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Tina I Tsai, Anneka Joachimsthaler, Jan Kremers
Purpose: The clearer divergence in spectral sensitivity between native rod and human L-cone (L*-cone) opsins in the transgenic Opn1lwLIAIS mouse (LIAIS) allows normal visual processes mediated by these photoreceptor subtypes to be isolated effectively using the silent substitution technique. The objective of this study was to further characterize the influence of mean luminance and temporal frequency on the functional properties of signals originating in each photoreceptor separately and independently of adaptation state in LIAIS mice...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Kevin Y Woo, Dimitri Beeckman, Debashish Chakravarthy
BACKGROUND: Protecting the skin against moisture-associated damage is an important component of comprehensive skin and wound care. Based on a review of literature, the authors propose key interventions to protect and prevent damage in the skin folds, perineum, and areas surrounding a wound or stoma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this scoping review is to identify and provide a narrative integration of the existing evidence related to the management and prevention of moisture-associated skin damage (MASD)...
November 2017: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Cobin D Soelberg, Raeford E Brown, Derick Du Vivier, John E Meyer, Banu K Ramachandran
The United States is in the midst of a devastating opioid misuse epidemic leading to over 33,000 deaths per year from both prescription and illegal opioids. Roughly half of these deaths are attributable to prescription opioids. Federal and state governments have only recently begun to grasp the magnitude of this public health crisis. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released their Guidelines for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain. While not comprehensive in scope, these guidelines attempt to control and regulate opioid prescribing...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
James M Turner, Stephanie Reher, Lisa Warnecke, Kathrin H Dausmann
Energy expenditure and ambient temperature (Ta) are intrinsically linked through changes in an animal's metabolic rate. While the nature of this relationship is stable, the breadth of change in thermoregulatory cost varies with body size and physiological acclimatization to season. To explore seasonal metabolic changes of small mammals, we studied a population of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in a seminatural environment with a year-round supply of natural and supplemented food. In each season we measured the metabolic rate of wild-caught red squirrels, using open-flow respirometry, and hypothesized that individuals would make adjustments to contend with seasonal weather conditions...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Rakhi P Naik, Vimal K Derebail
Renal dysfunction is among the most common complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), from hyposthenuria in children to progression to overt chronic kidney disease (CKD) in young adults. Emerging evidence now suggests that sickle hemoglobin-related nephropathy extends to individuals with sickle cell trait (SCT). Areas covered: This review will highlight the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management recommendations for sickle nephropathy in both SCD and SCT. In addition, it will focus on the major demographic and genetic modifiers of renal disease in sickling hemoglobinopathies...
October 19, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
Feng Zhu, Wenliang Ji, Hualiang Liu, Yanbo Jia, Mei Cai, Hao Zhang
A method was developed for the screening and detection of food poisonings by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF MS). After extracted by acetonitrile and cleaned-up by QuEChERS, the extract was separated on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) with the gradient elution of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in water and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile. TOF-MS scan-information dependent acquisition (IDA)-product ion scan was performed in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode to acquire high resolution MS and MS/MS spectra in one injection, and rapidly screen 581 target compounds by SCIEX OS software, including 546 pesticides, 24 mycotoxins, 11 rodenticides...
September 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Wen-Jun Zhou, Guang-Mei Cao, Guo Shen, Xing-Yong Zhu, Yong-Yuan Gui, Jian-Heng Ye, Liang Sun, Li-Li Liao, Jing Li, Da-Gang Yu
Herein, we report a novel visible-light photoredox system with Pd(PPh3)4 as the sole catalyst to realize the first direct cross-coupling of C(sp3)─H bonds in N-aryl tetrahydroisoquinolines with general unactivated alkyl bromides. Moreover, intra- and inter-molecular alkylations of hetero-arenes were also developped under mild reaction conditions. A variety of tertiary, secondary and primary alkyl bromides undergo such reactions to generate C(sp3)─C(sp3) and C(sp2)─C(sp3) bonds in moderate to excellent yields...
October 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Brian R Matlaga
One of the barriers to a more widespread dissemination of flexible ureteroscopy are the costs associated with the ureteroscope itself. The initial purchase price of the ureteroscope can be high, and the lifespan of the scope can be distressingly short. An important challenge inherent in the use of reusable flexible ureteroscopes is the oftentimes-involved process of cleaning the scope from a previous case and readying it for the next case. These processes are complex, and involve multiple personnel throughout many positions within the hospital (nurses, technologists, technicians, etc)...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Endourology
Peter W Kenny
.A recent editorial (Aldrich et al, The Ecstasy and Agony of Assay Interference Compounds, J. Chem. Inf. MODEL: , 2017, 57, 387-390) is examined critically. When assessing assay hits from screening, it is important to draw a distinction between false positives, that have no effect on target function, and compounds that affect target function through an undesirable mechanism of action. Observation of frequent-hitter behavior for a compound should be regarded as circumstantial evidence, rather than definitive proof, that the compound has interfered with assay readouts or acted through an undesirable mechanism of action...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Bo Huang, Linwei Zeng, Yangyong Shen, Sunliang Cui
A nickel-catalyzed acetamidation and lactamization of arylboronic acids via a one-pot reaction with ynamides and N-hydroxyphthalimide is described. This protocol features with mild reaction conditions and a broad substrate scope, and has been successfully applied to late-stage functionalization of pharmaceuticals. Moreover, control reactions were conducted to elucidate a plausible mechanism.
October 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yi Zhang, Peng Li, Chaojie Ma, Sheng Liu, Huachao Cheng, Lei Han, Jianlin Zhao
The spatial light modulator (SLM) is considered as an effective device to create beams with inhomogeneous phases and polarizations, such as vortex beams and vector beams. However, the nonlinear responses of SLM severely reduce the generation efficiency of these beams. In this paper, by calibrating the SLM to present a linear phase response in the scope of 0-2π, we propose a convenient and efficient method of creating vector beams with arbitrary polarizations based on phase encoding. Compared with the common methods of generating vector beams, our approach can distinctly enhance the generation efficiency...
June 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Renke Kou, Haiyan Wang, Zhihe Zhao, Fang Wang
To improve the recognition probability of airborne infrared search and track systems (IRSTS) in air-to-air operations, the point target recognition probability model is established. And using an operating range model, the detection envelope is calculated for the airborne IRSTS. Combining with different operational backgrounds and specific technical parameters, the simulation results show that: (1) an increase in visual range and target speed, along with a decrease of oblique angle, produces an increase in the recognition probability; (2) the angle of maximum operating range of each detection envelope is the optimum detection point for the airborne IRSTS; and (3) the optimum threshold noise ratio is 8-10...
June 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Yolanda V Martinez, Anna Renom-Guiteras, David Reeves, R Erandie Ediriweera de Silva, Aneez Esmail, Ilkka Kunnamo, Anja Rieckert, Christina Sommerauer, Andreas Sönnichsen
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity and polypharmacy are common in older people. Assessment tools or lists of criteria aimed at supporting prescription decisions for older people exist, but have often been based on expert opinion with insufficient consideration of the evidence available. The present paper describes the methods we are using to systematically review the existing evidence on the efficacy and safety of the most commonly prescribed drugs for older people in the management of their chronic medical conditions and to develop recommendations to reduce inappropriate prescriptions for incorporation into the Comprehensive Medication Review (CMR) tool developed by the PRIMA-eDS European project...
October 16, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
Xiang-Lei Han, Chu-Jun Zhou, Xu-Ge Liu, Shang-Shi Zhang, Honggen Wang, Qingjiang Li
A simple and efficient protocol for the regioselective synthesis of 5-aminooxazoles is disclosed. The reaction, catalyzed by a cheap Cp*Co(III) catalyst, starts from easily accessible N-(pivaloyloxy)amides and ynamides. Mild reaction conditions, a broad substrate scope, good functional group tolerance, and good to excellent yields were observed.
October 19, 2017: Organic Letters
Shang-Shi Zhang, Jie Xia, Jia-Qiang Wu, Xu-Ge Liu, Chu-Jun Zhou, E Lin, Qingjiang Li, Shi-Liang Huang, Honggen Wang
A novel cascade Cp*Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H alkylation/Cu(II)-promoted α-oxygenation which enabled a three-component carboxygenation of activated alkene is reported. Mild reaction conditions, broad substrate scope, and good functional group tolerance were observed. The synthetic utility of the protocol was showcased by the facile transformations of the product to a variety of structurally diverse molecules. Preliminary mechanistic studies were conducted.
October 19, 2017: Organic Letters
Yang Yang
Pd at the crossroads: The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of nitroarenes has eluded chemists for decades. Recently, the first palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura and Buchwald-Hartwig cross-couplings of nitroarenes were reported. Mechanistically, this process involves the challenging oxidative addition of LPd(0) into the Ar-NO2 bond. This process features a broad substrate scope with respect to both the nitroarene and the nucleophilic coupling partners.
October 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Linda Åkerbladh, Shiao Y Chow, Luke R Odell, Mats Larhed
A mild and convenient one-step preparation of 4H-1,3-benzoxazin-4-ones by a domino carbonylation-cyclization process is developed. Readily available ortho-iodophenols are subjected to palladium-catalyzed carbonylative coupling with Mo(CO)6 and cyanamide, followed by a spontaneous, intramolecular cyclization to afford 4H-1,3-benzoxazin-4-ones in moderate to excellent yields. Furthermore, the scope of the reaction is extended to include challenging ortho-bromophenols. Finally, to highlight the versatility of the developed method, Mo(CO)6 is successfully replaced with a wide array of CO-releasing reagents, such as oxalyl chloride, phenyl formate, 9-methylfluorene-9-carbonyl chloride, and formic acid, making this an appealing strategy for the synthesis of 4H-benzo[e][1,3]oxazin-4-ones...
October 2017: ChemistryOpen
Rebecca R Gentry, Halley E Froehlich, Dietmar Grimm, Peter Kareiva, Michael Parke, Michael Rust, Steven D Gaines, Benjamin S Halpern
Marine aquaculture presents an opportunity for increasing seafood production in the face of growing demand for marine protein and limited scope for expanding wild fishery harvests. However, the global capacity for increased aquaculture production from the ocean and the relative productivity potential across countries are unknown. Here, we map the biological production potential for marine aquaculture across the globe using an innovative approach that draws from physiology, allometry and growth theory. Even after applying substantial constraints based on existing ocean uses and limitations, we find vast areas in nearly every coastal country that are suitable for aquaculture...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Haruo Hashimoto, Kenichi Yamada, Hajime Hori, Shinji Kumagai, Masaru Murata, Toshio Nagoya, Hirohiko Nakahara, Nobuyuki Mochida
This Document, "Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals" ("this Guideline"), has been prepared by "The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring" ("the Committee") of the Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, Japan Society for Occupational Health. Considering the background of the growing importance of personal exposure monitoring in risk assessment and the need to prepare for the introduction of monitoring using personal samplers from an administrative perspective in recent years, the Committee was organized in November 2012...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
Zohray Talib, Susan van Schalkwyk, Ian Couper, Swaha Pattanaik, Khadija Turay, Atiene S Sagay, Rhona Baingana, Sarah Baird, Bernhard Gaede, Jehu Iputo, Minnie Kibore, Rachel Manongi, Antony Matsika, Mpho Mogodi, Jeremais Ramucesse, Heather Ross, Moses Simuyeba, Damen Haile-Mariam
PURPOSE: African medical schools are expanding, straining resources at tertiary health facilities. Decentralizing clinical training can alleviate this tension. This study assessed the impact of decentralized training and contribution of undergraduate medical students at health facilities. METHOD: Participants were from 11 Medical Education Partnership Initiative-funded medical schools in 10 African countries. Each school identified two clinical training sites-one rural and the other either peri-urban or urban...
October 17, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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