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Retinoic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230720/role-of-vitamin-a-retinoic-acid-in-regulation-of-embryonic-and-adult-hematopoiesis
#1
REVIEW
Ana Cañete, Elena Cano, Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli, Rita Carmona
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. Its physiologically active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), acting through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), is a potent regulator of patterning during embryonic development, as well as being necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy increases risk of maternal night blindness and anemia and may be a cause of congenital malformations. Childhood Vitamin A deficiency can cause xerophthalmia, lower resistance to infection and increased risk of mortality...
February 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230233/establishment-and-growth-responses-of-nile-tilapia-embryonic-stem-like-cell-lines-under-feeder-free-condition
#2
Zhenhua Fan, Linyan Liu, Xiaohuan Huang, Yang Zhao, Linyan Zhou, Deshou Wang, Jing Wei
Embryonic stem (ES) cells provide an invaluable tool for molecular analysis of vertebrate development and a bridge linking genomic manipulations in vitro and functional analysis of target genes in vivo. Work towards fish ES cells so far has focused on zebrafish (Danio renio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Here we describe the derivation, pluripotency, differentiation and growth responses of ES cell lines from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a world-wide commercial farmed fish. These cell lines, designated as TES1-3, were initiated from blastomeres of Nile tilapia middle blastula embryos (MBE)...
February 23, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229025/effect-of-interleukin-il-35-on-il-17-expression-and-production-by-human-cd4-%C3%A2-t-cells
#3
Kosuke Okada, Takeki Fujimura, Takeshi Kikuchi, Makoto Aino, Yosuke Kamiya, Ario Izawa, Yuki Iwamura, Hisashi Goto, Iichiro Okabe, Eriko Miyake, Yoshiaki Hasegawa, Makio Mogi, Akio Mitani
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-17 produced by mainly T helper 17 (Th17) cells may play an important destructive role in chronic periodontitis (CP). Thus, anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-35, might have a beneficial effect in periodontitis by inhibiting differentiation of Th17 cells. Th17 differentiation is regulated by the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) α (encoded by RORA) and RORγt (encoded by RORC). However, the role of IL-35 in periodontitis is not clear and the effect of IL-35 on the function of Th17 cells is still incompletely understood...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228611/anti-diabetic-action-of-all-trans-retinoic-acid-and-the-orphan-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gprc5c-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#4
Stefan Amisten, Israa Mohammad Al-Amily, Arvind Soni, Ross Hawkes, Patricio Atanes, Shanta Jean Persaud, Patrik Rorsman, Albert Salehi
Pancreatic islets express high levels of the orphan G-protein coupled receptor C5C (GPRC5C), the function of which remains to be established. Here we have examined the role of GPRC5C in the regulation of insulin secretion and β-cell survival and proliferation using human and mouse pancreatic islets. The expression of GPRC5C was analysed by RNA-sequencing, qPCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy. Insulin secretion and cell viability were determined by RIA and MTS assays, respectively. GPRC5C mRNA expression and protein level were reduced in the islets from type-2 diabetic donors...
February 22, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228555/microrna-15b-suppresses-th17-differentiation-and-is-associated-with-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis-by-targeting-o-glcnac-transferase
#5
Ruiqiong Liu, Xiaofeng Ma, Li Chen, Yang Yang, Yi Zeng, Jie Gao, Wei Jiang, Fang Zhang, Daojing Li, Bin Han, Ranran Han, Rongfang Qiu, Wei Huang, Yan Wang, Junwei Hao
IL-17-producing Th17 cells have gradually become considered as key factors in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the involvement of certain microRNAs in the development of MS has been reported, their role in Th17-driven autoimmunity is still poorly understood. In this study, we identified microRNA (miR)-15b as an important factor in Th17-associated effects and determined that the expression of miR-15b is significantly downregulated in MS patients and in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223944/il-1%C3%AE-induced-downregulation-of-the-multifunctional-pdz-adaptor-pdzk1-is-attenuated-by-erk-inhibition-rxr%C3%AE-or-ppar%C3%AE-stimulation-in-enterocytes
#6
Min Luo, Sunil Yeruva, Yongjian Liu, Giriprakash Chodisetti, Brigitte Riederer, Manoj B Menon, Keisuke Tachibana, Takefumi Doi, Ursula E Seidler
Background: The PDZ adaptor protein PDZK1 modulates the membrane expression and function of a variety of intestinal receptors and ion/nutrient transporters. Its expression is strongly decreased in inflamed intestinal mucosa of mice and IBD patients. Aim and Methods: We investigated whether the inflammation-associated PDZK1 downregulation is a direct consequence of proinflammatory cytokine release by treating intestinal Caco-2BBE cells with TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β, and analysing PDZK1 promotor activity, mRNA and protein expression...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223149/long-term-behavioral-change-as-a-result-of-acute-ethanol-exposure-in-zebrafish-evidence-for-a-role-for-sonic-hedgehog-but-not-retinoic-acid-signaling
#7
Derek Burton, Chengjin Zhang, Oswald Boa-Amponsem, Shanta Mackinnon, Gregory J Cole
BACKGROUND: Developmental exposure to ethanol is recognized to produce long-term neurobehavioral impairment in multiple animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits remain poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether two well-characterized targets of prenatal alcohol exposure, sonic hedgehog (Shh) and retinoic acid (RA), that induce the hallmark morphological phenotypes of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), are involved in the generation of behavioral alterations as a result of alcohol exposure...
February 18, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220862/induction-of-hair-follicle-dermal-papilla-cell-properties-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-multipotent-lngfr-thy-1-mesenchymal-cells
#8
Ophelia Veraitch, Yo Mabuchi, Yumi Matsuzaki, Takashi Sasaki, Hironobu Okuno, Aki Tsukashima, Masayuki Amagai, Hideyuki Okano, Manabu Ohyama
The dermal papilla (DP) is a specialised mesenchymal component of the hair follicle (HF) that plays key roles in HF morphogenesis and regeneration. Current technical difficulties in preparing trichogenic human DP cells could be overcome by the use of highly proliferative and plastic human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this study, hiPSCs were differentiated into induced mesenchymal cells (iMCs) with a bone marrow stromal cell phenotype. A highly proliferative and plastic LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) subset of iMCs was subsequently programmed using retinoic acid and DP cell activating culture medium to acquire DP properties...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219352/retinoic-acid-promotes-expression-of-germline-specific-genes-in-chicken-blastoderm-cells-by-stimulating-smad1-5-phosphorylation-in-a-feeder-free-culture-system
#9
Xiaochuan Tang, Shiyong Xu, Hongpeng Zhang, Qing Chen, Rongyang Li, Wangjun Wu, Minli Yu, Honglin Liu
BACKGROUND: Producing transgenic chickens with chicken blastodermal cells (cBCs) is inefficient due to the extremely low germline transmission capacity of cBCs. As chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) have been reported as an efficient method for producing transgenic chickens, the inefficiency of cBCs could potentially be resolved by inducing them to differentiate into germ cells. However, whether chemical inducers are able to enhance cBCs germline competence in vitro is unknown and the molecular mechanisms of differentiation of chicken pluripotent cells into germ cells are poorly understood...
February 20, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219226/-effects-of-13-cis-retinoic-acid-combined-with-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-in-mantle-cell-lymphoma-cell-lines-jeko-1-in-vitro
#10
Z B Liu, J J Wen, C G Xu
Objectives: To explore the effects of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) alone or combined with interferonα-2b (IFNα-2b) for the inhibition of cell growth and apoptosis induction of mantle cell lymphoma cell lines Jeko-1 cells. Methods: Jeko-1 cells were treated by different concentrations of 13cRA alone or combined with IFN-α2b. CCK-8 was used to measure the inhibition effects by different treatments. Cell cycles were analyzed by flow cytometry. Effects on apoptosis were assessed by staining of Annexin Ⅴ/PI...
January 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218902/retinoic-acid-directs-breast-cancer-cell-state-changes-through-regulation-of-tet2-pkc%C3%AE-pathway
#11
M-J Wu, M R Kim, Y-S Chen, J-Y Yang, C-J Chang
The key molecular mechanism governing the cancer cell state (stem cell-like state vs differentiation state) to control the cancer stem cell (CSC) pool remains elusive. This study provides the first evidence showing that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces the interaction and chromatin recruitment of a novel RARβ-TET2 complex to epigenetically activate a specific cohort of gene targets, including MiR-200c. TET2-activated miR-200c further targets and suppresses PKCζ, a cell polarity protein that has a pivotal role in directing asymmetric division of mammalian stem cells to sustain the stem cell pool...
February 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218773/risk-factors-for-birth-defects
#12
Benjamin S Harris, Katherine C Bishop, Hanna R Kemeny, Jennifer S Walker, Eleanor Rhee, Jeffrey A Kuller
Importance: Major congenital abnormalities, or birth defects, carry significant medical, surgical, cosmetic, or lifestyle consequences. Such abnormalities may be syndromic, involving multiple organ systems, or can be isolated. Overall, 2% to 4% of live births involve congenital abnormalities. Risk factors for birth defects are categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Modifiable risk factors require thorough patient education/counseling. The strongest risk factors, such as age, family history, and a previously affected child, are usually nonmodifiable...
February 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218743/vitamin-d-signaling-and-melanoma-role-of-vitamin-d-and-its-receptors-in-melanoma-progression-and-management
#13
REVIEW
Andrzej T Slominski, Anna A Brożyna, Michal A Zmijewski, Wojciech Jóźwicki, Anton M Jetten, Rebecca S Mason, Robert C Tuckey, Craig A Elmets
Ultraviolet B (UVB), in addition to having carcinogenic activity, is required for the production of vitamin D3 (D3) in the skin which supplies >90% of the body's requirement. Vitamin D is activated through hydroxylation by 25-hydroxylases (CYP2R1 or CYP27A1) and 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) to produce 1,25(OH)2D3, or through the action of CYP11A1 to produce mono-di- and trihydroxy-D3 products that can be further modified by CYP27B1, CYP27A1, and CYP24A1. The active forms of D3, in addition to regulating calcium metabolism, exert pleiotropic activities, which include anticarcinogenic and anti-melanoma effects in experimental models, with photoprotection against UVB-induced damage...
February 20, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216044/radiolabeling-and-initial-biological-evaluation-of-18-f-kbm-1-for-imaging-rar-%C3%AE-receptors-in-neuroblastoma
#14
Kiran Kumar Solingapuram Sai, Bhaskar C Das, Anirudh Sattiraju, Frankis G Almaguel, Suzanne Craft, Akiva Mintz
Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR-α) plays a significant role in a number of diseases, including neuroblastoma. Children diagnosed with high-risk neuroblastoma are treated13-cis-retinoic acid, which reduces risk of cancer recurrence. Neuroblastoma cell death is mediated via RAR-α, and expression of RAR-α is upregulated after treatment. A molecular imaging probe that binds RAR-α will help clinicians to diagnose and stratify risk for patients with neuroblastoma, who could benefit from retinoid-based therapy...
February 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215943/all-trans-retinoic-acid-enhances-gemcitabine-cytotoxicity-in-human-pancreatic-cancer-cell-line-aspc1-by-up-regulating-protein-expression-of-deoxycytidine-kinase
#15
Hiroki Kuroda, Masanori Tachikawa, Yasuo Uchida, Koetsu Inoue, Hideo Ohtsuka, Sumio Ohtsuki, Michiaki Unno, Tetsuya Terasaki
We previously showed that gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer chemotherapy correlates with suppressed expression of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of gemcitabine activation. The purpose of the present study was to find a drug that might be useful to enhance the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine by increasing dCK expression in gemcitabine-resistant human pancreatic cancer cell line AsPC1. Screening of 40 prescription drugs identified 35 with no intrinsic cytotoxicity towards AsPC1 cells...
February 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215529/new-insights-into-the-roles-of-retinoic-acid-signaling-in-nervous-system-development-and-the-establishment-of-neurotransmitter-systems
#16
E Zieger, M Schubert
Secreted chiefly from the underlying mesoderm, the morphogen retinoic acid (RA) is well known to contribute to the specification, patterning, and differentiation of neural progenitors in the developing vertebrate nervous system. Furthermore, RA influences the subtype identity and neurotransmitter phenotype of subsets of maturing neurons, although relatively little is known about how these functions are mediated. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the roles played by RA signaling during the formation of the central and peripheral nervous systems of vertebrates and highlights its effects on the differentiation of several neurotransmitter systems...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214868/stimulation-of-phospholipid-scrambling-of-the-erythrocyte-membrane-by-9-cis-retinoic-acid
#17
Majed Abed, Kousi Alzoubi, Florian Lang, Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuayn
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The endogenous retinoid 9-cis-retinoic acid has previously been shown to trigger apoptosis in a wide variety of cells including several tumor cells and has thus been suggested for the treatment of malignancy. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms participating in the accomplishment of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i) and formation of ceramide...
January 31, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213303/diethylstilbestrol-flutamide-and-their-combination-impaired-the-spermatogenesis-of-male-adult-zebrafish-through-disrupting-hpg-axis-meiosis-and-apoptosis
#18
Pan Yin, Ying-Wen Li, Qi-Liang Chen, Zhi-Hao Liu
Both diethylstilbestrol (DES, an environmental estrogen) and flutamide (FLU, an anti-androgen) are found to impair spermatogenesis by disrupting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and altering androgen levels through different mechanisms/modes of action in fish with poorly understood underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, it is not known whether and how a combined exposure of DES and FLU has a stronger effect than the compounds alone. In this study, male zebrafish adults were exposed to DES, FLU and their combination (DES+FLU) for 30days, and their effects on histological structure and sperm count in testis, androgen level in plasma, as well as the mRNA levels of genes involved in HPG axis, meiotic regulation and apoptosis were analyzed...
February 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211306/ex-vivo-all-trans-retinoic-acid-modulates-no-production-and-regulates-il-6-effect-during-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-study-in-algerian-patients
#19
Amina Arroul-Lammali, Fadia Rahal, Radia Chetouane, Zineb Djeraba, Oussama Medjeber, Aicha Ladjouze-Rezig, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease. The pathophysiology of RA implicates several mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is deeply involved in the main characteristics of RA. Furthermore, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is an active vitamin A derivative well-known to have diverse immunomodulatory actions. In our study, we investigated first, the ex vivo immunomodulatory potential of ATRA on NO pathway by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Algerian RA patients...
April 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209268/inorganic-mercury-prevents-the-differentiation-of-sh-sy5y-cells-amyloid-precursor-protein-microtubule-associated-proteins-and-ros-as-potential-targets
#20
Miguel Chin Chan, Elizabeth Bautista, Isabel Alvarado-Cruz, Betzabet Quintanilla-Vega, José Segovia
Exposure to mercury (Hg) occurs through different pathways and forms including methylmecury (MeHg) from seafood and rice, ethylmercury (EtHg), and elemental Hg (Hg(0)) from dental amalgams and artisanal gold mining. Once in the brain all these forms are transformed to inorganic Hg (I-Hg), where it bioaccumulates and remains for long periods. Hg is a well-known neurotoxicant, with its most damaging effects reported during brain development, when cellular key events, such as cell differentiation take place. A considerable number of studies report an impairment of neuronal differentiation due to MeHg exposure, however the effects of I-Hg, an important form of Hg found in brain, have received less attention...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
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