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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317811/performance-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues
#1
Pascal Polepole, Mwila Kabwe, Mpanga Kasonde, John Tembo, Aaron Shibemba, Justin O'Grady, Nathan Kapata, Alimuddin Zumla, Matthew Bates
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which accounts for 10%-40% of the global burden of TB, with the highest incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa, is strongly associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Diagnosing EPTB is challenging, and recently, there has been a concerted effort to evaluate the latest molecular diagnostics for diagnosing TB in a range of specimen types. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is one such technology, which simultaneously detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302531/resistin-potentiates-chemoresistance-and-stemness-of-breast-cancer-cells-implications-for-racially-disparate-therapeutic-outcomes
#2
Sachin K Deshmukh, Sanjeev K Srivastava, Haseeb Zubair, Arun Bhardwaj, Nikhil Tyagi, Ahmed Al-Ghadhban, Ajay P Singh, Donna L Dyess, James E Carter, Seema Singh
Breast cancer (BC) continues to be the most frequently diagnosed cancer in American women, which disproportionately affects women of African-American (AA) descent. Previously, we reported greater serum levels of resistin in AA BC patients relative to Caucasian-American (CA) patients, and established its role in growth and aggressiveness of breast tumor cells. Here we have investigated the role of resistin in BC-chemoresistance. MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 BC cells of CA and AA origin, respectively, were incubated with resistin prior to doxorubicin treatment...
March 13, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294295/breast-cancer-major-changes-in-the-american-joint-committee-on-cancer-eighth-edition-cancer-staging-manual
#3
Armando E Giuliano, James L Connolly, Stephen B Edge, Elizabeth A Mittendorf, Hope S Rugo, Lawrence J Solin, Donald L Weaver, David J Winchester, Gabriel N Hortobagyi
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The revision of the eighth edition of the primary tumor, lymph node, and metastasis (TNM) classification of the American Joint Commission of Cancer (AJCC) for breast cancer was determined by a multidisciplinary team of breast cancer experts. The panel recognized the need to incorporate biologic factors, such as tumor grade, proliferation rate, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) expression, and gene expression prognostic panels into the staging system...
March 14, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284864/development-of-a-novel-near-infrared-fluorescent-theranostic-combretastain-a-4-analogue-yk-5-252-to-target-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#4
Yali Kong, Jacqueline Smith, Kongwen Li, Jake Cui, John Han, Shujie Hou, Milton L Brown
The treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a significant challenge to cancer research. The lack of hormone receptors limits the treatment options available to patients with this diagnosis, forcing them to endure prolonged radiation and chemotherapy. Anti-angiogenesis is a chemotherapeutic strategy that targets the vasculature of tumors. Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) is a well-known vasculature-disrupting agent, which has been shown to effectively kill a variety of cancers through inhibition of tubulin polymerization...
February 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274095/sphingosylphosphorylcholine-induces-thrombospondin-1-secretion-in-mcf10a-cells-via-erk2
#5
June Hee Kang, Hyun Ji Kim, Mi Kyung Park, Chang Hoon Lee
Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is one of the bioactive phospholipids that has many cellular functions such as cell migration, adhesion, proliferation, angiogenesis, and Ca²⁺ signaling. Recent studies have reported that SPC induces invasion of breast cancer cells via matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) secretion leading to WNT activation. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a matricellular and calcium-binding protein that binds to a wide variety of integrin and non-integrin cell surface receptors. It regulates cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis in inflammation, angiogenesis and neoplasia...
March 10, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273938/elemental-vs-phase-composition-of-breast-calcifications
#6
Robert Scott, Catherine Kendall, Nicholas Stone, Keith Rogers
Despite the importance of calcifications in early detection of breast cancer, and their suggested role in modulating breast cancer cell behaviour, very little detail is known about their chemical composition or how this relates to pathology. We measured the elemental composition of calcifications contained within histological sections of breast tissue biopsies, and related this to both crystallographic parameters measured previously in the same specimens, and to the histopathology report. The Ca:P ratio is of particular interest since this theoretically has potential as a non-invasive aid to diagnosis; this was found to lie in a narrow range similar to bone, with no significant difference between benign and malignant...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272508/amplified-centrosomes-and-mitotic-index-display-poor-concordance-between-patient-tumors-and-cultured-cancer-cells
#7
Karuna Mittal, Da Hoon Choi, Angela Ogden, Shashi Donthamsetty, Brian D Melton, Meenakshi V Gupta, Vaishali Pannu, Guilherme Cantuaria, Sooryanarayana Varambally, Michelle D Reid, Kristin Jonsdottir, Emiel A M Janssen, Mohammad A Aleskandarany, Ian O Ellis, Emad A Rakha, Padmashree C G Rida, Ritu Aneja
Centrosome aberrations (CA) and abnormal mitoses are considered beacons of malignancy. Cancer cell doubling times in patient tumors are longer than in cultures, but differences in CA between tumors and cultured cells are uncharacterized. We compare mitoses and CA in patient tumors, xenografts, and tumor cell lines. We find that mitoses are rare in patient tumors compared with xenografts and cell lines. Contrastingly, CA is more extensive in patient tumors and xenografts (~35-50% cells) than cell lines (~5-15%), although CA declines in patient-derived tumor cells over time...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272000/study-of-serum-carcinoembryonic-antigen-s-profile-for-breast-cancer-in-western-algeria-100-cases
#8
Zenib Tahari, Asmahane Medjdoub, Tewfik Sahraoui, Leila Belhabri, Fatima Zohra El Kebir
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Biology contributes to the early diagnosis and monitoring of breast cancer with several categories of markers such as prognostic markers (ER, PR, HER2), proliferative markers (Ki67), and tumor markers such as CEA and CA 15-3. CEA can be detected at a high concentration in serum of patients with malignant tumors. AIM: The aim of our study was to evaluate the concentrations of CEA in serum of women with breast cancer and to verify the existence of a possible link between the average rates of CEA and SBR grade...
January 2017: Gulf Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264686/reproductive-risk-factors-associated-with-breast-cancer-in-women-in-bangui-a-case-control-study
#9
Augustin Balekouzou, Ping Yin, Christian Maucler Pamatika, Cavin Epie Bekolo, Sylvain Wilfrid Nambei, Marceline Djeintote, Komlan Kota, Christian Diamont Mossoro-Kpinde, Chang Shu, Minghui Yin, Zhen Fu, Tingting Qing, Mingming Yan, Jianyuan Zhang, Shaojun Chen, Hongyu Li, Zhongyu Xu, Boniface Koffi
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (breast Ca) is recognised as a major public health problem in the world. Data on reproductive factors associated with breast Ca in the Central African Republic (CAR) is very limited. This study aimed to identify reproductive variables as risk factors for breast Ca in CAR women. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among 174 cases of breast Ca confirmed at the Pathology Unit of the National Laboratory in Bangui between 2003 and 2015 and 348 age-matched controls...
March 6, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255469/differential-diagnosis-of-parotid-lipoma-in-a-breast-ca-patient
#10
Melda Misirlioglu, Yagmur Yilmaz Akyil, Mehmet Zahit Adisen, Alime Okkesim
Lipomas are common benign tumors usually detected on the torso, neck, upper thighs, and upper arms. However, they are rarely found in the parotid gland region. Because of their rarity at this site, they are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of parotid tumors. This report describes a rare case of a lipoma in the superficial lobe of parotid gland. A 71-year-old female patient admitted to our department complaining about swelling and pain in the posterior area of the left mandibular region since one month...
2017: Case Reports in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244604/the-influence-of-cyp3a5-3-and-bcrpc421a-genetic-polymorphisms-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-felodipine-in-healthy-chinese-volunteers
#11
Q Xiang, C Li, X Zhao, Y M Cui
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The role of CYP3A5 in drug metabolism has been receiving attention because CYP3A5 may be more involved in the metabolism of CYP3A substrates in vivo than previously thought. The polymorphism of transporters, such as P-gp (P-glycoprotein) and breast cancer-related protein (BCRP), influences the metabolism of these substrates, and felodipine is a substrate of P-gp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacogenetic variability in the disposition of felodipine in healthy Chinese subjects...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237430/evaluation-of-impact-of-an-external-breast-shield-flexishield-in-electronic-brachytherapy-for-breast-iort-a-phantom-study
#12
Yongbok Kim, Jason Wei-Yeong Huynh, Victor J Gonzalez
PURPOSE: To investigate Axxent (iCAD, Inc., San Jose, CA) electronic brachytherapy balloon deformation and its dosimetric impact because of an external flexible shield (FlexiShield [FS]; iCAD, Inc.). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Prostheses breast tissue phantom overlaid three spherical balloon applicators to simulate three clinical scenarios depending on minimum skin-to-balloon surface spacing (SS): balloon with SS of 2 cm, 1 cm, and balloon with 1 cm SS and touching the chest wall...
February 23, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228260/chemotherapy-induced-ca-2-release-stimulates-breast-cancer-stem-cell-enrichment
#13
Haiquan Lu, Ivan Chen, Larissa A Shimoda, Youngrok Park, Chuanzhao Zhang, Linh Tran, Huimin Zhang, Gregg L Semenza
Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) play a critical role in tumor recurrence and metastasis. Exposure of breast cancer cells to chemotherapy leads to an enrichment of BCSCs. Here, we find that chemotherapy induces the expression of glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1), which is dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and HIF-2. Knockdown of GSTO1 expression abrogates carboplatin-induced BCSC enrichment, decreases tumor initiation and metastatic capacity, and delays tumor recurrence after chemotherapy...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210929/effect-of-boswellia-serrata-resin-supplementation-on-basic-chemical-and-mineral-element-composition-in-the-muscles-and-liver-of-broiler-chickens
#14
A R M Al-Yasiry, B Kiczorowska, W Samolińska
Supplementation of broiler chicken diets with resin rich in bioactive components, such as different boswellic acids, could improve productivity, chemical composition, and nutritive value of produced meat. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different levels of Boswellia serrata (BSR) supplementation in broiler chicken diet on the basic chemical composition and the Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu contents in the breast and drumstick muscles and liver. The analyses involved 200 Ross 308 chickens. The broiler chickens were fed with diets containing 0 (BSR0), 1...
February 16, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203552/a-novel-panel-of-serum-mir-21-mir-155-mir-365-as-a-potential-diagnostic-biomarker-for-breast-cancer
#15
Ji-Guang Han, Yong-Dong Jiang, Chun-Hui Zhang, Yan-Mei Yang, Da Pang, Yan-Ni Song, Guo-Qiang Zhang
PURPOSE: Insufficient sensitivity and specificity prevent the use of most existing biomarkers for early detection of breast cancer. Recently, it was reported that serum microRNAs (miRNAs) may be potential biomarkers in many cancer diseases. In this study, we investigated whether serum levels of 5 miRNAs including miR-21, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-155, and miR-365 could discriminate breast cancer patients and healthy controls. METHODS: Serum levels of miRNAs were measured by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 99 breast cancer patients and 21 healthy controls...
February 2017: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192161/enzymatic-cleavage-of-myoferlin-releases-a-dual-c2-domain-module-linked-to-erk-signalling
#16
Ann-Katrin Piper, Samuel E Ross, Gregory M Redpath, Frances A Lemckert, Natalie Woolger, Adam Bournazos, Peter A Greer, Roger B Sutton, Sandra T Cooper
Myoferlin and dysferlin are closely related members of the ferlin family of Ca(2+)-regulated vesicle fusion proteins. Dysferlin is proposed to play a role in Ca(2+)-triggered vesicle fusion during membrane repair. Myoferlin regulates endocytosis, recycling of growth factor receptors and adhesion proteins, and is linked to the metastatic potential of cancer cells. Our previous studies establish that dysferlin is cleaved by calpains during membrane injury, with the cleavage motif encoded by alternately-spliced exon 40a...
February 10, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179964/prognostic-impact-of-the-tumor-marker-ca-15-3-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-and-bone-metastases-treated-with-palliative-radiotherapy
#17
Carsten Nieder, Astrid Dalhaug, Ellinor Haukland, Bard Mannsaker, Adam Pawinski
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the prognostic impact of different abnormal blood tests and the tumor marker CA 15-3 as well as established parameters such as disease extent and receptor status in patients with bone metastases from breast cancer who received palliative radiotherapy in addition to contemporary systemic treatment. METHODS: This was a retrospective uni- and multivariate analysis of 118 female patients treated in the time period from 2007 to 2014 (median follow-up 28 months)...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179115/chemical-composition-of-the-essential-oils-and-extracts-of-achillea-species-and-their-biological-activities-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Majid Mohammadhosseini, Satyajit D Sarker, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Asteraceae (alt. Compositae) family incorporates a large number of flowering plants, which have been classified under ca. 1600 genera covering more than 23,000 species. The genus Achillea is one of the best-known genera of this family. The Achillea species are important for their uses in the chemical and pharmaceutical purposes, and traditional and folk medicines. From ethnobotanical point of view, they heve been recommended as effective tonic, sedative, diuretic and carminative remedies and extensively prescribed for the treatment of stomachache, inflammation, gastrointestinal, hemorrhoid, hay fever, and wound healing in indigenous medicines...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177558/tmem16a-ano1-suppression-improves-response-to-antibody-mediated-targeted-therapy-of-egfr-and-her2-erbb2
#19
Sucheta Kulkarni, Anke Bill, Neal R Godse, Nayel I Khan, Jason I Kass, Kevin Steehler, Carolyn Kemp, Kara Davis, Carol A Bertrand, Avani R Vyas, Douglas E Holt, Jennifer R Grandis, L Alex Gaither, Umamaheswar Duvvuri
TMEM16A, a Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channel, contributes to tumor growth in breast cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Here, we investigated whether TMEM16A influences the response to EGFR/HER family-targeting biological therapies. Inhibition of TMEM16A Cl(-) channel activity in breast cancer cells with HER2 amplification induced a loss of viability. Cells resistant to trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting HER2, showed an increase in TMEM16A expression and heightened sensitivity to Cl(-) channel inhibition...
February 8, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170086/cancer-screening-in-the-united-states-2017-a-review-of-current-american-cancer-society-guidelines-and-current-issues-in-cancer-screening
#20
Robert A Smith, Kimberly S Andrews, Durado Brooks, Stacey A Fedewa, Deana Manassaram-Baptiste, Debbie Saslow, Otis W Brawley, Richard C Wender
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Each year, the American Cancer Society publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, the authors summarize current American Cancer Society cancer screening guidelines, describe an update of their guideline for using human papillomavirus vaccination for cancer prevention, describe updates in US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for breast and colorectal cancer screening, discuss interim findings from the UK Collaborative Trial on Ovarian Cancer Screening, and provide the latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey...
February 7, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
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