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Flaccid paralysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742803/the-role-of-supplementary-environmental-surveillance-to-complement-acute-flaccid-paralysis-surveillance-for-wild-poliovirus-in-pakistan-2011-2013
#1
Tori L Cowger, Cara C Burns, Salmaan Sharif, Howard E Gary, Jane Iber, Elizabeth Henderson, Farzana Malik, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Shahzad Shaukat, Lubna Rehman, Mark A Pallansch, Walter A Orenstein
BACKGROUND: More than 99% of poliovirus infections are non-paralytic and therefore, not detected by acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Environmental surveillance (ES) can detect circulating polioviruses from sewage without relying on clinical presentation. With extensive ES and continued circulation of polioviruses, Pakistan presents a unique opportunity to quantify the impact of ES as a supplement to AFP surveillance on overall completeness and timeliness of poliovirus detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738914/characterization-of-group-b-coxsackieviruses-isolated-from-non-polio-acute-flaccid-paralysis-patients-in-pakistan-vital-assessment-before-polio-eradication
#2
M Angez, S Shaukat, R Zahra, M M Alam, S Sharif, A Khurshid, Y Arshad, M Suleman, G Mujtaba, S S Z Zaidi
Pakistan is at the verge of polio eradication but isolation of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases may result in serious or even fatal outcome. Many enteroviruses share similar symptoms and epidemiology as is the case with poliovirus and coxsackievirus (CV). The present study was designed to genetically characterize coxsackievirus B (CV-B) serotypes isolated from non-polio acute flaccid paralytic children, as well as to understand their probable role in paralysis. A total of 63 (20·1%) out of 313 stool samples during 2013 were found positive for NPEVs in rhabdomyosarcoma cells...
July 25, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737865/unusual-increase-of-cases-of-myelitis-in-a-pediatric-hospital-in-argentina
#3
Guadalupe Pérez, María T Rosanova, María C Freire, María I Paz, Silvina Ruvinsky, Carlos Rugilo, Víctor Ruggieri, Daniel Cisterna, Soledad Martiren, Cristina Lema, Andrea Savransky, Soledad González, Leila Martínez, Diana Viale, Rosa Bologna
INTRODUCTION: The association between enterovirus D68 and acute flaccid myelitis was first described in the United States in 2014. Since then, sporadic cases have been reported in Canada and Europe. This study describes a series of cases of acute flaccid myelitis at Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan," in Buenos Aires, Argentina, during 2016. METHODS: Descriptive, retrospective study. All patients with acute flaccid myelitis and lesions in the spinal cord involving the gray matter, as observed in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, hospitalized from 04/01/2016 to 07/01/2016, were included in the study...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735328/molecular-characterization-of-enteroviruses-isolated-from-acute-flaccid-paralysis-cases-in-poland-1999-2014
#4
Magdalena Wieczorek, Arleta Krzysztoszek
Enteroviruses (EVs) are among viral pathogens that can cause acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). This study represents an overview of EVs isolated through AFP surveillance in Poland between 1999 and 2014. The presence of enteroviruses was studied in stool samples that were collected from 747 AFP cases and their asymptomatic contacts. Fifty five (6.12%) cases of AFP were associated with enterovirus isolation. Out of the 55 positive cases, 40 were associated with detection of enterovirus in patient, and 15 with detection of EV in healthy contact, without positive detection in paralytic patient...
January 2, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733748/preoperative-botulinum-toxin-a-enabling-defect-closure-and-laparoscopic-repair-of-complex-ventral-hernia
#5
Omar Rodriguez-Acevedo, Kristen E Elstner, Anita S W Jacombs, John W Read, Rodrigo Tomazini Martins, Fernando Arduini, Michael Wehrhahm, Colette Craft, Peter H Cosman, Anthony N Dardano, Nabeel Ibrahim
INTRODUCTION: Operative management of complex ventral hernia still remains a significant challenge for surgeons. Closure of large defects in the unprepared abdomen has serious pathophysiological consequences due to chronic contraction and retraction of the lateral abdominal wall muscles. We report outcomes of 56 consecutive patients who had preoperative Botulinum toxin A (BTA) abdominal wall relaxation facilitating closure and repair. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 56 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided BTA into the lateral abdominal oblique muscles prior to elective ventral hernia repair between November 2012 and January 2017...
July 21, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733282/differentiating-botulinum-neurotoxin-producing-clostridia-with-a-simple-multiplex-pcr-assay
#6
Charles H D Williamson, Adam J Vazquez, Karen Hill, Theresa J Smith, Roxanne Nottingham, Nathan E Stone, Colin J Sobek, Jill H Cocking, Rafael A Fernández, Patricia A Caballero, Owen P Leiser, Paul Keim, Jason W Sahl
Diverse members of the genus clostridium produce botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which cause a flaccid paralysis known as botulism. While multiple species of clostridia produce BoNTs, the majority of human botulism cases have been attributed to Clostridium botulinum Groups I and II. Recent comparative genomic studies have demonstrated the genomic diversity within these BoNT-producing species. This study introduces a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for differentiating members of C. botulinum Group I, C...
July 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701922/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-functional-improvement-associated-with-cntf-stat3-activation-after-hemi-sectioned-spinal-cord-injury-in-tree-shrews
#7
Liu-Lin Xiong, Fei Liu, Bing-Tuan Lu, Wen-Ling Zhao, Xiu-Juan Dong, Jia Liu, Rong-Ping Zhang, Piao Zhang, Ting-Hua Wang
Hemi-sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI) can lead to spastic paralysis on the injured side, as well as flaccid paralysis on the contralateral side, which can negatively affect a patient's daily life. Stem-cell therapy may offer an effective treatment option for individuals with hSCI. To examine the role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation on hSCI and explore related mechanisms in the tree shrews, here, we created a model of hSCI by inducing injury at the tenth thoracic vertebra (T10)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694346/a-systematic-review-of-the-worldwide-prevalence-of-survivors-of-poliomyelitis-reported-in-31-studies
#8
Kelly M Jones, Shivanthi Balalla, Alice Theadom, Gordon Jackman, Valery L Feigin
BACKGROUND: Accurate prevalence figures estimating the number of survivors of poliomyelitis (disease causing acute flaccid paralysis) following poliovirus infection are not available. We aim to undertake a systematic review of all literature concerning the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from 1900 up to May 2016 for peer-reviewed studies using a population-based approach witha defined denominator and some form of diagnostic or clinical verification of polio...
July 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691129/preponderance-of-enterovirus-c-in-rd-l20b-cell-culture-negative-stool-samples-from-children-diagnosed-with-acute-flaccid-paralysis-in-nigeria
#9
J A Adeniji, A O Oragwa, U E George, U I Ibok, T O C Faleye, M O Adewumi
Recently, a reverse transcriptase semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-snPCR) assay was recommended by the WHO for direct detection of enteroviruses in clinical specimens. In this study, we use this assay and a modification thereof to screen acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) samples that had previously tested negative for enteroviruses by the RD-L20B algorithm. Thirty paired stool suspensions collected in 2015 as part of the national AFP surveillance program in different states of Nigeria were analyzed in this study...
July 10, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690873/spinal-cord-infarction-in-a-sick-neonate-from-predominant-haemorrhagic-aetiology-a-case-report
#10
Richa Kulshrestha, Joy R Chowdhury, Radhesh K Lalam, Nigel T Kiely
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injuries in new born infants following a traumatic delivery or umbilical cord catheterisation due to thromboembolism are well known. Cases with atraumatic acute onset of neonatal paraplegia have also been described in preterm babies or babies born small for gestational age with a stormy postnatal course related to ischaemic aetiology. We describe a rare case of infarction of the spinal cord from a predominant haemorrhagic aetiology. CASE PRESENTATION: A term female baby, first child of unrelated parents, was born by normal vaginal delivery...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687986/insights-from-a-systematic-search-for-information-on-designs-costs-and-effectiveness-of-poliovirus-environmental-surveillance-systems
#11
REVIEW
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Marita Zimmermann, Mark A Pallansch, Kimberly M Thompson
Poliovirus surveillance plays a critical role in achieving and certifying eradication and will play a key role in the polio endgame. Environmental surveillance can provide an opportunity to detect circulating polioviruses prior to the observation of any acute flaccid paralysis cases. We completed a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications on environmental surveillance for polio including the search terms "environmental surveillance" or "sewage," and "polio," "poliovirus," or "poliomyelitis," and compared characteristics of the resulting studies...
July 7, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673863/mpv17-hepatocerebral-mitochondrial-dna-depletion-syndrome-presenting-as-acute-flaccid-paralysis-a-case-report
#12
Anjan Pyal, Arumugam Paramasivam, Angamuthu Kannan Meena, Velpula Bhagya Bhavana, Kumarasamy Thangaraj
Mutations in human MPV17 have been reported in patients with severe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion manifesting as early childhood onset failure to thrive, hypoglycemia, encephalopathy and progressive liver failure. We describe an 11 year old girl, born to consanguineous parents, who presented with rapidly progressive weakness of all 4 limbs with symmetrical proximal and distal weakness, gastrointestinal disease and leukoencephalopathy. Genetic analysis of the patient revealed a homozygous pathogenic mutation c...
June 30, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661963/first-cases-of-severe-flaccid-paralysis-associated-with-enterovirus-d68-infection-in-spain-2015-2016
#13
María Cabrerizo, Juan Pablo García-Iñiguez, Francina Munell, Alfonso Amado, Paula Madurga-Revilla, Carlos Rodrigo, Sonia Pérez, Ana Martínez-Sapiña, Andrés Antón, Gerardo Suárez, Nuria Rabella, Víctor Del Campo, Almudena Otero, Josefa Masa-Calles
Enterovirus D68 was known to be the cause of mild to severe respiratory infections, but in the last few years it has also been associated with myelitis and paralysis. This report describes the first EV-D68 detections in acute flaccid paralysis cases occurring between December 2015 and March 2016 in Spain.
June 28, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659472/crystal-structure-and-thermostability-characterization-of-ev-d68-3d-pol
#14
Chunnian Wang, Caiyan Wang, Qing Li, Zhong Wang, Wei Xie
Enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68) is one of the many non-polio enteroviruses that cause mild-to-severe respiratory illness. The non-structural protein 3D(pol) is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of EV-D68, which plays a critical role in the replication of the viral genome and represents a promising drug target. Here we report the first three-dimensional crystal structure of RdRP from EV-D68 in complex with the substrate GTP to 2.3-Å resolution. The RdRP structure is similar to those of other viral RdRPs, where the three domains termed the palm, fingers, and thumb form a structure resembling a cupped right hand...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647978/-severe-cases-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-data-based-on-national-pilot-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-surveillance-system
#15
Y M Zheng, Z R Chang, L L Jiang, H Ji, G P Chen, P Luo, J J Pan, X L Tian, L L Wei, D Huo, Z P Miao, X N Zou, J H Chen, Q H Liao
Objective: To investigate the clinical severity, etiological classification and risk factors of severe cases with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Methods: A total of 1 489 records on severe and fatal HFMD cases reported to the national pilot surveillance system of HFMD were used to analyze the demographic, medical treatment, etiological classification of the cases. Treatment outcome related risk factors were also studied with multi-variable stepwise logistic regression method. Results: Seven out of the 1 489 severe HFMD cases died of this disease...
June 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644255/periodic-paralysis-and-encephalopathy-as-initial-manifestations-of-graves-disease-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Theocharis Tsironis, Athanasios Tychalas, Dimitrios Kiourtidis, Jannis Kountouras, Georgia Xiromerisiou, Jobst Rudolf, Georgia Deretzi
BACKGROUND: Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is an uncommon complication of Graves' disease, characterized by the triad of acute hypokalemia without total body potassium deficit, episodic muscle paralysis, and thyrotoxicosis. Graves' encephalopathy is an extremely rare form of encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (EAATD), characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms, increased antithyroid antibodies and cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration, nonspecific electroencephalogram abnormalities, and cortico-responsiveness...
July 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639345/acute-flaccid-myelitis-in-childhood-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
E W Andersen, A J Kornberg, J L Freeman, R J Leventer, M M Ryan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clusters of acute limb weakness in paediatric patients have been linked to outbreaks of non-polio enteroviruses, termed acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). Outside these clusters, in countries where polio is not endemic, this poliomyelitic-like illness is rare in childhood and its natural history is not well defined. We describe presenting features, investigation findings and long-term outcome of a series of children with AFM. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study...
August 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630462/identification-and-molecular-characterization-of-non-polio-enteroviruses-from-children-with-acute-flaccid-paralysis-in-west-africa-2013-2014
#18
Maria D Fernandez-Garcia, Ousmane Kebe, Aichatou D Fall, Kader Ndiaye
Besides polioviruses, non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) may also be associated with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Because poliomyelitis is on the verge of eradication, more attention should be paid to study NPEVs from non-polio AFP cases and their epidemic patterns. In West African countries the epidemiology of NPEVs remains largely unexplored. We investigated the genetic diversity, frequency, circulation patterns, and molecular epidemiology of NPEVs in seven West African countries by analyzing retrospectively a panel of 3195 stool samples from children with AFP collected through routine poliomyelitis surveillance activities between 2013 and 2014...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630226/thyrotoxic-periodic-paralysis-as-an-initial-presentation-of-graves-disease-in-a-saudi-patient
#19
S F Alqahtani, M M Aleithan
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a well-known complication of hyperthyroidism, characterised by recurrent flaccid paralysis with hypokalaemia. To date, only five cases of this rare disorder have been reported in Saudi Arabia. Here, we report an additional case involving a 25-year-old Saudi man who presented with lower limb paralysis and severe hypokalaemia. Clinically, he showed symptoms and signs suggestive of Graves' disease, which was confirmed by laboratory investigations. Carbimazole, a beta-blocker and potassium replacement were administered, resulting in dramatic improvement of the TTP...
June 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626021/acute-segmental-poliomyelitis-like-flaccid-paralysis-in-an-adult-in-the-uk-associated-with-enterovirus-d68
#20
Sybil R L Stacpoole, Adam Molyneux, Dirk Bäumer
Enterovirus D68 has been associated with a poliomyelitis-like illness, notably during an outbreak in 2014, and particularly affecting children in the USA. We report a case of acute segmental flaccid paralysis with respiratory involvement in an adult in the UK, with enterovirus D68 detected in a sputum sample. MR imaging of cervical spinal cord showed a longitudinally extensive T2 hyperintensity in the anterior cord. Cerebrospinal fluid showed an elevated white cell count, predominantly lymphocytic, with otherwise normal constituents and negative viral PCRs...
August 2017: Practical Neurology
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