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Flaccid paralysis

Daryl C Yang, Jennifer R Deuis, Daniel Dashevsky, James Dobson, Timothy N W Jackson, Andreas Brust, Bing Xie, Ivan Koludarov, Jordan Debono, Iwan Hendrikx, Wayne C Hodgson, Peter Josh, Amanda Nouwens, Gregory J Baillie, Timothy J C Bruxner, Paul F Alewood, Kelvin Kok Peng Lim, Nathaniel Frank, Irina Vetter, Bryan G Fry
Millions of years of evolution have fine-tuned the ability of venom peptides to rapidly incapacitate both prey and potential predators. Toxicofera reptiles are characterized by serous-secreting mandibular or maxillary glands with heightened levels of protein expression. These glands are the core anatomical components of the toxicoferan venom system, which exists in myriad points along an evolutionary continuum. Neofunctionalisation of toxins is facilitated by positive selection at functional hotspots on the ancestral protein and venom proteins have undergone dynamic diversification in helodermatid and varanid lizards as well as advanced snakes...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Teng-Fei Li, Nian Gong, Yong-Xiang Wang
Aconitines, including bulleyaconitine A, probably the most bioactive and abundant alkaloids in Aconitum plant, are a group of diester C19-diterpenoid alkaloids with one acetylester group attached to C8 of the diterpenoid skeleton and one benzoylester group to C14. Hydrolysis of both groups is involved in the processing of Aconitum, a traditional Chinese medicinal approach. We recently demonstrated that bulleyaconitine A produced anti-hypersensitivity, which was mediated by stimulation of spinal microglial dynorphin A expression...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
F H Matsubara, G O Meissner, V Herzig, H C Justa, B C L Dias, D Trevisan-Silva, L H Gremski, W Gremski, A Senff-Ribeiro, O M Chaim, G F King, S S Veiga
Loxosceles intermedia venom comprises a complex mixture of proteins, glycoproteins and low molecular mass peptides that act synergistically to immobilize envenomed prey. Analysis of a venom-gland transcriptome from L. intermedia revealed that knottins, also known as inhibitor cystine knot peptides, are the most abundant class of toxins expressed in this species. Knottin peptides contain a particular arrangement of intramolecular disulphide bonds, and these peptides typically act upon ion channels or receptors in the insect nervous system, triggering paralysis or other lethal effects...
October 15, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Biranchi Narayan Mohapatra, Sujit Kumar Lenka, Manoranjan Acharya, Chakradhar Majhi, Gouri Oram, Khetra Mohan Tudu
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical profile of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis (HKFP) and to evaluate its causes. METHODS: Fifty cases of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis (HKFP) admitted between November 2012 to October 2014 were taken up in the study. Serum potassium level < 3.5 mmol/ltr has been taken as hypokalemia. All cases were studied for spot and/or 24 hour urinary sodium / potassium, serum potassium / calcium / magnesium. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) were diagnosed if there was spot/24 hour urine potassium excretion < 20mmol/ltr in presence of hypokalemia and flaccid weakness without other causes...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Yan Yang, Aiping Ju, Xiaofen Xu, Xinyu Cao, Ying Tao
Human cosavirus (HCoSV) is a genus recently identified in the family Picornaviridae, which contains important pathogens to human health. Here, a novel type of HCoSV strain, cosavirus-zj-1 (GenBank no. KX545380), was identified in the fecal sample of a child with nonpolio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses suggested that this virus strain belonged to a new genotype in HCoSV B species. Our data show that surveillance of HCoSV is necessary for detecting viral agents in children with AFP, despite being the low detection rate...
October 12, 2016: Virology Journal
Margarita Pons-Salort, Natalie A Molodecky, Kathleen M O'Reilly, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Rana M Safdar, Andrew Etsano, Rui Gama Vaz, Hamid Jafari, Nicholas C Grassly, Isobel M Blake
BACKGROUND: Global withdrawal of serotype-2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) took place in April 2016. This marked a milestone in global polio eradication and was a public health intervention of unprecedented scale, affecting 155 countries. Achieving high levels of serotype-2 population immunity before OPV2 withdrawal was critical to avoid subsequent outbreaks of serotype-2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2s). METHODS AND FINDINGS: In August 2015, we estimated vaccine-induced population immunity against serotype-2 poliomyelitis for 1 January 2004-30 June 2015 and produced forecasts for April 2016 by district in Nigeria and Pakistan...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Fouad Al-Ghamdi, Partha S Ghosh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Neurology
P Flanagan, P O'Lorcain, S Cotter, J Connell, B Lynch, R Cunney, D O'Flanagan
Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance, including case investigation and specimen collection is a gold standard method for poliomyelitis surveillance. The expected annual non-polio AFP rate <15 years of age in Ireland is = 1/100 000 population. This study reviewed all cases of AFP reported to the Irish Paediatric Surveillance Unit and the Health Protection Surveillance Centre between January 2009 and December 2014 and compared reporting rates with the expected incidence rate annually. We assessed quality of surveillance data in terms of completeness of investigation for each case reported...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
Hugo Kavunga Membo, Aaron Mweene, Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Justin Masumu, Riziki Yogolelo, Norbert Ngendabanyikwa, Eddy Sokolua, Fred Sagamiko, Edgar Simulundu, Steve Ahuka, Jean Jacques Muyembe
INTRODUCTION: The last wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Africa was reported in July 2014, thus underscoring the tremendous progress towards polio eradication worldwide. This study aimed to analyze the results of a seven-year surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and to identify potential gaps that need to be addressed. METHODS: Epidemiological and virological data obtained from AFP surveillance among AFP cases less than 15 years from January 2008 to December 2014 in DRC were retrospectively considered and analyzed in this study...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Semmannan Kalaiyarasu, Niranjan Mishra, Rohit Kumar Khetan, Vijendra Pal Singh
Birds can act as reservoirs of West Nile virus (WNV) with a key role in its epidemiology. WNV lineage 1 associated fatal cases of human encephalitis in 2011 and acute flaccid paralysis in 2013 were reported in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India. But no information is available on WNV circulation in domestic ducks, which are abundant, cohabit with humans and occupy wetlands and water bodies in the region. To determine the extent of WNV infection, we investigated 209 sera, 250 oral and 350 cloacal swab samples from local Chara and Chemballi domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in the districts of Alappuzha, Kottayam, Kollam and Pathanamthitta collected during January and March 2015...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
D Luke Glancy, Pramilla N Subramaniam, Juan F Rodriguez
Severe hypokalemia in the absence of other electrolyte abnormalities, the result of diarrhea, caused striking electrocardiographic changes, generalized weakness, flaccid paralysis of the lower extremities, and biochemical evidence of mild skeletal and cardiac rhabdomyolysis in a 33-year-old man. Repletion of potassium reversed all abnormalities in 24 hours.
August 24, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2016: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
David Lussier, Anthony Herd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2016: CJEM
Teoman Aydın, Özgür Taşpınar, Yasar Keskin, Müge Kepekçi, Meryem Güneşer, Adil Çamlı, Hakan Seyithanoğlu, Huriye Kızıltan, Ali Hikmet Eriş
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous radiculomyelitis(TBRM) is one of the complications of neurological tuberculosis and includes cases of arachnoiditis, intradural spinal tuberculoma or granuloma, and spinal cord complications of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Here, we report a case of TBRM which presented with acute paraplegia. CASE DETAILS: Neurological examination on admission revealed flaccid paralysis, bilateral extensor plantar responses, and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes...
July 2016: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Muhammad Sagir Shehu, Yunusa Thairu
INTRODUCTION: Poliovirus infections have been established to be in circulation in the remaining three polio-endemic nations. These pathogens have been associated with several chronic diseases, particularly acute flaccid paralysis of children. This study sought to ascertain whether polioviruses are silently shed by apparently healthy schoolchildren in Bauchi, Katagum, and Misau local government areas of Bauchi state, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional prospective study that involved 200 stool samples collected from apparently healthy schoolchildren...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Kristen E Elstner, John W Read, Omar Rodriguez-Acevedo, Kevin Ho-Shon, John Magnussen, Nabeel Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: A rarely used technique for enabling closure of large ventral hernias with loss of domain is preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum (PPP), which uses intermittent insufflation to gradually stretch the contracted abdominal wall muscles, increasing the capacity of the abdominal cavity. This allows the re-introduction of herniated viscera into the abdominal cavity and assists in closure of giant hernias which may otherwise be considered inoperable. METHODS: This was a prospective study assessing 16 patients between 2013 and 2015 with multi-recurrent ventral hernia...
August 29, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Sebastian Miethe, Christelle Mazuet, Yvonne Liu, Robert Tierney, Christine Rasetti-Escargueil, Arnaud Avril, André Frenzel, Philippe Thullier, Thibaut Pelat, Remi Urbain, Alexandre Fontayne, Dorothea Sesardic, Michael Hust, Michel Robert Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are counted among the most toxic substances known and are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. To date, 7 serologically distinct serotypes of BoNT (serotype A-G) are known. Due to the high toxicity of BoNTs the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have classified BoNTs as category A agent, including the six biological agents with the highest potential risk of use as bioweapons...
2016: PloS One
Kate E Hughes, Colin Seguin, Brent Felton, Mary J Hughes, David Castle
BACKGROUND: First described by Morgagni in 1761, aortic dissection (AD) is an acute life-threatening and time-sensitive disease process with an increasing mortality approaching 1% for every 1-hour delay in diagnosis within the first 48 hours. Despite continued surgical advancement, overall in-hospital mortality remains significant (27.4%). CASE REPORT: A 56-year-old woman presented to an outlying emergency department with a complaint of isolated lumbar pain associated with right lower extremity paresthesia and paralysis that progressed to the left...
October 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Marie-France Humblet, Sébastien Vandeputte, Fabienne Fecher-Bourgeois, Philippe Léonard, Christiane Gosset, Thomas Balenghien, Benoît Durand, Claude Saegerman
This study aimed at estimating, in a prospective scenario, the potential economic impact of a possible epidemic of WNV infection in Belgium, based on 2012 values for the equine and human health sectors, in order to increase preparedness and help decision-makers. Modelling of risk areas, based on the habitat suitable for Culex pipiens, the main vector of the virus, allowed us to determine equine and human populations at risk. Characteristics of the different clinical forms of the disease based on past epidemics in Europe allowed morbidity among horses and humans to be estimated...
August 4, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Huanying Zheng, Yong Zhang, Leng Liu, Jing Lu, Xue Guo, Hui Li, Hanri Zeng, Ling Fang, Wenbo Xu, Changwen Ke
Enterovirus B84 (EV-B84) is a newly identified serotype within the species Enterovirus B (EV-B). To date, only ten nucleotide sequences of EV-B84 are published and only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) is available in the GenBank database. Here, a highly mutated EV-B84 (strain AFP452/GD/CHN/2004) was recovered from a patient with acute flaccid paralysis in the Guangdong province of China in 2004 making this the first report of EV-B84 in China. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic dendrogram analysis revealed high variation from the global EV-B84 strains (African and Indian strains) and frequent intertypic recombination in the non-structural protein region, suggesting high genetic diversity in EV-B84...
2016: Scientific Reports
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