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Retinoic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334210/combined-effect-of-retinoic-acid-and-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-on-maturation-of-mouse-oocyte-and-subsequent-fertilization-and-development
#1
Morteza Abouzaripour, Fardin Fathi, Erfan Daneshi, Keywan Mortezaee, Mohammad Jafar Rezaie, Mahdad Abdi
Background: In this experimental study, germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes obtained from two-months-old NMRI mice were randomly divided into control, sham and three experimental groups. The basic culture medium was α-MEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 50 mg/l streptomycin, 60 mg/l penicillin and 10 ng/ ml epidermal growth factors. Each of the experimental groups received one of the following treatments: RA (2 μM), bFGF (20 ng/ml) or combination of RA and bFGF with the indicated concentrations...
April 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330921/four-and-a-half-domain-2-fhl2-scaffolding-protein-is-a-marker-of-connective-tissues-of-developing-digits-and-regulates-fibrogenic-differentiation-of-limb-mesodermal-progenitors
#2
C I Lorda-Diez, J A Montero, C Sanchez-Fernandez, J A Garcia-Porrero, J Chimal-Monroy, J M Hurle
FHL2 is a multifunctional scaffolding protein of well-known function regulating cell signaling cascades and gene transcription in cancer tissues. However, its function in embryonic systems is poorly characterized. Here, we show that Fhl2 is involved in the differentiation of connective tissues of developing limb autopod. We show that Fhl2 exhibits spatially restricted and temporally dynamic expression around the tendons of developing digits, interphalangeal joint capsules, and fibrous peridigital tissue. Immunolabeling analysis of the skeletal progenitors identified a predominant, but not exclusive, cytoplasmic distribution of FHL2 being associated with focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330906/generating-retinoic-acid-gradients-by-local-degradation-during-craniofacial-development-one-cell-s-cue-is-another-cell-s-poison
#3
REVIEW
Aditi Dubey, Rebecca E Rose, Drew R Jones, Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet
Retinoic acid (RA) is a vital morphogen for early patterning and organogenesis in the developing embryo. RA is a diffusible, lipophilic molecule that signals via nuclear RA receptor heterodimeric units that regulate gene expression by interacting with RA response elements in promoters of a significant number of genes. For precise RA signaling, a robust gradient of the morphogen is required. The developing embryo contains regions that produce RA, and specific intracellular concentrations of RA are created through local degradation mediated by Cyp26 enzymes...
January 13, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330505/over-expression-of-a-retinol-dehydrogenase-srp35-dhrs7c-in-skeletal-muscle-activates-mtorc2-enhances-glucose-metabolism-and-muscle-performance
#4
Alexis Ruiz, Erez Dror, Christoph Handschin, Regula Furrer, Joaquin Perez-Schindler, Christoph Bachmann, Susan Treves, Francesco Zorzato
SRP-35 is a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase belonging to the DHRS7C dehydrogenase/ reductase family 7. Here we show that its over-expression in mouse skeletal muscles induces enhanced muscle performance in vivo, which is not related to alterations in excitation-contraction coupling but rather linked to enhanced glucose metabolism. Over-expression of SRP-35 causes increased phosphorylation of AktS473, triggering plasmalemmal targeting of GLUT4 and higher glucose uptake into muscles. SRP-35 signaling involves RARα and RARγ (non-genomic effect), PI3K and mTORC2...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327456/discovery-and-characterization-of-cd12681-a-potent-ror%C3%AE-inverse-agonist-preclinical-candidate-for-the-topical-treatment-of-psoriasis
#5
Gilles Ouvry, Nicolas Atrux-Tallau, Franck Bihl, Aline Bondu, Claire Bouix-Peter, Isabelle Carlavan, Olivier Christin, Marie-Josée Cuadrado, Claire Defoin-Platel, Sophie Deret, Denis Duvert, Christophe Feret, Mathieu Forissier, Jean-François Fournier, David Froude, Fériel Hacini-Rachinel, Craig Steven Harris, Catherine Hervouet, Hélène Huguet, Guillaume Lafitte, Anne-Pascale Luzy, Branislav Musicki, Danielle Orfila, Benjamin Ozello, Coralie Pascau, Jonathan Pascau, Véronique Parnet, Guillaume Peluchon, Romain Pierre, David Piwnica, Catherine Raffin, Patricia Rossio, Delphine Spiesse, Nathalie Taquet, Etienne Thoreau, Rodolphe Vatinel, Emmanuel Vial, Laurent François Hennequin
With possible implications in multiple autoimmune diseases, the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor RORγ has become a very sought-after target in the pharmaceutical industry. Herein are described the efforts to identify a potent RORγ inverse agonist compatible with topical application for the treatment of skin diseases. These efforts culminated with the discovery of CD12681 (compound 14; N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N-isobutyl-2-oxo-1-((tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)methyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-sulfonamide), a potent inverse agonist with in vivo activity in an IL-23 induced skin inflammation model in mouse...
January 12, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327110/the-role-of-interleukin-2-all-trans-retinoic-acid-and-natural-killer-cells-surveillance-mechanisms-in-anti-gd2-antibody-therapy-in-neuroblastoma
#6
Rosa Nguyen, Jim Houston, Wing K Chan, David Finkelstein, Michael A Dyer
Although anti-disialoganglioside (GD2) antibodies are successfully used for neuroblastoma therapy, a third of patients with neuroblastoma experience treatment failure or serious toxicity. Various strategies have been employed in the clinic to improve antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), such as the addition of interleukin (IL)-2 to enhance natural killer (NK) cell function, adoptive transfer of allogeneic NK cells to exploit immune surveillance, and retinoid-induced differentiation therapy...
January 11, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326073/retinoic-acid-promotes-stem-cell-differentiation-and-embryonic-development-by-transcriptionally-activating-cftr
#7
Xiaofeng Li, Kin Lam Fok, Jinghui Guo, Yan Wang, Zhenqing Liu, Ziyi Chen, Chengdong Wang, Ye Chun Ruan, Sidney Siubun Yu, Hui Zhao, Ji Wu, Xiaohua Jiang, Hsiao Chang Chan
Retinoic acid (RA) plays a pivotal role in many cellular processes; however, the signaling mechanisms mediating the effect of RA are not fully understood. Here, we show that RA transcriptionally upregulates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) by promoting the direct binding of its receptor RARα to Cftr promoter in mouse spermatogonia and embryonic stem (ES) cells. The RA/CFTR pathway is involved in the differentiation of spermatogonia and organogenesis during the embryo development of Xenopus laevis...
January 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324782/mafb-is-dispensable-for-the-fetal-testis-morphogenesis-and-the-maintenance-of-spermatogenesis-in-adult-mice
#8
Hossam H Shawki, Hisashi Oishi, Toshiaki Usui, Yu Kitadate, Walaa A Basha, Ahmed M Abdellatif, Kazunori Hasegawa, Risa Okada, Keiji Mochida, Hany A El-Shemy, Masafumi Muratani, Atsuo Ogura, Shosei Yoshida, Satoru Takahashi
The transcription factor MAFB is an important regulator of the development and differentiation of various organs and tissues. Previous studies have shown that MAFB is expressed in embryonic and adult mouse testes and is expected to act as the downstream target of retinoic acid (RA) to initiate spermatogenesis. However, its exact localization and function remain unclear. Here, we localized MAFB expression in embryonic and adult testes and analyzed its gene function using Mafb-deficient mice. We found that MAFB and c-MAF are the only large MAF transcription factors expressed in testes, while MAFA and NRL are not...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323028/surgical-reconstruction-of-spinal-cord-circuit-provides-functional-return-in-humans
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Carlstedt, Nicholas James, Mårten Risling
This mini review describes the current surgical strategy for restoring function after traumatic spinal nerve root avulsion in brachial or lumbosacral plexus injury in man. As this lesion is a spinal cord or central nervous injury functional return depends on spinal cord nerve cell growth within the central nervous system. Basic science, clinical research and human application has demonstrated good and useful motor function after ventral root avulsion followed by spinal cord reimplantation. Recently, sensory return could be demonstrated following spinal cord surgery bypassing the injured primary sensory neuron...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321952/fasciculation-and-elongation-zeta-1-protein-fez1-interacts-with-the-retinoic-acid-receptor-and-participates-in-transcriptional-regulation-of-the-hoxb4-gene
#10
Mariana Bertini Teixeira, Ana Carolina M Figueira, Ariane S Furlan, Bruno Aquino, Marcos R Alborghetti, Adriana F Paes Leme, Li-Na Wei, Jörg Kobarg
Fasciculation and elongation zeta-1 (FEZ1) protein is involved in axon outgrowth and is highly expressed in the brain. It has multiple interaction partners, with functions varying from the regulation of neuronal development and intracellular transport mechanisms to transcription regulation. One of its interactors is retinoic acid receptor (RAR), which is activated by retinoic acid and controls many target genes and physiological process. Based on previous evidence suggesting a possible nuclear role for FEZ1, we wanted to deepen our understanding of this function by addressing the FEZ1-RAR interaction...
January 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321841/reversed-gender-ratio-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-smith-magenis-syndrome
#11
Heidi Elisabeth Nag, Ann Nordgren, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Terje Nærland
Background: A substantial amount of research shows a higher rate of autistic type of problems in males compared to females. The 4:1 male to female ratio is one of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Lately, the interest in studying ASD in genetic disorders has increased, and research has shown a higher prevalence of ASD in some genetic disorders than in the general population.Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a rare and complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321611/acetaldehyde-inhibits-retinoic-acid-biosynthesis-to-mediate-alcohol-teratogenicity
#12
Yehuda Shabtai, Liat Bendelac, Halim Jubran, Joseph Hirschberg, Abraham Fainsod
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy induces Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which has been proposed to arise from competitive inhibition of retinoic acid (RA) biosynthesis. We provide biochemical and developmental evidence identifying acetaldehyde as responsible for this inhibition. In the embryo, RA production by RALDH2 (ALDH1A2), the main retinaldehyde dehydrogenase expressed at that stage, is inhibited by ethanol exposure. Pharmacological inhibition of the embryonic alcohol dehydrogenase activity, prevents the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde that in turn functions as a RALDH2 inhibitor...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321172/modest-decreases-in-endogenous-all-trans-retinoic-acid-produced-by-a-mouse-rdh10-heterozygote-provoke-major-abnormalities-in-adipogenesis-and-lipid-metabolism
#13
Di Yang, Marta G Vuckovic, Carolyn P Smullin, Myeongcheol Kim, Christabel Pui-See Lo, Emily Devericks, Hong Sik Yoo, Milena Tintcheva, Yinghua Deng, Joseph L Napoli
Pharmacological dosing of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) controls adiposity in rodents by inhibiting adipogenesis and inducing fatty acid oxidation. Retinol dehydrogenases (Rdh) catalyze the first reaction that activate retinol into atRA. This study examined post-natal contributions of Rdh10 to atRA biosynthesis and physiological functions of endogenous atRA. Embryonic fibroblasts from Rdh10 heterozygote hypomorphs or with a total Rdh10 knockout exhibit decreased atRA biosynthesis and escalated adipogenesis...
January 10, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312596/ra-and-%C3%AF-3-pufa-co-treatment-activates-autophagy-in-cancer-cells
#14
Shenglong Zhu, Guangxiao Lin, Ci Song, Yikuan Wu, Ninghan Feng, Wei Chen, Zhao He, Yong Q Chen
Retinoic acid (RA), is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer. However, metabolic disorders and drug resistance reduce the efficacy of RA. In this study, we found that RA and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) synergistically induced cell death in vitro and in vivo and autophagy activation. Moreover, RA-induced hypercholesterolemia was completely corrected by ω-3 PUFA supplementation. In addition, we demonstrated that the effects of this combination on the autophagic flux were independent of the two major canonic regulatory complexes controlling autophagic vesicle formation...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311359/the-effects-of-dendritic-cell-hypersensitivity-on-persistent-viral-infection
#15
Jennifer S Tsau, Xin Huang, Chen-Yen Lai, Stephen M Hedrick
Caspase-8 (CASP8) is known as an executioner of apoptosis, but more recent studies have shown that it participates in the regulation of necroptosis and innate immunity. In this study, we show that CASP8 negatively regulates retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling such that, in its absence, stimulation of the RIG-I pathway in dendritic cells (DCs) produced modestly enhanced activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 with correspondingly greater amounts of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, mice lacking DC-specific CASP8 (dcCasp8-/- mice) develop age-dependent symptoms of autoimmune disease characterized by hyperactive DCs and T cells, spleen and liver immunopathology, and the appearance of Th1-polarized CD4+ T cells...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310426/il-1-receptor-antagonist-reduced-chemical-induced-keratinocyte-apoptosis-through-antagonism-to-il-1%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE
#16
Hyejin Lee, Kyung Ah Cheong, Ji-Young Kim, Nan-Hyung Kim, Minsoo Noh, Ai-Young Lee
Extracellular interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α) released from keratinocytes is one of the endpoints for in vitro assessments of skin irritancy. Although cells dying via primary skin irritation undergo apoptosis as well as necrosis, IL-1α is not released in apoptotic cells. On the other hand, active secretion has been identified in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), which was discovered to be a common, upregulated, differentially-expressed gene in a microarray analysis performed with keratinocytes treated using cytotoxic doses of chemicals...
January 9, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305858/identification-of-a-candidate-enhancer-for-dmrt3-involved-in-spastic-cerebral-palsy-pathogenesis
#17
Naoto Kubota, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Nobuhiko Hoshi, Mikita Suyama
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a major neuronal disease and the most common movement disorder in children. Although environmental factors leading to CP have been greatly investigated, the genetic mechanism underlying CP is not well understood. Here we focused on two clinical reports that characterized a deletion involving the KANK1 gene locus in the 9p24.3 region. One report shows spastic CP and the other shows no spastic CP phenotype. Based on the epigenetic status and evolutionary conservation, we first found a functional genomic element at the noncoding region that was deleted only in patients with spastic CP...
January 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305588/short-term-retinoic-acid-treatment-sustains-pluripotency-and-suppresses-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Maria Teresa De Angelis, Elvira Immacolata Parrotta, Gianluca Santamaria, Giovanni Cuda
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from blastocyst and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) generated from somatic cells by ectopic expression of defined transcriptional factors, have both the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into all cell types. Here we explored the two antagonistic effects of retinoic acid (RA) on hiPSCs. Although RA has been widely described as a pharmacological agent with a critical role in initiating differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, we demonstrate that short-term RA exposure not only antagonizes cell differentiation and sustains pluripotency of hiPSCs, but it also boosts and improves their properties and characteristics...
January 5, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305158/tbr2-antagonizes-retinoic-acid-dependent-neuronal-differentiation-by-repressing-zfp423-during-corticogenesis
#19
Luca Massimino, Lisbeth Flores-Garcia, Bruno Di Stefano, Gaia Colasante, Cecilia Icoresi-Mazzeo, Mattia Zaghi, Bruce A Hamilton, Alessandro Sessa
During cerebral cortex development, neural progenitors are required to elaborate a variety of cell differentiation signals to which they are continuously exposed. RA acid is a potent inducer of neuronal differentiation as it was found to influence cortical development. We report herein that TBR2, a transcription factor specific to Intermediate (Basal) Neural Progenitors (INPs), represses activation of the RA responsive element and expression of RA target genes in cell lines. This repressive action on RA signaling was functionally confirmed by the decrease of RA-mediated neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells stably overexpressing TBR2...
January 2, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304315/osteocytogenesis-roles-of-physicochemical-factors-collagen-cleavage-and-exogenous-molecules
#20
Xuening Chen, Lichen Wang, Kaitao Zhao, Hongjun Wang
Osteocytes, the most abundant cell type in mammalian bone, are generally considered as the terminally differentiated cells of osteoblasts that are progressively self-buried or passively embedded in bone matrix. Emerging evidence reveals the essential functions of osteocytes in bone homeostasis and mechanotransduction. However, our knowledge on osteocytes, especially their formation, remains scarce. In this regard, the current review mainly focuses on several key factors that drive the osteocytic differentiation of osteoblasts, that is, osteocytogenesis...
January 5, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
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