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Cardiac engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770300/tissue-engineered-vascular-grafts-for-pediatric-cardiac-surgery
#1
REVIEW
Toshihiro Shoji, Toshiharu Shinoka
New technologies and science have contributed to improved surgical outcomes in patients with congenital cardiovascular diseases. However, current materials display shortcomings, such as risk of infection and lack of growth capacity when applied to the pediatric patient population. Tissue engineering has the potential to address these limitations as the ideal tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG) would be durable, biocompatible, nonthrombogenic, and ultimately remodel into native tissue. The traditional TEVG paradigm consists of a scaffold, cell source, and the integration of the scaffold and cells via seeding...
April 2018: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767196/strategies-for-directing-cells-into-building-functional-hearts-and-parts
#2
REVIEW
Mahboubeh Jafarkhani, Zeinab Salehi, Reza Kowsari-Esfahan, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, M Rezaa Mohammadi, Jayakumar Rajadas, Masoud Mozafari
The increasing population of patients with heart disease and the limited availability of organs for transplantation have encouraged multiple strategies to fabricate healthy implantable cardiac tissues. One of the main challenges in cardiac tissue engineering is to direct cell behaviors to form functional three-dimensional (3D) biomimetic constructs. This article provides a brief review on various cell sources used in cardiac tissue engineering and highlights the effect of scaffold-based signals such as topographical and biochemical cues and stiffness...
May 16, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756099/can-volumetric-measurement-be-used-in-the-selection-of-treatment-for-inguinoscrotal-hernias
#3
Metin Ertem, Hakan Gök, Volkan Özben, Engin Hatipoğlu, Erdem Yıldız
Objective: Inguinoscrotal hernias are often qualified subjectively as big, giant, scrotal, etc. In order to classify this type of hernia, objective criteria are needed. For this purpose, we aimed to introduce a scrotal volume measurement-based classification system and propose a corresponding surgical plan (open or laparoscopic surgery, anterior or posterior repair) based on volumetric data. Material and Methods: Between October 2012 and October 2013, 30 consecutive male patients with a mean age of 59...
2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752948/functional-and-transcriptomic-insights-into-pathogenesis-of-r9c-phospholamban-mutation-using-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#4
Delaine K Ceholski, Irene C Turnbull, Chi-Wing Kong, Simon Koplev, Joshua Mayourian, Przemek A Gorski, Francesca Stillitano, Angelos A Skodras, Mathieu Nonnenmacher, Ninette Cohen, Johan L M Björkegren, Daniel R Stroik, Razvan L Cornea, David D Thomas, Ronald A Li, Kevin D Costa, Roger J Hajjar
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) can be caused by mutations in the cardiac protein phospholamban (PLN). We used CRISPR/Cas9 to insert the R9C PLN mutation at its endogenous locus into a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line from an individual with no cardiovascular disease. R9C PLN hiPSC-CMs display a blunted β-agonist response and defective calcium handling. In 3D human engineered cardiac tissues (hECTs), a blunted lusitropic response to β-adrenergic stimulation was observed with R9C PLN. hiPSC-CMs harboring the R9C PLN mutation showed activation of a hypertrophic phenotype, as evidenced by expression of hypertrophic markers and increased cell size and capacitance of cardiomyocytes...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749932/cardiac-optogenetics-2018
#5
REVIEW
Patrick M Boyle, Thomas V Karathanos, Natalia A Trayanova
Cardiac optogenetics is an emergent research area involving the delivery of light-sensitive proteins (opsins) to excitable heart tissue to enable optical modulation of cardiac electrical function. Optogenetic stimulation has many noteworthy advantages over conventional electrical methods, including selective electrophysiological modulation in specifically targeted cell subpopulations, high-resolution spatiotemporal control via patterned illumination, and use of different opsins to elicit inward or outward transmembrane current...
February 2018: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749038/vascular-differentiation-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-3-d-auxetic-scaffolds
#6
Liqing Song, Mohammad Faisal Ahmed, Yan Li, Changchun Zeng, Yan Li
Auxetic scaffolds, i.e. scaffolds that can display negative Poisson's ratio, have unique physical properties and can expand transversally when axially strained or contract under compression. Auxetic materials have been used for bioprostheses and artery stents due to the enhanced compressive strength and shear stiffness. In vascular tissue engineering, auxetic scaffolds allow the widening of blood vessels when blood flows through (creating compressive stress) to prevent the blockage. However, the influence of auxetic materials on the cellular fate decision in local environment is unclear...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745340/problems-in-stem-cell-therapy-for-cardiac-repair-and-tissue-engineering-approaches-based-on-graphene-and-its-derivatives
#7
Ayca Aslan, Adil Allahverdiyev, Melahat Bagirova, Emrah Abamor
BACKGROUND: Today, coronary artery disease is still one of the most important causes of mortality despite advanced surgical methods, pharmacotherapies and organ transplantation. These treatment modalities are intended to prevent further progression of myocardial infarction and do not involve the repair of the damaged part. Therefore, stem cell therapy has emerged as a new approach for the treatment of coronary artery disease. However, there are some restrictions that limit the use of these cells for desired repair...
May 9, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744562/mussel-inspired-3d-fiber-scaffolds-for-heart-on-a-chip-toxicity-studies-of-engineered-nanomaterials
#8
Seungkuk Ahn, Herdeline Ann M Ardoña, Johan U Lind, Feyisayo Eweje, Sean L Kim, Grant M Gonzalez, Qihan Liu, John F Zimmerman, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Zhenyuan Zhang, Juan Beltran-Huarac, Paul Carpinone, Brij M Moudgil, Philip Demokritou, Kevin Kit Parker
Due to the unique physicochemical properties exhibited by materials with nanoscale dimensions, there is currently a continuous increase in the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) used in consumer goods. However, several reports associate ENM exposure to negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the pathological consequences of ENM exposure represents an important challenge, requiring model systems that can provide mechanistic insights across different levels of ENM-based toxicity...
May 10, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740580/engineering-scalable-manufacturing-of-high-quality-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-for-cardiac-tissue-repair
#9
REVIEW
Kaitlin K Dunn, Sean P Palecek
Recent advances in the differentiation and production of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) have stimulated development of strategies to use these cells in human cardiac regenerative therapies. A prerequisite for clinical trials and translational implementation of hPSC-derived CMs is the ability to manufacture safe and potent cells on the scale needed to replace cells lost during heart disease. Current differentiation protocols generate fetal-like CMs that exhibit proarrhythmogenic potential...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737043/bioreactors-for-cardiac-tissue-engineering
#10
REVIEW
Jesus Paez-Mayorga, Gustavo Hernández-Vargas, Guillermo U Ruiz-Esparza, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Xichi Wang, Yu Shrike Zhang, Roberto Parra-Saldivar, Ali Khademhosseini
The advances in biotechnology, biomechanics, and biomaterials can be used to develop organ models that aim to accurately emulate their natural counterparts. Heart disease, one of the leading causes of death in modern society, has attracted particular attention in the field of tissue engineering. To avoid incorrect prognosis of patients suffering from heart disease, or from adverse consequences of classical therapeutic approaches, as well as to address the shortage of heart donors, new solutions are urgently needed...
May 8, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733514/injectable-hydrogels-for-cardiac-tissue-engineering
#11
REVIEW
Brisa Peña, Melissa Laughter, Susan Jett, Teisha J Rowland, Matthew R G Taylor, Luisa Mestroni, Daewon Park
In light of the limited efficacy of current treatments for cardiac regeneration, tissue engineering approaches have been explored for their potential to provide mechanical support to injured cardiac tissues, deliver cardio-protective molecules, and improve cell-based therapeutic techniques. Injectable hydrogels are a particularly appealing system as they hold promise as a minimally invasive therapeutic approach. Moreover, injectable acellular alginate-based hydrogels have been tested clinically in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and show preservation of the left ventricular (LV) indices and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)...
May 7, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732992/current-status-of-stem-cell-therapies-in-tissue-repair-and-regeneration
#12
Tapan Kumar Giri, Amit Alexander, Mukta Agrawal, Swarnalata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf, Ajazuddin
Tissue engineering is a multi-disciplinary field such as material science, life science, and bioengineering that are necessary to make artificial tissue or rejuvenate damaged tissue. Numerous tissue repair techniques and substitute now exist even though it has several shortcomings; these shortcomings give a good reason for the continuous research for more acceptable tissue-engineered substitutes. The search for and use of a suitable stem cell in tissue engineering is a promising concept. Stem cells have a distinctive capability to differentiate and self-renew that make more suitable for cell-based therapies in tissue repair and regeneration...
May 1, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729718/development-and-evaluation-of-a-tissue-engineered-fibrin-based-canine-mitral-valve-three-dimensional-cell-culture-system
#13
M-M Liu, T C Flanagan, S Jockenhovel, A Black, C-C Lu, A T French, D J Argyle, B M Corcoran
Myxomatous mitral valve disease is the most common cardiac disease of the dog, but examination of the associated cellular and molecular events has relied on the use of cadaveric valve tissue, in which functional studies cannot be undertaken. The aim of this study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D) cell co-culture model as an experimental platform to examine disease pathogenesis. Mitral valve interstitial (VIC) and endothelial (VEC) cells were cultured from normal and diseased canine (VIC only) valves. VICs were embedded in a fibrin-based hydrogel matrix and one surface was lined with VECs...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722412/polyester-elastomers-for-soft-tissue-engineering
#14
REVIEW
Hongye Ye, Kangyi Zhang, Dan Kai, Zibiao Li, Xian Jun Loh
Polyester elastomers are soft, biodegradable and biocompatible and are commonly used in various biomedical applications, especially in tissue engineering. These synthetic polyesters can be easily fabricated using various techniques such as solvent casting, particle leaching, molding, electrospinning, 3-dimensional printing, photolithography, microablation etc. A large proportion of tissue engineering research efforts have focused on the use of allografts, decellularized animal scaffolds or other biological materials as scaffolds, but they face the major concern of triggering immunological responses from the host, on top of other issues...
May 3, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720499/gene-transfer-of-engineered-calmodulin-alleviates-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-a-calsequestrin-associated-mouse-model-of-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia
#15
Bin Liu, Shane D Walton, Hsiang-Ting Ho, Andriy E Belevych, Svetlana B Tikunova, Ingrid Bonilla, Vikram Shettigar, Bjorn C Knollmann, Silvia G Priori, Pompeo Volpe, Przemysław B Radwański, Jonathan P Davis, Sándor Györke
BACKGROUND: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a familial arrhythmogenic syndrome characterized by sudden death. There are several genetic forms of CPVT associated with mutations in genes encoding the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and its auxiliary proteins including calsequestrin (CASQ2) and calmodulin (CaM). It has been suggested that impairment of the ability of RyR2 to stay closed (ie, refractory) during diastole may be a common mechanism for these diseases...
May 2, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715271/directed-fusion-of-cardiac-spheroids-into-larger-heterocellular-microtissues-enables-investigation-of-cardiac-action-potential-propagation-via-cardiac-fibroblasts
#16
Tae Yun Kim, Celinda M Kofron, Michelle E King, Alexander R Markes, Amenawon O Okundaye, Zhilin Qu, Ulrike Mende, Bum-Rak Choi
Multicellular spheroids generated through cellular self-assembly provide cytoarchitectural complexities of native tissue including three-dimensionality, extensive cell-cell contacts, and appropriate cell-extracellular matrix interactions. They are increasingly suggested as building blocks for larger engineered tissues to achieve shapes, organization, heterogeneity, and other biomimetic complexities. Application of these tissue culture platforms is of particular importance in cardiac research as the myocardium is comprised of distinct but intermingled cell types...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712965/head-to-head-comparison-of-two-engineered-cardiac-grafts-for-myocardial-repair-from-scaffold-characterization-to-pre-clinical-testing
#17
Isaac Perea-Gil, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Cristina Prat-Vidal, Ignasi Jorba, Cristina Segú-Vergés, Santiago Roura, Carolina Soler-Botija, Oriol Iborra-Egea, Elena Revuelta-López, Marco A Fernández, Ramon Farré, Daniel Navajas, Antoni Bayes-Genis
Cardiac tissue engineering, which combines cells and supportive scaffolds, is an emerging treatment for restoring cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI), although, the optimal construct remains a challenge. We developed two engineered cardiac grafts, based on decellularized scaffolds from myocardial and pericardial tissues and repopulated them with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells (ATMSCs). The structure, macromechanical and micromechanical scaffold properties were preserved upon the decellularization and recellularization processes, except for recellularized myocardium micromechanics that was ∼2-fold stiffer than native tissue and decellularized scaffolds...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704858/body-builder-from-synthetic-cells-to-engineered-tissues
#18
REVIEW
Shiqi Hu, Brenda M Ogle, Ke Cheng
It is estimated that 18 Americans die every day waiting for an organ donation. And even if a patient receives the organ that s/he needs, there is still >10% chance that the new organ will not work. The field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine aims to actively use a patient's own cells, plus biomaterials and factors, to grow specific tissues for replacement or to restore normal functions of that organ, which would eliminate the need for donors and the risk of alloimmune rejection. In this review, we summarized recent advances in fabricating synthetic cells, with a specific focus on their application to cardiac regenerative medicine and tissue engineering...
April 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701398/trauma-an-unusual-cause-of-endocarditis
#19
Ana Braga, Marta Marques, Miguel Abecacis, José Pedro Neves
INTRODUCTION: Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a dangerous condition with considerable associated mortality. Usual risk factors for IE include the presence of a prosthetic heart valve, structural or congenital heart disease, intravenous drug use, and a recent history of invasive procedures. METHODS: The authors describe the case report of a patient with IE having trauma as an unusual risk factor. RESULTS: A 33-year old male patient was referred to our department due to infective endocarditis...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698059/3d-printing-from-microfocus-computed-tomography-micro-ct-in-human-specimens-education-and-future-implications
#20
Susan C Shelmerdine, Ian C Simcock, John Ciaran Hutchinson, Rosalind Aughwane, Andrew Melbourne, Daniil I Nikitichev, Ju-Ling Ong, Alessandro Borghi, Garrard Cole, Emilia Kingham, Alistair D Calder, Claudio Capelli, Aadam Akhtar, Andrew C Cook, Silvia Schievano, Anna David, Sebastian Ourselin, Neil J Sebire, Owen J Arthurs
Microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT) is an imaging method that provides three dimensional (3D) digital datasets with comparable resolution to light microscopy. Although it has traditionally been used for non-destructive testing in engineering, aerospace industries and in preclinical animal studies, new applications are rapidly becoming available in the clinical setting including post-mortem fetal imaging and pathological specimen analysis. Printing three dimensional models from imaging datasets for educational purposes is well established in the medical literature, but typically using low resolution (0...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
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