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surgery in Low Resource settings

Fauzia A Khan, Alan F Merry
The safety of anesthesia characteristic of high-income countries today is not matched in low-resource settings with poor infrastructure, shortages of anesthesia providers, essential drugs, equipment, and supplies. Health care is delivered through complex systems. Achieving sustainable widespread improvement globally will require an understanding of how to influence such systems. Health outcomes depend not only on a country's income, but also on how resources are allocated, and both vary substantially, between and within countries...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
C Roger Goucke, Pongparadee Chaudakshetrin
Approximately 80% of the world's population lives in countries with little or no access to pain management. These countries also have 74% of the world's deaths from cancer and human immunodeficiency virus. Appropriate use of oral opioids can control 80%-90% of cancer pain. However, only 6.7% of the world's medical opioids are available in these low-resource countries. With the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery calling for a significant expansion of surgical services, postoperative pain management will need to be an increasing focus of our attention...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Hermann Blessberger, Juergen Kammler, Hans Domanovits, Oliver Schlager, Brigitte Wildner, Danyel Azar, Martin Schillinger, Franz Wiesbauer, Clemens Steinwender
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials have yielded conflicting results regarding the ability of beta-blockers to influence perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus routine prescription of these drugs in unselected patients remains a controversial issue. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to systematically analyse the effects of perioperatively administered beta-blockers for prevention of surgery-related mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing any type of surgery while under general anaesthesia...
March 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Alejandro Ruiz-Patiño, Samuel Rey, German Molina, Luis Carlos Dominguez, Saul Rugeles
BACKGROUND: Colombia is a developing nation in need for efficient resource administration in fields such as health care, where innovation is constant. Since the introduction of laparoscopic appendectomy (LA), direct costs have been increasing without definitive results in terms of clinical outcomes. The objective of this study is to determine the cost-effectiveness of open appendectomy (OA) versus LA and thereby help surgeons in clinical decision-making in a limited resource setting. METHODS: A retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis comparing OA versus multiport LA during 2013 in a third-level university hospital (Hospital Universitario San Ignacio) in Bogota, Colombia was performed...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Ester Orlandi, Salvatore Alfieri, Christian Simon, Annalisa Trama, Lisa Licitra
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a rare disease that can affect different sites and is characterized by variable incidence and 5-year survival rates across Europe. Multiple factors need to be considered when choosing the most appropriate treatment for HNC patients, such as age, comorbidities, social issues, and especially whether to prefer surgery or radiation-based protocols. Given the complexity of this scenario, the creation of a highly specialized multidisciplinary team is recommended to guarantee the best oncological outcome and prevent or adequately treat any adverse effect...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Emily L Clarke, Jennifer R Evans, Liam Smeeth
BACKGROUND: Visual problems in older people are common and frequently under-reported. The effects of poor vision in older people are wide reaching and include falls, confusion and reduced quality of life. Much of the visual impairment in older ages can be treated (e.g. cataract surgery, correction of refractive error). Vision screening may therefore reduce the number of older people living with sight loss. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects on vision of community vision screening of older people for visual impairment...
February 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Pavan S Upadhyayula, John K Yue, Jason Yang, Harjus S Birk, Joseph D Ciacci
Introduction: Rural and low-resource areas have diminished capacity to care for neurosurgical patients due to lack of infrastructure, healthcare investment, and training programs. This review summarizes the range of rural neurosurgical procedures, novel mechanisms for delivering care, rapid training programs, and outcome differences across international rural neurosurgical practice. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed for English language manuscripts with keywords "rural" and "neurosurgery" using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (01/1971-06/2017)...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Sarah B Cairo, Justice Agyei, Kavira Nyavandu, David H Rothstein, Luc Malemo Kalisya
PURPOSE: Evaluate the management of hydrocephalus in pediatric patients in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo by a general surgeon. METHODS: Retrospective review of a single institution in the province of North Kivu. Patient charts and surgical notes were reviewed from 2003 to 2016. RESULTS: 116 procedures were performed for an average of 8.9 per year. 51.7% of surgeries were on female patients with an average age of 13.6 ± 22.7...
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Sarit Kumar Rout, Sarmistha Choudhury
This study is undertaken to estimate the out of pocket expenditure (OOPE) for various diseases and its determinants at secondary level public health facilities in Odisha. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the inpatients utilising secondary level public health facilities in the 2 districts of Odisha. More than 80% of the inpatients were selected conveniently, and data on OOPE and socioeconomic status of patients were collected. The OOPE was estimated separately on surgery, nonsurgery, and child birth conditions...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Vandana Tripathi, Sohier Elneil, Lauri Romanzi
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: There is a need for expanded access to safe surgical care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as illustrated by the report of the 2015 Lancet Commission on Global Surgery. Packages of closely-related surgical procedures may create platforms of capacity that maximize impact in LMIC. Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and genital fistula care provide an example. Although POP affects many more women in LMICs than fistula, donor support for fistula treatment in LMICs has been underway for decades, whereas treatment for POP is usually limited to hysterectomy-based surgical treatment, occurring with little to no donor support...
February 6, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Isobel H Marks, Zhi Ven Fong, Sahael M Stapleton, Ya-Ching Hung, Yanik J Bababekov, David C Chang
INTRODUCTION: Perioperative mortality rate (POMR) is a suggested indicator for surgical quality worldwide. Currently, POMR is often sampled by convenience; a data-driven approach for calculating sample size has not previously been attempted. We proposed a novel application of a bootstrapping sampling technique to estimate how much data are needed to be collected to reasonably estimate POMR in low-resource countries where 100% data capture is not possible. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six common procedures in low- and middle-income countries were analysed by using population database in New York and California...
February 6, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Katherine Albutt, Maria Punchak, Peter Kayima, Didacus B Namanya, Geoffrey A Anderson, Mark G Shrime
BACKGROUND: Access to safe surgery is critical to health, welfare, and economic development. In 2015, the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery recommended that all countries collect surgical indicators to lend insight into improving surgical care. No nationwide high-quality data exist for these metrics in Uganda. METHODS: A standardized quantitative hospital assessment and a semi-structured interview were administered to key stakeholders at 17 randomly selected public hospitals...
January 24, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Franco Servadei, Zefferino Rossini, Federico Nicolosi, Carlotta Morselli, Kee B Park
The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery has recently focused its attention on the lack of surgical care worldwide. Like other surgical subspecialties, neurosurgical care needs to be better distributed around the world, with a major focus on low- to middle-income countries. Neurosurgical diseases like hydrocephalus, traumatic brain injury, and brain tumors have a high impact on families, individual quality of life, and cost for the society. Implementation of neurosurgical care in poor settings is not easy. More than other surgeries, neurosurgery requires great amounts of human resources, dedicated environments, and specialized postoperative care...
January 31, 2018: World Neurosurgery
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, more than 20 million patients undergo groin hernia repair annually. The many different approaches, treatment indications and a significant array of techniques for groin hernia repair warrant guidelines to standardize care, minimize complications, and improve results. The main goal of these guidelines is to improve patient outcomes, specifically to decrease recurrence rates and reduce chronic pain, the most frequent problems following groin hernia repair. They have been endorsed by all five continental hernia societies, the International Endo Hernia Society and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery...
February 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Emre Acaroğlu, Margareta Nordin, Kristi Randhawa, Roger Chou, Pierre Côté, Tiro Mmopelwa, Scott Haldeman
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to synthesize recommendations on the use of common elective surgical and interventional procedures for individuals with persistent and disabling non-radicular/axial with or without myelopathy, radicular back pain, cervical myelopathy, symptomatic spinal stenosis, and fractures due to osteoporosis. This review was to inform a clinical care pathway on the patient presentations where surgical interventions could reasonably be considered. METHODS: We synthesized recommendations from six evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and one appropriate use criteria guidance for the surgical and interventional management of persistent and disabling spine pain...
January 10, 2018: European Spine Journal
Luc Malemo Kalisya, Jacques Fadhili Bake, Richard Bigabwa, David H Rothstein, Sarah B Cairo
INTRODUCTION: Surgery is an essential component of a functional health system, with surgical conditions accounting for nearly 11-15% of world disability. While communicable diseases continue to burden low- and low-middle-income countries, non-communicable diseases, such as cancer, are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preliminary data on malignancies in low- and middle-income countries, specifically in Africa, suggest a higher mortality compared to other regions of the world, a difference partially explained by limited availability of screening and early detection systems as well as poorer access to treatment...
December 31, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
Andrew J Ottaway, Leonard Kabongo
BACKGROUND: Access to safe surgery and anesthesia care is grossly inadequate in low- and middle-income countries, with a shortage of anesthesia providers contributing to this crisis. In Namibia, medical officers typically receive no >3 months of informal training in anesthesia. This study sought to determine the prevalence, currently unknown, of intraoperative adverse anesthetic events in this setting. Further, we assessed surgical volume, complications, and mortality outcomes at the district hospital level...
December 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Jan Baekelandt
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a new approach for performing an ovarian cystectomy via transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) as an alternative for a laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. DESIGN: Stepwise explanation of the technique using original video footage. SETTING: Hospital. PATIENT(S): Fourteen patients who provided informed consent and were treated transvaginally to remove a benign ovarian cyst...
February 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Jared L Antevil, Philip S Mullenix, Junewai L Reoma, Paul S Massimiano, Frederick C Lough, Eric A Elster
Although there is a clear volume-outcome relationship in the field of cardiac surgery, the existence of high-performing programs with relatively low case volumes is well established. This report describes the programmatic and institutional processes in place at a lower volume cardiac surgery center in a US military hospital, which have been executed to optimally leverage available resources in the delivery of exemplary patient care. By implementing a highly collaborative practice, rigorous outcomes review, evidence-based standardized care pathways, consistent attending surgeon oversight for care delivery, careful case selection, and a mechanism for support from highly experienced outside cardiac surgeons, the cardiac surgery program at the authors' institution delivers care on par with its higher volume counterparts...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
Mark G Shrime, Mirjam Hamer, Swagoto Mukhopadhyay, Lauren M Kunz, Nathan H Claus, Kirsten Randall, Joannita H Jean-Baptiste, Pierre H Maevatombo, Melissa P S Toh, Jasmin R Biddell, Ria Bos, Michelle White
Background: 81 million people face impoverishment from surgical costs every year. The majority of this impoverishment is attributable to the non-medical costs of care-for transportation, for food and for lodging. Of these, transportation is the largest, but because it is not viewed as an actual medical cost, it is frequently unaddressed. This paper examines the effect on surgical utilisation of paying for transportation. Methods: A hierarchical logistic regression was performed on 2692 patients presenting for surgical care to a non-governmental organisation operating in the Republic of the Congo, Guinea and Madagascar...
2017: BMJ Global Health
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