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Cardiac engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337695/automated-fabrication-of-photopatterned-gelatin-hydrogels-for-organ-on-chips-applications
#1
Janna C Nawroth, Lisa L Scudder, Ryan T Halvorson, Jason Tresback, John P Ferrier, Sean P Sheehy, Alex Cho, Suraj Kannan, Ilona Sunyovszki, Josue A Goss, Patrick H Campbell, Kevin Kit Parker
Organ-on-chip platforms aim to improve preclinical models for organ-level responses to novel drug compounds. Heart-on-a-chip assays in particular require tissue engineering techniques that rely on labor-intensive photolithographic fabrication or resolution-limited 3D printing of micropatterned substrates, which limits turnover and flexibility of prototyping. We present a rapid and automated method for large scale on-demand micropatterning of gelatin hydrogels for organ-on-chip applications using a novel biocompatible laser-etching approach...
January 16, 2018: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335579/the-effects-of-antibody-engineering-ch-and-cl-in-trastuzumab-and-pertuzumab-recombinant-models-impact-on-antibody-production-and-antigen-binding
#2
Wai-Heng Lua, Wei-Li Ling, Joshua Yi Yeo, Jun-Jie Poh, David Philip Lane, Samuel Ken-En Gan
Current therapeutic antibodies such as Trastuzumab, are typically of the blood circulatory IgG1 class (Cκ/ CHγ1). Due to the binding to Her2 also present on normal cell surfaces, side effects such as cardiac failure can sometimes be associated with such targeted therapy. Using antibody isotype swapping, it may be possible to reduce systemic circulation through increased tissue localization, thereby minimising unwanted side effects. However, the effects of such modifications have yet to be fully characterized, particularly with regards to their biophysical properties in antigen binding...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331057/manifestations-and-mechanisms-of-myocardial-lipotoxicity-in-obesity
#3
Arthur C Sletten, Linda R Peterson, Jean E Schaffer
Environmental and socioeconomic changes over the past thirty years have contributed to a dramatic rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Heart disease is among the most serious health risks of obesity, with increases in both atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and heart failure among obese individuals. In this review, we focus on primary myocardial alterations in obesity that include hypertrophic remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity-associated perturbations in myocardial and systemic lipid metabolism are important contributors to cardiovascular complications of obesity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321036/maternal-engineered-nanomaterial-inhalation-during-gestation-alters-the-fetal-transcriptome
#4
P A Stapleton, Q A Hathaway, C E Nichols, A B Abukabda, M V Pinti, D L Shepherd, C R McBride, J Yi, V C Castranova, J M Hollander, T R Nurkiewicz
BACKGROUND: The integration of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) is well-established and widespread in clinical, commercial, and domestic applications. Cardiovascular dysfunctions have been reported in adult populations after exposure to a variety of ENM. As the diversity of these exposures continues to increase, the fetal ramifications of maternal exposures have yet to be determined. We, and others, have explored the consequences of ENM inhalation during gestation and identified many cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes in the F1 generation...
January 10, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309993/engineered-cardiac-tissue-patch-maintains-structural-and-electrical-properties-after-epicardial-implantation
#5
Christopher P Jackman, Asvin M Ganapathi, Huda Asfour, Ying Qian, Brian W Allen, Yanzhen Li, Nenad Bursac
Functional cardiac tissue engineering holds promise as a candidate therapy for myocardial infarction and heart failure. Generation of "strong-contracting and fast-conducting" cardiac tissue patches capable of electromechanical coupling with host myocardium could allow efficient improvement of heart function without increased arrhythmogenic risks. Towards that goal, we engineered highly functional 1 cm × 1 cm cardiac tissue patches made of neonatal rat ventricular cells which after 2 weeks of culture exhibited force of contraction of 18...
January 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303551/engineering-bioinspired-antioxidant-materials-promoting-cardiomyocyte-functionality-and-maturation-for-tissue-engineering-application
#6
Parvaiz Ahmad Shiekh, Anamika Singh, Ashok Kumar
Oxidative stress plays an important role in various pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation, myocardial infarction and biocompatibility of the materials. Antioxidant polymers to attenuate oxidative stress is an emerging field of biomaterial research with a huge impact in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We describe here the fabrication and evaluation of an elastomeric antioxidant polyurethane (PUAO) for tissue engineering applications. Uniaxial and cyclic tensile testing, thermal analysis, degradation, cytotoxicity and antioxidant analysis was carried out...
January 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301848/physiologic-pathologic-and-therapeutic-paracrine-modulation-of-cardiac-excitation-contraction-coupling
#7
REVIEW
Joshua Mayourian, Delaine K Ceholski, David M Gonzalez, Timothy J Cashman, Susmita Sahoo, Roger J Hajjar, Kevin D Costa
Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) is the orchestrated process of initial myocyte electrical excitation, which leads to calcium entry, intracellular trafficking, and subsequent sarcomere shortening and myofibrillar contraction. Neurohumoral β-adrenergic signaling is a well-established mediator of ECC; other signaling mechanisms, such as paracrine signaling, have also demonstrated significant impact on ECC but are less well understood. For example, resident heart endothelial cells are well-known physiological paracrine modulators of cardiac myocyte ECC mainly via NO and endothelin-1...
January 5, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298046/conjugation-with-eight-arm-peg-markedly-improves-the-in-vitro-activity-and-prolongs-the-blood-circulation-of-staphylokinase
#8
Fangbing Qi, Chunyang Hu, Weili Yu, Tao Hu
Staphylokinase (SAK) is a profibrinolytic protein and can be used for therapy of acute myocardial infarction and coronary thrombosis. However, SAK suffers from a short serum half-life time (~6 min) that limits its clinical application. PEGylation prolongs the half-life time of SAK, whereas significantly decreases the bioactivity of SAK for the steric shielding effect of PEG. To improve the bioactivity and prolong the half-life time of SAK, 8-arm PEG maleimide (8-arm PEG) was used for conjugation of multiple SAK molecules in one entity...
January 3, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290797/engineered-microenvironments-for-maturation-of-stem-cell-derived-cardiac-myocytes
#9
Rachel R Besser, Matthew Ishahak, Vera Mayo, Daniel Carbonero, Isabella Claure, Ashutosh Agarwal
Through the use of stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes, tissue-engineered human myocardial constructs are poised for modeling normal and diseased physiology of the heart, as well as discovery of novel drugs and therapeutic targets in a human relevant manner. This review highlights the recent bioengineering efforts to recapitulate microenvironmental cues to further the maturation state of newly differentiated cardiac myocytes. These techniques include long-term culture, co-culture, exposure to mechanical stimuli, 3D culture, cell-matrix interactions, and electrical stimulation...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288823/high-resolution-3d-microscopy-study-of-cardiomyocytes-on-polymer-scaffold-nanofibers-reveals-formation-of-unusual-sheathed-structure
#10
Victor Balashov, Anton Efimov, Olga Agapova, Alexander Pogorelov, Igor Agapov, Konstantin Agladze
Building functional and robust scaffolds for engineered biological tissue requires a nanoscale mechanistic understanding of how cells use the scaffold for their growth and development. A vast majority of the scaffolds used for cardiac tissue engineering are based on polymer materials, the matrices of nanofibers. Attempts to load the polymer fibers of the scaffold with additional sophisticated features, such as electrical conductivity and controlled release of the growth factors or other biologically active molecules, as well as trying to match the mechanical features of the scaffold to those of the extracellular matrix, cannot be efficient without a detailed knowledge of how the cells are attached and strategically positioned with respect to the scaffold nanofibers at micro and nanolevel...
December 27, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288355/ucs-protein-function-is-partially-restored-in-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-she4-mutant-with-expression-of-the-human-unc45-gc-but-not-unc45-sm
#11
Susana Gómez Escalante, Joseph A Brightmore, Peter W Piper, Stefan H Millson
A dedicated UNC45, Cro1, She4 (UCS) domain-containing protein assists in the Hsp90-mediated folding of the myosin head. Only weak sequence conservation exists between the single UCS protein of simple eukaryotes (She4 in budding yeast) and the two UCS proteins of higher organisms (the general cell and striated muscle UNC45s; UNC45-GC and UNC45-SM, respectively). In vertebrates, UNC45-GC facilitates cytoskeletal functions, whereas the 55% identical UNC45-SM assists assembly of the contractile apparatus of cardiac and skeletal muscles...
December 29, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287130/a-brief-history-of-fetal-echocardiography-and-its-impact-on-the-management-of-congenital-heart-disease
#12
Dev Maulik, Navin C Nanda, Devika Maulik, Gustavo Vilchez
Congenital heart disease (CHD), the most common congenital malformation, is associated with adverse outcome. Development of fetal echocardiography has made prenatal diagnosis of CHD a reality, and in the process revolutionized its management. This historical review briefly narrates this development over the decades focusing on the emergence of the primary modalities of fetal echocardiography comprised of the time-motion mode, two-dimensional B-mode, spectral Doppler, color Doppler, and three- and four-dimensional cardiac imaging...
December 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282212/musclemotion-a-versatile-open-software-tool-to-quantify-cardiomyocyte-and-cardiac-muscle-contraction-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Luca Sala, Berend J van Meer, Leon T Tertoolen, Jeroen Bakkers, Milena Bellin, Richard P Davis, Chris N Denning, Michel A Dieben, Thomas Eschenhagen, Elisa Giacomelli, Catarina Grandela, Arne Hansen, Eduard Holman, Monique R Jongbloed, Sarah M Kamel, Charlotte D Koopman, Quentin Lachaud, Ingra Mannhardt, Mervyn P Mol, Diogo Mosqueira, Valeria V Orlova, Robert Passier, Marcelo C Ribeiro, Umber Saleem, Godfrey Smith, Francis L L Burton, Christine L Mummery
Rationale: There are several methods to measure cardiomyocyte (CM) and muscle contraction but these require customized hardware, expensive apparatus and advanced informatics or can only be used in single experimental models. Consequently, data and techniques have been difficult to reproduce across models and laboratories, analysis is time consuming and only specialist researchers can quantify data. Objective: Here we describe and validate an automated, open source software tool (MUSCLEMOTION) adaptable for use with standard laboratory- and clinical imaging equipment that enables quantitative analysis of normal cardiac contraction, disease phenotypes and pharmacological responses...
December 27, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279321/power-supplies-and-equipment-for-military-field-research-lessons-from-the-british-service-dhaulagiri-research-expedition-2016
#14
Matt Howard, J Bakker-Dyos, L Gallagher, J P O'Hara, D Woods, A Mellor
INTRODUCTION: The British Service Dhaulagiri Research Expedition (BSDMRE) took place from 27 March to 31 May 2016. The expedition involved 129 personnel, with voluntary participation in nine different study protocols. Studies were conducted in three research camps established at 3600, 4600 and 5140 m and involved taking and storing blood samples, cardiac echocardiography and investigations involving a balance plate. Research in this remote environment requires careful planning in order to provide a robust and resilient power plan...
December 25, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277288/early-discontinuation-of-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-treated-with-the-bio-engineered-pro-healing-sirolimus-eluting-combo-stent
#15
REVIEW
Deborah N Kalkman, Pier Woudstra, Ian B A Menown, Jan G Tijssen, Marcel A M Beijk, Robbert J de Winter
BACKGROUND: When the pro-healing COMBO stent is used, a short duration of dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) might be safe. However, no cases have been described of patients with short duration of DAPT after COMBO stent placement. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigate clinical outcomes at 1year after early discontinuation of DAPT in patients participating in the REMEDEE Registry. This is a prospective, multicentre, European, all-comers registry with a 1000 patients treated with COMBO stent...
October 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276625/epicardial-delivery-of-autologous-atrial-appendage-micrografts-during-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-safety-and-feasibility-study
#16
Annu Nummi, Tuomo Nieminen, Tommi Pätilä, Milla Lampinen, Miia L Lehtinen, Sari Kivistö, Miia Holmström, Erika Wilkman, Kari Teittinen, Mika Laine, Juha Sinisalo, Markku Kupari, Esko Kankuri, Tatu Juvonen, Antti Vento, Raili Suojaranta, Ari Harjula
Background: The atrial appendages are a tissue reservoir for cardiac stem cells. During on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, part of the right atrial appendage can be excised upon insertion of the right atrial cannula of the heart-lung machine. In the operating room, the removed tissue can be easily cut into micrografts for transplantation. This trial aims to assess the safety and feasibility of epicardial transplantation of atrial appendage micrografts in patients undergoing CABG surgery...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276147/evaluation-of-cobalt-and-chromium-levels-following-implantation-of-cobalt-chromium-coronary-stents-a-pilot-study
#17
Pietro Di Santo, Pouya Motazedian, Richard G Jung, Trevor Simard, F Daniel Ramirez, Aun-Yeong Chong, Christopher Glover, Benjamin Hibbert, Girish Dwivedi
BACKGROUND: Large increases in myocardial trace elements may adversely affect metabolism and become detrimental to cardiac function. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) allows for the revascularisation of obstructive coronary artery disease using drug-eluting stents. These stents are comprised of a metallic stent backbone covered in an engineered polymer which delivers a drug over a prescribed period to the vessel wall. Given the potential implications of trace metal accumulation within the myocardium, our goal is to determine if metallic coronary stents are able to cause detectable elevations in serum cobalt and/or chromium levels...
December 14, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273321/nanomedicine-for-the-cardiac-myocyte-where-are-we
#18
REVIEW
Omar Lozano, Alejandro Torres-Quintanilla, Gerardo García-Rivas
Biomedical achievements in the last few decades, leading to successful therapeutic interventions, have considerably improved human life expectancy. Nevertheless, the increasing load and the still suboptimal outcome for patients with cardiac dysfunction underlines the relevance of continuous research to develop novel therapeutics for these diseases. In this context, the field of nanomedicine has attracted a lot of attention due to the potential novel treatment possibilities, such as controlled and sustained release, tissue targeting, and drug protection from degradation...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250121/the-rapidly-evolving-concept-of-whole-heart-engineering
#19
REVIEW
Laura Iop, Eleonora Dal Sasso, Roberta Menabò, Fabio Di Lisa, Gino Gerosa
Whole heart engineering represents an incredible journey with as final destination the challenging aim to solve end-stage cardiac failure with a biocompatible and living organ equivalent. Its evolution started in 2008 with rodent organs and is nowadays moving closer to clinical application thanks to scaling-up strategies to human hearts. This review will offer a comprehensive examination on the important stages to be reached for the bioengineering of the whole heart, by describing the approaches of organ decellularization, repopulation, and maturation so far applied and the novel technologies of potential interest...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244726/potential-of-bioactive-glasses-for-cardiac-and-pulmonary-tissue-engineering
#20
REVIEW
Saeid Kargozar, Sepideh Hamzehlou, Francesco Baino
Repair and regeneration of disorders affecting cardiac and pulmonary tissues through tissue-engineering-based approaches is currently of particular interest. On this matter, different families of bioactive glasses (BGs) have recently been given much consideration with respect to treating refractory diseases of these tissues, such as myocardial infarction. The inherent properties of BGs, including their ability to bond to hard and soft tissues, to stimulate angiogenesis, and to elicit antimicrobial effects, along with their excellent biocompatibility, support these newly proposed strategies...
December 15, 2017: Materials
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