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Sedentary and emotion

M Cornelia Stoeckel, Roland W Esser, Matthias Gamer, Christian Büchel, Andreas von Leupoldt
Dyspnea is common in many cardiorespiratory diseases. Already the anticipation of this aversive symptom elicits fear in many patients resulting in unfavorable health behaviors such as activity avoidance and sedentary lifestyle. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying these anticipatory processes. We induced dyspnea using resistive-load breathing in healthy subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blocks of severe and mild dyspnea alternated, each preceded by anticipation periods. Severe dyspnea activated a network of sensorimotor, cerebellar, and limbic areas...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Benjamin Wienke, Darko Jekauc
Although previous research has shown that emotions are consistently associated with sport and exercise behavior, the working mechanisms are not understood to the extent of creating an intervention. The aim of this study is to identify situations and aspects of recreational sport and exercise, which lead to positive emotional reactions in people taking part in regular and long-term exercise. In this study, 24 adults (12 female, 12 male) distributed over three age groups (young, middle, and late adulthood), took part in recreational sports (individual or team sport) for at least 5 years...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Giancarlo Condello, Laura Capranica, Joel Stager, Roberta Forte, Simone Falbo, Angela Di Baldassarre, Cristina Segura-Garcia, Caterina Pesce
Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals...
2016: PloS One
Ian Janssen
PURPOSE: The primary objective was to use isotemporal substitution models to estimate whether replacing time spent in sedentary video games (SVGs) and active outdoor play (AOP) with active video games (AVGs) would be associated with changes in youth's mental health. METHODS: A representative sample of 20,122 Canadian youth in Grades 6-10 was studied. The exposure variables were average hours/day spent playing AVGs, SVGs, and AOP. The outcomes consisted of a negative and internalizing mental health indicator (emotional problems), a positive and internalizing mental health indicator (life satisfaction), and a positive and externalizing mental health indicator (prosocial behavior)...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Rosemary Peter, Sushma Sood, Ashwani Dhawan
Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Exercise is considered an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. Although yoga is historically a spiritual discipline, a growing body of evidence supports the belief that yoga benefits physical and mental health. The objective of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability which reflects autonomic control of heart among yoga practitioners, athletes and individuals with sedentary lifestyle...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Kaori Ishii, Ai Shibata, Minoru Adachi, Koichiro Oka
Data on the effect of increased or decreased physical activity on children's psychological status are scarce, and effect sizes are small. This study conducted two-year longitudinal research to identify associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and psychological well-being in Japanese school children through a mail survey completed by 292 children aged 6-12 years. Data on sociodemographics, physical activity, sedentary behavior on weekdays and the weekend, and psychometrics (self-efficacy, anxiety, and behavioral/emotional problems) were collected using a self-reported questionnaire...
October 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Robert A Pretlow, Ronald J Corbee
Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates - for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity - are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest short-term but poor long-term results. New strategies are needed. A novel theory posits that obesity in pets and children is due to 'treats' and excessive meal amounts given by the 'pet-parent' and child-parent to obtain affection from the pet/child, which enables 'eating addiction' in the pet/child and results in parental 'co-dependence'...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
June J Pilcher, Victoria C Baker
The purpose of the current study is to compare the effects of light physical activity to sedentary behavior on cognitive task performance and meta-cognitive responses. Thirty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants used a stationary bicycle with a desk top and a traditional desk while completing two complex cognitive tasks and measures of affect, motivation, morale, and engagement. The participants pedaled the stationary bicycle at a slow pace (similar in exertion to a normal walking pace) while working...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Alessandro Ieraci, Alessandro I Madaio, Alessandra Mallei, Francis S Lee, Maurizio Popoli
Several studies have shown that exercise improves cognitive functions and emotional behaviors. Positive effects of exercise have been associated with enhanced brain plasticity, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, a substantial variability of individual response to exercise has been described, which may be accounted for by individual genetic variants. Here, we have assessed whether and how the common human BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influences the neurobiological effects modulated by exercise in BDNF Val66Met knock-in male mice...
August 10, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Brian T Samuelsen, Karen L Andrews, Matthew T Houdek, Marisa Terry, Thomas C Shives, Franklin H Sim
BACKGROUND: The immediate postoperative prosthesis has been purported to allow early mobilization with potential physical and psychologic benefits to patients. This study used accelerometers and validated questionnaires to prospectively examine activity level and quality of life data for patients receiving an immediate postoperative prosthesis after transtibial amputation. METHODS: A total of 10 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 58 yrs (range, 22-69 yrs), there were 9 men and 1 woman, and reason for amputation was nonhealing gangrenous ulcer in 9 patients and ischemic limb in 1 patient...
July 6, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Olivia K Faull, Pete J Cox, Kyle T S Pattinson
PURPOSE: Breathlessness is a complex set of symptoms that are comprised of both sensory and affective (emotional) dimensions. While ventilation is now understood to be a potential limiter to performance in highly-trained individuals, the contribution of breathlessness-anxiety in those nearing maximal ventilation during intense exercise has not yet been considered as a limiter to performance. METHODS: In this study, we compared the physiology and psychology of breathlessness in 20 endurance athletes with 20 untrained age- and sex-matched sedentary controls...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Travis John Saunders, Casey Ellen Gray, Veronica Joan Poitras, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Ian Janssen, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Timothy Olds, Sarah Connor Gorber, Michelle E Kho, Margaret Sampson, Mark S Tremblay, Valerie Carson
The purpose of this systematic review was to determine how combinations of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and sleep were associated with important health indicators in children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) were searched for relevant studies examining the relationship between time spent engaging in different combinations of PA, SB, and sleep with the following health indicators: adiposity, cardiometabolic biomarkers, physical fitness, emotional regulation/psychological distress, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, cognition, quality of life/well-being, injuries, bone density, motor skill development, and self-esteem...
June 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Laurie Wideman, Susan D Calkins, James A Janssen, Cheryl A Lovelady, Jessica M Dollar, Susan P Keane, Eliana M Perrin, Lilly Shanahan
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence-including obesity, elevated lipids, altered glucose metabolism, hypertension, and elevated low-grade inflammation-is cause for serious concern and potentially impacts subsequent morbidity and mortality. Despite the importance of these cardiovascular risk factors, very little is known about their developmental origins in childhood. In addition, since adolescence is a time when individuals are navigating major life changes and gaining increasing autonomy from their parents or parental figures, it is a period when control over their own health behaviors (e...
2016: BMC Public Health
Richard Keegan, Geoff Middleton, Hannah Henderson, Mica Girling
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of understanding of work aged adults' (30-60 years old) perspectives on the motivation of physical activity versus sedentariness. This study aims to: (1) identify which socio-environmental factors motivate physical activity and/or sedentary behavior, in adults aged 30-60 years; and (2) explore how these motivators interact and combine. METHOD: Fifteen work-aged adults who, were able to engage in physical activity (Mean age = 43.9 years; SD 9...
2016: BMC Public Health
Ryan T Crews, Kristin L Schneider, Sai V Yalla, Neil D Reeves, Loretta Vileikyte
Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are common challenges among individuals at risk of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). While substantial research exists on physical activity interventions in adults with diabetes, those at greatest risk for foot ulceration were often excluded or not well-represented. Both at-risk patients and their clinicians may be hesitant to increase physical activity due to their perception of DFU risks. Physical activity is not contraindicated for those at risk of DFU, yet patients at risk present with unique barriers to initiating increases in physical activity...
May 7, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
B Peplonska, J G Adamczyk, M Siewierski, K Safranow, A Maruszak, H Sozanski, A K Gajewski, C Zekanowski
The aim of the study was to assess whether selected genetic variants are associated with elite athlete performance in a group of 413 elite athletes and 451 sedentary controls. Polymorphisms in ACE, ACTN3, AGT, NRF-2, PGC1A, PPARG, and TFAM implicated in physical performance traits were analyzed. Additionally, polymorphisms in CHRNB3 and FAAH coding for proteins modulating activity of brain's emotion centers were included. The results of univariate analyses indicated that the elite athletic performance is associated with four polymorphisms: ACE (rs4341, P = 0...
May 3, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Claire Blewitt, Heidi Bergmeier, Jacqui A Macdonald, Craig A Olsson, Helen Skouteris
Adolescence is a period of significant cognitive, social and physiological change, presenting unique risk factors for weight gain. Childhood obesity research has traditionally focused on the influence of parent-level factors on children's eating and weight status. Increasingly, emphasis is turning towards the reciprocal nature of the parent-child relationship and its influence on health behaviour. A systematic literature review was conducted to investigate the relationship between parent-child relationship quality (defined as the felt emotional bond between parent and child) and obesogenic risk (weight status, eating attitudes and behaviours, level of physical activity and sedentary behaviour) in adolescence; 26 papers were included in the review...
July 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
E Aparicio, J Canals, V Arija, S De Henauw, N Michels
Stress and negative emotions pose a major threat to public health, by increasing the risk of obesity. Since the management process for emotions (emotion regulation; ER) is developed in childhood, we present a novel conceptual framework model for the role of ER in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. A narrative review of the literature by electronic database search (MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and Scopus) was conducted of observational and interventional/experimental literature on ER and obesity and the underlying concepts...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Francisco José Tarazona-Santabalbina, Mari Carmen Gómez-Cabrera, Pilar Pérez-Ros, Francisco Miguel Martínez-Arnau, Helena Cabo, Konstantina Tsaparas, Andrea Salvador-Pascual, Leocadio Rodriguez-Mañas, José Viña
BACKGROUND: Frailty can be an important clinical target to reduce rates of disability. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain if a supervised-facility multicomponent exercise program (MEP) when performed by frail older persons can reverse frailty and improve functionality; cognitive, emotional, and social networking; as well as biological biomarkers of frailty, when compared with a controlled population that received no training. DESIGN: This is an interventional, controlled, simple randomized study...
May 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Leonardo Tozzi, Angela Carballedo, Grace Lavelle, Kelly Doolin, Myles Doyle, Francesco Amico, Hazel McCarthy, John Gormley, Anton Lord, Veronica O'Keane, Thomas Frodl
Exercise increases wellbeing and improves mood. It is however unclear how these mood changes relate to brain function. We conducted a randomized controlled trial investigating resting-state modifications in healthy adults after an extended period of aerobic physical exercise and their relationship with mood improvements. We aimed to identify novel functional networks whose activity could provide a physiological counterpart to the mood-related benefits of exercise. Thirty-eight healthy sedentary volunteers were randomised to either the aerobic exercise group of the study or a control group...
April 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
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