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Cardiac engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917819/pulsatile-flow-conditioning-of-three-dimensional-bioengineered-cardiac-ventricle
#1
Nikita M Patel, Ravi K Birla
Current physical stimuli mechanical stretch bioreactor studies focus on conditioning planar and/or tubular engineered cardiac constructs. The current 3D bioreactor models in cardiac tissue engineering use differential pressure loading for structural support as opposed to conditioning. The development of the pulsatile flow conditioned ventricle (PFCV) provides a 3D mechanical stretch conditioning method to generate pump function in the engineered cardiac left ventricle. The study utilizes a chitosan bioengineered open ventricle scaffold, to produce the in vitro PFCV model...
December 5, 2016: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917703/principles-of-the-kenzan-method-for-robotic-cell-spheroid-based-3d-bioprinting
#2
Nicanor I Moldovan, Narutoshi Hibino, Koichi Nakayama
Bioprinting is a technology with the prospect to change the way many diseases are treated, by replacing the damaged tissues with live, de novo created bio-similar constructs. However, after more than a decade of incubation and many proofs-of-concept, the field is still in its infancy. The current stagnation is the consequence of its early success: the first bioprinters, and most of those which followed, were modified versions of the 3D printers used in additive manufacturing, redesigned for layer-by-layer dispersion of biomaterials...
December 4, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916652/exploring-pericyte-and-cardiac-stem-cell-secretome-unveils-new-tactics-for-drug-discovery
#3
REVIEW
Georgina M Ellison-Hughes, Paolo Madeddu
Ischaemic diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite continuous advancements in medical and interventional treatments. Moreover, available drugs reduce symptoms associated with tissue ischaemia, without providing a definitive repair. Cardiovascular regenerative medicine is an expanding field of research that aims to improve the treatment of ischaemic disorders through restorative methods, such as gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and tissue engineering. Stem cell transplantation has salutary effects through direct and indirect actions, the latter being attributable to growth factors and cytokines released by stem cells and influencing the endogenous mechanisms of repair...
December 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909864/effects-of-chronic-and-acute-zinc-supplementation-on-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#4
Serhan Ozyıldırım, Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci, Engin Sahna, Rasim Mogulkoc
The present study aims to explore the effects of chronic and acute zinc sulfate supplementation on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The study registered 50 adult male rats which were divided into five groups in equal numbers as follows: group 1, normal control; group 2, sham; group 3, myocardial ischemia reperfusion (My/IR): the group which was fed on a normal diet and in which myocardial I/R was induced; group 4, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + chronic zinc: (5 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate for 15 days); and group 5, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + acute zinc: the group which was administered 15 mg/kg i...
December 1, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906521/modeling-the-human-scarred-heart-in-vitro-toward-new-tissue-engineered-models
#5
Janine C Deddens, Amir Hossein Sadeghi, Jesper Hjortnaes, Linda W van Laake, Marc Buijsrogge, Pieter A Doevendans, Ali Khademhosseini, Joost P G Sluijter
Cardiac remodeling is critical for effective tissue healing, however, excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix components contribute to scarring and failing of the heart. Despite the fact that novel therapies have emerged, there are still no lifelong solutions for this problem. An urgent need exists to improve the understanding of adverse cardiac remodeling in order to develop new therapeutic interventions that will prevent, reverse, or regenerate the fibrotic changes in the failing heart...
December 1, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906085/tissue-engineered-cardiac-patch-seeded-with-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-promoted-the-regeneration-of-host-cardiomyocytes-in-a-rat-model
#6
Tadahisa Sugiura, Narutoshi Hibino, Christopher K Breuer, Toshiharu Shinoka
BACKGROUND: Thousands of babies are born with congenital heart defects that require surgical repair involving a prosthetic implant. Lack of growth in prosthetic grafts is especially detrimental in pediatric surgery. Cell seeded biodegradable tissue engineered grafts are a novel solution to this problem. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the feasibility of seeding human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) onto a biodegradable cardiac patch. METHODS: The hiPS-CMs were cultured on a biodegradable patch composed of a polyglycolic acid (PGA) and a 50:50 poly (l-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone) copolymer (PLCL) for 1 week...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903535/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-cardiac-strain-pattern-following-transplantation-of-human-tissue-engineered-heart-muscles
#7
Xulei Qin, Johannes Riegler, Malte Tiburcy, Xin Zhao, Tony Chour, Babacar Ndoye, Michael Nguyen, Jackson Adams, Mohamed Ameen, Thomas S Denney, Phillip C Yang, Patricia Nguyen, Wolfram H Zimmermann, Joseph C Wu
BACKGROUND: The use of tissue engineering approaches in combination with exogenously produced cardiomyocytes offers the potential to restore contractile function after myocardial injury. However, current techniques assessing changes in global cardiac performance after such treatments are plagued by relatively low detection ability. Since the treatment is locally performed, this detection could be improved by myocardial strain imaging that measures regional contractility. METHODS AND RESULTS: Tissue engineered heart muscles (EHMs) were generated by casting human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes with collagen in preformed molds...
November 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903111/electric-stimulation-enhances-cardiac-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-myocardial-infarction-therapy
#8
Ruilian Ma, Jialiang Liang, Wei Huang, Linlin Guo, WenFeng Cai, Lei Wang, Christian Paul, Huang-Tian Yang, Ha Won Kim, Yigang Wang
AIM: Electrical stimulation (EleS) can promote cardiac differentiation, but the underlying mechanism is not well known. This study investigated the effect of EleS on cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and evaluated the therapeutic effects for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS: Cardiac differentiation of hiPSCs was induced with EleS after embryoid body formation. Spontaneously beating hiPSCs were observed as early at 2 days when treated with EleS as compared to control treatment...
November 30, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892655/3d-printed-polycaprolactone-carbon-nanotube-composite-scaffolds-for-cardiac-tissue-engineering
#9
Chee Meng Benjamin Ho, Abhinay Mishra, Pearlyn Teo Pei Lin, Sum Huan Ng, Wai Yee Yeong, Young-Jin Kim, Yong-Jin Yoon
Fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds with the use of novel 3D printing has gained lot of attention, however systematic investigation of biomaterials for 3D printing have not been widely explored. In this report, well-defined structures of polycaprolactone (PCL) and PCL- carbon nanotube (PCL-CNT) composite scaffolds have been designed and fabricated using a 3D printer. Conditions for 3D printing has been optimized while the effects of varying CNT percentages with PCL matrix on the thermal, mechanical and biological properties of the printed scaffolds are studied...
November 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890729/maturation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-hesc-cms-in-3d-collagen-matrix-effects-of-niche-cell-supplementation-and-mechanical-stimulation
#10
W Zhang, C W Kong, M H Tong, W H Chooi, N Huang, R A Li, B P Chan
: Cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-CMs) are regarded as a promising source for regenerative medicine, drug testing and disease modeling. Nevertheless, cardiomyocytes are immature in terms of their contractile structure, metabolism and electrophysiological properties. Here, we fabricate cardiac muscle strips by encapsulating hESC-CMs in collagen-based biomaterials. Supplementation of niche cells at 3% to the number of hESC-CMs enhance the maturation of the hESC-CMs in 3D tissue matrix...
November 24, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889952/effects-of-different-doses-of-2-3-dimercaptosuccinic-acid-modified-fe2-o3-nanoparticles-on-intercalated-discs-in-engineered-cardiac-tissues
#11
Yongchao Mou, Shuanghong Lv, Fei Xiong, Yao Han, Yuwei Zhao, Junjie Li, Ning Gu, Jin Zhou
Although iron oxide nanoparticles (IRONs) were applied in clinical magnetic resonance imaging in vivo and magnetic tissue engineering in vitro widely, the underlying effects of IRONs on the development of cardiomyocytes especially the intercellular junctions, intercalated discs (IDs), remain an unknown issue. Given the critical role of three-dimensional (3D) engineered cardiac tissues (ECTs) in evaluation of nanoparticles toxicology, it remained necessary to understand the effects of IRONs on IDs assembly of cardiomyocytes in 3D environment...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889329/perivascular-cells-and-tissue-engineering-current-applications-and-untapped-potential
#12
REVIEW
Elisa Avolio, Valeria V Alvino, Mohamed T Ghorbel, Paola Campagnolo
The recent development of tissue engineering provides exciting new perspectives for the replacement of failing organs and the repair of damaged tissues. Perivascular cells, including vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes and other tissue specific populations residing around blood vessels, have been isolated from many organs and are known to participate to the in situ repair process and angiogenesis. Their potential has been harnessed for cell therapy of numerous pathologies; however, in this Review we will discuss the potential of perivascular cells in the development of tissue engineering solutions for healthcare...
November 23, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884776/inverted-orientation-improves-decellularization-of-whole-porcine-hearts
#13
Po-Feng Lee, Eric Chau, Rafael Cabello, Alvin T Yeh, Luiz C Sampaio, Andrea S Gobin, Doris A Taylor
: In structurally heterogeneous organs, such as heart, it is challenging to retain extracellular matrix integrity in the thinnest regions (eg, valves) during perfusion decellularization and completely remove cellular debris from thicker areas. The high inflow rates necessary to maintain physiologic pressure can distend or damage thin tissues, but lower pressures prolong the process and increase the likelihood of contamination. We examined two novel retrograde decellularization methods for porcine hearts: inverting the heart or venting the apex to decrease inflow rate...
November 21, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875570/towards-a-tissue-engineered-contractile-fontan-conduit-the-fate-of-cardiac-myocytes-in-the-subpulmonary-circulation
#14
Daniel Biermann, Alexandra Eder, Florian Arndt, Hatim Seoudy, Hermann Reichenspurner, Thomas Mir, Arlindo Riso, Rainer Kozlik-Feldmann, Kersten Peldschus, Michael G Kaul, Tillman Schuler, Susanne Krasemann, Arne Hansen, Thomas Eschenhagen, Jörg S Sachweh
The long-term outcome of patients with single ventricles improved over time, but remains poor compared to other congenital heart lesions with biventricular circulation. Main cause for this unfavourable outcome is the unphysiological hemodynamic of the Fontan circulation, such as subnormal systemic cardiac output and increased systemic-venous pressure. To overcome this limitation, we are developing the concept of a contractile extracardiac Fontan-tunnel. In this study, we evaluated the survival and structural development of a tissue-engineered conduit under in vivo conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872843/an-engineering-perspective-of-external-cardiac-loop-recorder-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Avvaru Srinivasulu, N Sriraam
External cardiac loop recorder (ELR) is a kind of ECG monitoring system that records cardiac activities of a subject continuously for a long time. When the heart palpitations are not the frequent and nonspecific character, it is difficult to diagnose the disease. In such a case, ELR is used for long-term monitoring of heart signal of the patient. But the cost of ELR is very high. Therefore, it is not prominently available in developing countries like India. Since the design of ELR includes the ECG electrodes, instrumentation amplifier, analog to digital converter, and signal processing unit, a comparative review of each part of the ELR is presented in this paper in order to design a cost effective, low power, and compact kind of ELR...
2016: Journal of Medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872501/synchronization-of-heterogeneous-oscillators-under-network-modifications-perturbation-and-optimization-of-the-synchrony-alignment-function
#16
Dane Taylor, Per Sebastian Skardal, Jie Sun
Synchronization is central to many complex systems in engineering physics (e.g., the power-grid, Josephson junction circuits, and electro-chemical oscillators) and biology (e.g., neuronal, circadian, and cardiac rhythms). Despite these widespread applications-for which proper functionality depends sensitively on the extent of synchronization-there remains a lack of understanding for how systems can best evolve and adapt to enhance or inhibit synchronization. We study how network modifications affect the synchronization properties of network-coupled dynamical systems that have heterogeneous node dynamics (e...
2016: SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869543/direct-bonding-of-chitosan-biomaterials-to-tissues-using-transglutaminase-for-surgical-repair-or-device-implantation
#17
Javier Fernandez, Suneil Seetharam, Christopher Ding, Edward Doherty, Donald Ingber
Natural biomaterials, such as chitosan and collagen, are useful for biomedical applications because they are biocompatible, mechanically robust and biodegradable, but it is difficult to rapidly and tightly bond them to living tissues. Here, we demonstrate that the microbial enzyme transglutaminase (mTG) can be used to rapidly (< 5 min) bond chitosan and collagen biomaterials to the surfaces of hepatic, cardiac and dermal tissues, as well as to functionalized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials that are used in medical products...
November 21, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869075/-cell-therapies-for-cardiopathies-the-shift-of-paradigms
#18
Jean-Thomas Vilquin, Jessy Etienne
Heart failure is a major concern for public health systems, and several approaches of cellular therapy are being investigated with the goal of improving the function of these failing hearts. Many cell types have been used (skeletal myoblasts, hematopoietic, endothelial or mesenchymal progenitors, cardiac cells…), most often in the indication of post-ischemic heart failure rather than in the indication of genetic dilated cardiomyopathy. It is easier, indeed, to target a restricted area than the whole myocardium...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860071/engineered-substrate-specific-delta-pkc-antagonists-to-enhance-cardiac-therapeutics
#19
Nir Qvit, Opher S Kornfeld, Daria Mochly-Rosen
Most protein kinases phosphorylate multiple substrates, each of which induces different and sometimes opposing functions. Determining the role of phosphorylation of each substrate following a specific stimulus is challenging but is essential to elucidate the role of that substrate in the signaling event. Here we describe a rational approach to identify inhibitors of delta protein kinase C (δPKC), each inhibiting the phosphorylation of only one of δPKC's substrates. δPKC regulates many signaling events and we hypothesized that a docking inhibitor of a given substrate to δPKC should selectively abrogate the phosphorylation of only that substrate, without affecting the phosphorylation of the other δPKC substrates...
November 17, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854552/regulation-of-sequential-release-of-growth-factors-using-bilayer-polymeric-nanoparticles-for-cardiac-tissue-engineering
#20
Mohammad Izadifar, Michael E Kelly, Xiongbiao Chen
AIM: Cardiac tissue engineering aims to develop engineered constructs for myocardial infarction repair, where a challenge is the control of growth factor (GF) sequential release. Herein, bilayer polymeric nanoparticles composed of a GF-encapsulating core surrounded by rate-regulating shell were developed for sequential GF release. MATERIALS & METHODS: Single and bilayer polymeric nanoparticles were fabricated, characterized and biologically assessed. A novel 'Geno-Neural model' was developed and validated for rate-programming of the nanoparticles...
November 17, 2016: Nanomedicine
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