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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925848/hospitalizations-for-pneumococcal-diseases-in-tuscany-from-2002-to-2014-impact-of-universal-pediatric-vaccination-on-the-population
#1
Sara Boccalini, Ornella Varone, Martina Chellini, Luca Pieri, Antonino Sala, Cesare Berardi, Paolo Bonanni, Angela Bechini
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main causative organism of acute media otitis in children and meningitis and bacterial pneumonia in the community. Since 2008 in Tuscany, central Italy, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7-valent vaccine, switched in 13-valent vaccine in 2010) was actively offered free of charge to all newborns. Aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of pneumococcal paediatric vaccination on the Tuscan population on hospitalizations potentially caused by S. pneumoniae, during pre-vaccination (PVP, 2002-2007) and vaccination period (VP, 2009-2014)...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921318/meningococcal-vaccination-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#2
Christopher W Blackwell
Recent outbreaks of meningitis in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles, Chicago, New York City, and other locations across the United States have heightened public health concerns regarding the increasing incidence of meningococcal infections in this vulnerable population. MSM have unique risk factors that result in greater threat from certain infectious diseases, including meningococcal infection. Men who have sex with men who are infected with HIV are at even higher risk. This article explores the increased risks among MSM in contracting and communicating meningococcal infection, use of vaccination as primary prevention, and outreach strategies that may help address this issue and lessen the disease burden associated with meningococcal infection in these sexual minorities...
December 5, 2016: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917323/development-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-vaccine-against-prevalent-invasive-multi-drug-resistant-strains-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#3
Rehab H Bahy, Hayam M Hamouda, Amal S Shahat, Aymen S Yassin, Magdy A Amin
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogen that causes serious invasive infections, such as septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia in addition to mild upper respiratory tract infections. Protection from pneumococcal diseases is thought to be mediated mainly by serotype-specific antibodies to capsular antigens. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine consists of sugars (polysaccharides) from the capsule of the bacterium S. pneumoniae that are conjugated to a carrier protein. Three pneumococcal conjugated vaccines, each directed against a group of serotypes, are registered in Egypt; however, local vaccine production is required to cover the most prevalent serotypes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916211/a-32-year-study-of-the-effect-of-pneumococcal-vaccines-on-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-disease
#4
Ronald J Stanek, Nancy B Norton, Maurice A Mufson
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly causes community-acquired pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia and otitis media. Invasive pneumococcal infection (IPD) represents the most serious presentation, occurs in approximately 1 in 4 cases and engenders case fatality rates (CFR) in pneumonia of 20-25% and meningitis of 35-40%. We investigated IPD for 32 years in an American city to assess the effect of differing pneumococcal vaccines on serotype occurrence and CFR among children and adults...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910939/real-time-pcr-based-serotyping-of-streptococcus-agalactiae
#5
Kathleen M Breeding, Bhavana Ragipani, Kun-Uk David Lee, Martin Malik, Tara M Randis, Adam J Ratner
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an encapsulated, gram-positive pathogen that is an important cause of neonatal invasive infections, including sepsis and meningitis. There are ten known GBS serotypes based on distinct capsule compositions (Ia, Ib, II-IX), and current candidate capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines target only a subset of these. Serotyping of GBS isolates is important for understanding local epidemiology and for monitoring for serotype replacement or capsular switching. However, serotyping generally requires either latex agglutination, multiplex PCR with analysis of band sizes, or analysis of whole genome sequences-all techniques that are either expensive or not widely available...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904879/the-establishment-and-diversification-of-epidemic-associated-serogroup-w-meningococcus-in-the-african-meningitis-belt-1994-to-2012
#6
Adam C Retchless, Fang Hu, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Seydou Diarra, Kristen Knipe, Mili Sheth, Lori A Rowe, Lassana Sangaré, Absetou Ky Ba, Soumeya Ouangraoua, Dhwani Batra, Ryan T Novak, Rasmata Ouédraogo Traoré, Xin Wang
Epidemics of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by meningococcal serogroup A have been eliminated from the sub-Saharan African so-called "meningitis belt" by the meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (MACV), and yet, other serogroups continue to cause epidemics. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W remains a major cause of disease in the region, with most isolates belonging to clonal complex 11 (CC11). Here, the genetic variation within and between epidemic-associated strains was assessed by sequencing the genomes of 92 N...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902653/meningococcal-disease-in-children-in-argentina-a-three-year-active-sentinel-hospital-surveillance-study
#7
Ángela Gentile, Julia Bakir, María Rosa Agosti, Gabriela Ensinck, Hector Abate, Andrea Gajo Gane, Alejandro Santillán Iturres, Adriana Efron, Mabel Regueira, Ricardo Rüttimann
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal disease (MD) is a medical emergency and a serious public health problem. As new meningococcal vaccines become available, MD surveillance is crucial to provide baseline epidemiologic data before implementing preventive measures. We estimated MD incidence and epidemiology in Argentina using hospital-based surveillance. METHODS: 3-year prospective active surveillance in patients ≤15 years of age conducted at 6 pediatric hospital sentinel units (March 2012-February 2015)...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889801/production-and-purification-of-an-untagged-recombinant-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-pspa4pro-with-high-purity-and-low-endotoxin-content
#8
Douglas B Figueiredo, Eneas Carvalho, Mauricio P Santos, Stefanie Kraschowetz, Rafaela T Zanardo, Gilson Campani, Gabriel G Silva, Cíntia R Sargo, Antonio Carlos L Horta, Roberto de C Giordano, Eliane N Miyaji, Teresa C Zangirolami, Joaquin Cabrera-Crespo, Viviane Maimoni Gonçalves
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and other conditions that kill thousands of children every year worldwide. The replacement of pneumococcal serotypes among the vaccinated population has evidenced the need for new vaccines with broader coverage and driven the research for protein-based vaccines. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) protects S. pneumoniae from the bactericidal effect of human apolactoferrin and prevents complement deposition. Several studies indicate that PspA is a very promising target for novel vaccine formulations...
November 26, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884478/vaccine-provision-delivering-sustained-widespread-use
#9
Scott Preiss, Nathalie Garçon, Anthony L Cunningham, Richard Strugnell, Leonard R Friedland
The administration of a vaccine to a recipient is the final step in a development and production process that may have begun several decades earlier. Here we describe the scale and complexity of the processes that brings a candidate vaccine through clinical development to the recipient. These challenges include ensuring vaccine quality (between 100 and 500 different Quality Control tests are performed during production to continually assess safety, potency and purity); making decisions about optimal vaccine presentation (pre-filled syringes versus multi-dose vials) that affect capacity and supply; and the importance of maintaining the vaccine cold chain (most vaccines have stringent storage temperature requirements necessary to maintain activity and potency)...
November 21, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884476/systemic-immunization-with-rpotd-reduces-streptococcus-pneumoniae-nasopharyngeal-colonization-in-mice
#10
T R Converso, C Goulart, D Rodriguez, M Darrieux, L C C Leite
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a human pathogen that can cause otitis media, pneumonia and, in severe cases, meningitis and bacteremia. The pneumococcus expresses PotD, a protein belonging to the polyamines transporter complex called PotABCD. PotD is a membrane-associated protein that binds polyamines and has been shown to be important for virulence. In this work we demonstrate that subcutaneous immunization with rPotD reduces the bacterial load in the nasal tissue of mice, following intranasal challenge with a type 6B pneumococcus...
November 21, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879558/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-selected-head-and-neck-infections-in-hospitalized-israeli-children
#11
Tal Marom, Shiran Bookstein Peretz, Orna Schwartz, Abraham Goldfarb, Yahav Oron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of pediatric head and neck infections (HNIs), e.g. acute otitis media (AOM), acute mastoiditis (AM), acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) and meningitis. The aim of the study was to characterize the epidemiology of pneumococcal HNIs (pHNIs) before, during, and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODS: Children 0-16 years who were hospitalized with HNIs in the Pediatrics Department in a general hospital between 1/1/2007-12/31/2014 were retrospectively identified...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863635/cochlear-implantation-of-solid-organ-transplant-patients-receiving-immunosuppressive-therapy
#12
Bushra Ayub, Nancy M Young
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of infectious complications and healing problems in cochlear implant (CI) patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy following solid organ transplant. STUDY DESIGN: IRB-approved retrospective chart review of implanted patients. SETTING: Tertiary care children's hospital. METHODS: Seven patients of the more than 1000 implanted during the time period between 1991 and 2014 underwent cochlear implantation while on immunosuppressive therapy after having received a solid organ transplant...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862712/invasive-pneumococcal-infections-in-children-following-transplantation-in-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#13
Liset Olarte, Philana Ling Lin, William J Barson, Jose R Romero, Tina Q Tan, Laurence B Givner, Jill A Hoffman, John S Bradley, Kristina G Hultén, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Pediatric recipients of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal infections (IPI). Data on IPI in this population is scarce. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the epidemiology of IPI among pediatric transplant recipients in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) era. METHODS: We identified transplant recipients with IPI at 8 children's hospitals in the U.S. from our surveillance database (2000-2014)...
November 9, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860062/evaluation-of-response-strategies-against-epidemics-due-to-neisseria-meningitidis-c-in-niger
#14
Halima Boubacar Maïnassara, Garba Idé Oumarou, Bassira Issaka, Ali Sidiki, Issa Idi, Jean-Paul Moulia Pelat, Arnaud Fontanet, Judith E Mueller
OBJECTIVE: To inform public health recommendations, we evaluated the effectiveness and efficiency of current and hypothetical surveillance and vaccine response strategies against Neisseria meningitidis C meningitis epidemics in 2015 in Niger. METHODS: We analyzed reports of suspected and confirmed cases of meningitis from the region of Dosso during 2014 and 2015. Based on a definition of epidemic signals, the effectiveness and efficiency of surveillance and vaccine response strategies were evaluated by calculating the number of potentially vaccine-preventable cases and number of vaccine doses needed per epidemic signal...
November 14, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847176/association-of-serum-bactericidal-antibody-and-opsonic-antibody-levels-after-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-c-conjugate-vaccine-in-brazilian-children-and-adolescents-infected-or-not-infected-with-hiv
#15
Wânia F Pereira-Manfro, Raquel M Alvino, Aline C Cruz, Giselle P Silva, Raquel B N Castro, Bianca Ferreira, Daniella M Barreto, Ana Cristina C Frota, Cristina B Hofer, Lucimar G Milagres
Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC) is the main causative agent of meningitis in Brazil. HIV infection affects the quality of the immune system. HIV(+) children have an increased risk of infection to encapsulated bacteria such as N. meningitidis. We evaluated the opsonic antibody (OPA) levels and its correlation with serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) levels induced by one and two doses of a MenC conjugate vaccine in children and adolescents HIV(+) and HIV-exposed but uninfected children (HEU) group. Overall the data show the importance of two doses of vaccine for HIV(+) individuals...
December 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845043/molecular-characterization-of-a-single-chain-antibody-variable-fragment-scfv-specific-for-pspa-from-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#16
ShinA Jang, Gyuhee Kim, Jihye Oh, Seungyeob Lee, Dongho Kim, Kook-Han Kim, Yong Ho Kim, Dong-Kwon Rhee, Sangho Lee
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major infectious agent responsible for pneumonia, otitis media, sepsis and meningitis. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a well-characterized virulence factor localized on the surface and a target for vaccine development. In this study, we screened a single-chain antibody variable fragment (scFv) using phage display from a human synthetic library to select a clone 2B11. Affinity (Kd) of 2B11 was measured to be 5 nM using biolayer interferometry. 2B11 exhibited a dose-dependent recognition of recombinant PspA with no cross-reactivity towards pneumococcal antigens...
November 11, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844262/changes-in-the-pneumococcal-disease-related-hospitalisations-in-spain-after-the-replacement-of-7-valent-by-13-valent-conjugate-vaccine
#17
L Georgalis, A Mozalevskis, M V Martínez de Aragón, M Garrido-Estepa
In Spain, anti-pneumococcal vaccination is recommended for all children under 2 years old, high-risk groups and adults ≥65 years old. However, it is not funded in most autonomous communities. This study aims to compare pneumococcal disease hospitalisation rates between Period 1 (2007-2009), when 7-valent (PCV7) vaccine was available, and Period 2 (2011-2013), after the change to 13-valent (PCV13) vaccine in Spain. Data on hospitalisations were obtained from the National Registry of Hospitalisations. We calculated hospitalisation rates (HRs) and hospitalisation rate ratios (HRRs) among periods by age group and autonomous community, for all and by clinical presentation...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832151/nationwide-trends-in-bacterial-meningitis-before-the-introduction-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-burkina-faso-2011-2013
#18
Dinanibè Kambiré, Heidi M Soeters, Rasmata Ouédraogo-Traoré, Isaïe Medah, Lassana Sangare, Issaka Yaméogo, Guetawendé Sawadogo, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Soumeya Hema-Ouangraoua, Lesley McGee, Velusamy Srinivasan, Flavien Aké, Malika Congo-Ouédraogo, Soufian Sanou, Absatou Ky Ba, Ryan T Novak, Chris Van Beneden
BACKGROUND: Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013. METHODS: Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831912/challenges-in-reducing-group-b-streptococcus-disease-in-african-settings
#19
Yo Nishihara, Ziyaad Dangor, Neil French, Shabir Madhi, Robert Heyderman
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in high-income settings and is associated with high rates of neonatal mortality and morbidity. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that there is a high GBS disease burden in resource-limited countries, and it is therefore critically important to identify suitable and practical preventive strategies. In Europe and North America, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) has led to a dramatic reduction of early-onset GBS disease...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831604/-epidemiologic-clinical-and-bacteriologic-characteristics-of-pneumococcal-meningitis-in-pediatric-patients-from-lima-peru
#20
Long Davalos, Yessica Terrazas, Ana Quintana, Martha Egoavil, Katherine Sedano, María E Castillo, Isabel Reyes, Eduardo Chaparro, Wilda Silva, Francisco Campos, Andrés Saenz, Roger Hernandez, Olguita Del Águila, Daniel Guillén Pinto, Theresa J Ochoa
Objectives.: To describe the clinical characteristics, lethality, antibiotic susceptibility, and serotype distribution of pneumococcal meningitis in pediatric patients in Lima, Peru. Materials and Methods.: A case series of pneumococcal meningitis in children less than 16 years of age from two prospective, multicenter, passive surveillance studies of invasive pneumococcal diseases held in Lima-Peru from 2006 to 2008 and 2009 to 2011. Results.: We report 44 pneumococcal meningitis episodes; 68...
July 2016: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
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