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DNA methylation miRNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548108/drugging-the-pain-epigenome
#1
REVIEW
Ellen Niederberger, Eduard Resch, Michael J Parnham, Gerd Geisslinger
More than 20% of adults worldwide experience different types of chronic pain, which are frequently associated with several comorbidities and a decrease in quality of life. Several approved painkillers are available, but current analgesics are often hampered by insufficient efficacy and/or severe adverse effects. Consequently, novel strategies for safe, highly efficacious treatments are highly desirable, particularly for chronic pain. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs) strongly affect the regulation of gene expression, potentially for long periods over years or even generations, and have been associated with pathophysiological pain...
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546713/current-concepts-of-epigenetics-in-testicular-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Alfredo Harb-De la Rosa, Meenakkshy Manoharan, Ahmed Saeed Goolam
Testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) are characterized into seminomas (SGCTs) and non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors (NSGCTs). Serum tumor markers (STMs) play an important role in testicular cancer as they provide useful information for diagnosis, staging, and detection of recurrence. Nonetheless, additional tumor markers for early diagnosis and therapeutic options are required to enhance specificity of serological diagnosis of testes cancers. Epigenetics is defined as inherited changes in gene expression that are not encoded in the DNA structure...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545228/aberrant-dna-methylation-as-a-biomarker-and-a-therapeutic-target-of-cholangiocarcinoma
#3
REVIEW
Toshiaki Nakaoka, Yoshimasa Saito, Hidetsugu Saito
Cholangiocarcinoma is an epithelial malignancy arising in the region between the intrahepatic bile ducts and the ampulla of Vater at the distal end of the common bile duct. The effect of current chemotherapy regimens against cholangiocarcinoma is limited, and the prognosis of patients with cholangiocarcinoma is poor. Aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification induce silencing of tumor suppressor genes and chromosomal instability during carcinogenesis. Studies have shown that the tumor suppressor genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) including MLH1, p14, p16, death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), miR-370 and miR-376c are frequently methylated in cholangiocarcinoma...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543390/the-effect-of-ebv-on-wif1-nlk-and-apc-gene-methylation-and-expression-in-gastric-carcinoma-and-nasopharyngeal-cancer
#4
Zhenzhen Zhao, Wen Liu, Jincheng Liu, Jiayi Wang, Bing Luo
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important DNA tumor virus that is associated with approximately 10% of gastric carcinomas and 99% of nasopharyngeal cancers. DNA methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most studied epigenetic mechanisms that can prompt disease susceptibility. This study aimed to detect the effect of EBV on Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1), Nemo-like kinase (NLK), and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene methylation and expression in gastric carcinoma and nasopharyngeal cancer. METHODS: The WIF1, NLK, and APC gene mRNA expression levels were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in four EBV-positive cell lines and four EBV-negative cell lines...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538662/maternal-factors-that-induce-epigenetic-changes-contribute-to-neurological-disorders-in-offspring
#5
REVIEW
Avijit Banik, Deepika Kandilya, Seshadri Ramya, Walter Stünkel, Yap Seng Chong, S Thameem Dheen
It is well established that the regulation of epigenetic factors, including chromatic reorganization, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and miRNA regulation, is critical for the normal development and functioning of the human brain. There are a number of maternal factors influencing epigenetic pathways such as lifestyle, including diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking, as well as age and infections (viral or bacterial). Genetic and metabolic alterations such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and thyroidism alter epigenetic mechanisms, thereby contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) such as embryonic neural tube defects (NTDs), autism, Down's syndrome, Rett syndrome, and later onset of neuropsychological deficits...
May 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537673/comprehensive-analysis-of-microrna-mrna-signature-in-colon-adenocarcinoma
#6
J-Y Wang, C-L Wang, X-M Wang, F-J Liu
OBJECTIVE: The goal of our study was to identify the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression mediated by miRNAs and DNA methylation in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS:   The miRNAs and mRNAs expression and DNA methylation data of COAD and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Based on the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs, miRNA-mRNA pairs were obtained by correlation analysis and prediction algorithms...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527797/mir-26b-promoter-analysis-reveals-regulatory-mechanisms-by-lipid-related-transcription-factors-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#7
Hui Wang, Jun Luo, Qiuya He, Dawei Yao, Jiao Wu, Juan J Loor
MicroRNA (miRNA) regulate protein abundance and control diverse aspects of cellular processes and biological functions associated with lipid metabolism. MiR-26b and its host gene CTDSP1 regulate triacylglycerol synthesis by synergistically suppressing the insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1); however, the direct regulators of miR-26b expression remain unknown. In the present study, we characterized the activity of a novel putative promoter region in miR-26b. Results revealed that promoter activity and miR-26b expression are dynamically regulated by different transcription factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), and liver X receptor α (LXRα)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521626/experimental-evolution-of-resistance-against-bacillus-thuringiensis-in-the-insect-model-host-galleria-mellonella-results-in-epigenetic-modifications
#8
Krishnendu Mukherjee, Ekaterina Grizanova, Ekaterina Chertkova, Ruediger Lehmann, Ivan Dubovskiy, Andreas Vilcinskas
Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to translate environmental stimuli into heritable transgenerational phenotypic variations that can significantly influence natural selection. An intriguing example is exposure to pathogens, which imposes selection for host resistance. To test this hypothesis, we used larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella as model host to experimentally select for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the most widely used bacterial agent for the biological control of pest insects...
May 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508328/mir-424-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-glioma-cells-and-is-down-regulated-by-dna-methylation
#9
Chen Jin, Minhong Li, Yian Ouyang, Zhigang Tan, Yugang Jiang
Glioma is one of the most lethal malignancies, and increasing reports revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, play a critical role in the development and pathology of human gliomas. MiR-424 has been found to be dysregulated in many different types of human cancers. However, the clinical significance and function of miR-424 in glioma remains unclear. Here, based on RTq-PCR analysis in 148 clinical specimens, we found miR-424 expression was significantly decreased in glioma tumor tissues than in adjacent non-neoplastic brain tissues, and decreased miR-424 expression was associated with glioma KPS (P = 0...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501774/tuning-of-major-signaling-networks-tgf-%C3%AE-wnt-notch-and-hedgehog-by-mirnas-in-human-stem-cells-commitment-to-different-lineages-possible-clinical-application
#10
REVIEW
Sedigheh Fekri Aval, Hajie Lotfi, Roghayeh Sheervalilou, Nosratollah Zarghami
Two distinguishing characteristics of stem cells, their continuous division in the undifferentiated state and growth into any cell types, are orchestrated by a number of cell signaling pathways. These pathways act as a niche factor in controlling variety of stem cells. The core stem cell signaling pathways include Wingless-type (Wnt), Hedgehog (HH), and Notch. Additionally, they critically regulate the self-renewal and survival of cancer stem cells. Conversely, stem cells' main properties, lineage commitment and stemness, are tightly controlled by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA-mediated regulatory events...
May 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500050/a-systemic-analysis-of-transcriptomic-and-epigenomic-data-to-reveal-regulation-patterns-for-complex-disease
#11
Chao Xu, Ji-Gang Zhang, Dongdong Lin, Lan Zhang, Hui Shen, Hong-Wen Deng
Integrating diverse genomics data can provide a global view of the complex biological processes related to the human complex diseases. Although substantial efforts have been made to integrate different omics data, there are at least three challenges for multi-omics integration methods: (i) How to simultaneously consider the effects of various genomic factors, since these factors jointly influence the phenotypes; (ii) How to effectively incorporate the information from publicly accessible databases and omics datasets to fully capture the interactions among (epi-)genomic factors from diverse omics data; and (iii) Until present, the combination of >2 omics datasets has been poorly explored...
May 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498478/demethylation-of-mir-495-inhibits-cell-proliferation-migration-and-promotes-apoptosis-by-targeting-stat-3-in-breast-cancer
#12
Yi Chen, Donglin Luo, Wuguo Tian, Zhirong Li, Xiaohua Zhang
In breast cancer (BC), silencing of miRNA genes due to miRNA gene promoter methylation are the important mechanisms directly contributing to tumorigenesis and tumor progression. miRNA-495 (miR-495) has been reported to be a tumor suppressor gene in various cancers, but its role and regulation in BC remains unclear. In the present study, the level of miR-495 was inversely correlated with the expression of STAT-3 in BC tissues and cell lines. miR-495 can directly target 3'-UTR of STAT-3 mRNA and thereby decrease the expression of STAT-3 in MCF-7 and HCC1973 cells by Targetscan and Dual-luciferase assay...
May 3, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497038/epigenetics-and-vascular-diseases-influence-of-non-coding-rnas-and-their-clinical-implications
#13
REVIEW
Leonardo Elia, Manuela Quintavalle
Epigenetics refers to heritable mechanisms able to modulate gene expression that do not involve alteration of the genomic DNA sequence. Classically, mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications were part of this classification. Today, this field of study has been expanded and includes also the large class of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Indeed, with the extraordinary possibilities introduced by the next-generation sequencing approaches, our knowledge of the mammalian transcriptome has greatly improved...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472596/reciprocal-regulation-between-mir-148a-152-and-dna-methyltransferase-1-is-associated-with-hyperhomocysteinemia-accelerated-atherosclerosis
#14
Anning Yang, Yue Sun, Yuan Gao, Songhao Yang, Caiyan Mao, Ning Ding, Mei Deng, Yanhua Wang, Xiaoling Yang, Yuexia Jia, Huiping Zhang, Yideng Jiang
DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and miRNAs are both important regulators of gene expression that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This study was designed to elucidate the potential interaction between DNMT1 and miRNAs in the context of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-related atherosclerosis. In the aorta of ApoE(-/-) mice fed a high methionine diet, increased expression of miR-148a/152, with decreased DNMT1 mRNA and protein levels, was detected. Similar changes were observed in cultured foam cells stimulated with homocysteine...
May 4, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471013/oligonucleotide-addressed-covalent-3-terminal-derivatization-of-small-rna-strands-for-enrichment-and-visualization
#15
Aleksandr Osipenko, Alexandra Plotnikova, Milda Nainytė, Viktoras Masevičius, Saulius Klimašauskas, Giedrius Vilkaitis
The HEN1 RNA 2'-O-methyltransferase plays important roles in the biogenesis of small non-coding RNAs in plants and proved a valuable tool for selective transfer of functional groups from cofactor analogues onto miRNA and siRNA duplexes in vitro. Herein, we demonstrate the versatile HEN1-mediated methylation and alkylation of small RNA strands in heteroduplexes with a range of complementary synthetic DNA oligonucleotides carrying user-defined moieties such as internal or 3'-terminal extensions or chemical reporter groups...
June 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460316/a-comprehensive-regional-analysis-of-genome-wide-expression-profiles-for-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Diego A Forero, Gina P Guio-Vega, Yeimy González-Giraldo
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a global health challenge. In recent years, a large number of genome-wide expression studies (GWES) have been carried out to identify the transcriptomic profiles for MDD. The objective of this work was to carry out a comprehensive meta-analysis of available GWES for MDD. METHODS: GWES for MDD with available raw data were searched in NCBI GEO, Array Express and Stanley databases. Raw GWES data were preprocessed and normalized and meta-analytical procedures were carried out with the Network Analyst program...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454513/mycbase-a-database-of-functional-sites-and-biochemical-properties-of-myc-in-both-normal-and-cancer-cells
#17
Debangana Chakravorty, Tanmoy Jana, Sukhen Das Mandal, Anuradha Seth, Anubrata Bhattacharya, Sudipto Saha
BACKGROUND: Myc is an essential gene having multiple functions such as in cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, genomic stability, angiogenesis, and disease biology. A large number of researchers dedicated to Myc biology are generating a substantial amount of data in normal and cancer cells/tissues including Burkitt's lymphoma and ovarian cancer. RESULTS: MYCbase ( http://bicresources.jcbose.ac.in/ssaha4/mycbase ) is a collection of experimentally supported functional sites in Myc that can influence the biological cellular processes...
April 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454212/reciprocal-regulation-between-micrornas-and-epigenetic-machinery-in-colorectal-cancer
#18
Feng Wang, Yanlei Ma, Huamin Wang, Huanlong Qin
Epigenetics encompasses changes in DNA methylation, histone and chromatin structure, and non-coding RNAs, specifically microRNA (miRNA) expression. Recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of colorectal cancer (CRC) epigenetics have revealed a complicated network of reciprocal interconnections between miRNAs and other epigenetic machinery. On the one hand, miRNA expression may be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation and histone modifications. However, miRNAs may affect the epigenetic machinery by directly targeting its enzymatic components...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441353/matrix-metalloproteinase-gene-activation-resulting-from-disordred-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
REVIEW
Yasuto Araki, Toshihide Mimura
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts (SFs) produce matrix-degrading enzymes, including MMPs, which facilitate cartilage destruction in the affected joints in RA. Epigenetic mechanisms contribute to change in the chromatin state, resulting in an alteration of gene transcription. Recently, MMP gene activation has been shown to be caused in RASFs by the dysregulation of epigenetic changes, such as histone modifications, DNA methylation, and microRNA (miRNA) signaling...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433422/postnatal-choline-supplementation-selectively-attenuates-hippocampal-microrna-alterations-associated-with-developmental-alcohol-exposure
#20
Sridevi Balaraman, Nirelia M Idrus, Rajesh C Miranda, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have shown that supplementation with the nutrient choline reduces the severity of developmental alcohol-associated deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviors and normalizes some aspects of hippocampal cholinergic development and DNA methylation patterns. Alcohol's developmental effects may also be mediated, in part, by altering microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as negative regulators of gene translation...
May 2017: Alcohol
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