraborty, Koustubh Panda, Krishnendu Acharya
Blister blight disease, caused by an obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen, Exobasidium vexans Massee is posing a serious threat for tea cultivation in Asia. As the use of chemical pesticides on tea leaves substantially increases the toxic risks of tea consumption, serious attempts are being made to control such pathogens by boosting the intrinsic natural defense responses against invading pathogens in tea plants. In this study, the nature and durability of resistance offered by chitosan and the possible mechanism of chitosan-induced defense induction in Camellia sinensis (L...
April 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412456/dietary-proanthocyanidins-prevent-ultraviolet-radiation-induced-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-through-enhanced-repair-of-damaged-dna-dependent-activation-of-immune-sensitivity
#20
REVIEW
Santosh K Katiyar, Harish C Pal, Ram Prasad
Numerous plant products have been used to prevent and manage a wide variety of diseases for centuries. These products are now considered as promising options for the development of more effective and less toxic alternatives to the systems of medicine developed primarily in developed countries in the modern era. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are of great interest due to their anti-carcinogenic effects that have been demonstrated using various tumor models including ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancer...
April 12, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
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