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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727003/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-ruminants-and-pigs-a-transcriptomics-perspective
#1
B P Dalrymple, B Guo
The genomics era has led to an explosion in the study of gene expression in production animals. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content (both high and low) and composition are major quality attributes of meat, and more than 90 transcriptomic studies of IMF deposition have been undertaken in the ruminants and pigs since 2001, with the majority since 2008. The studies have implicated many genes involved in the control of adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and deposition of IMF, but there is relatively little consistency between the different studies...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726571/primary-blast-causes-delayed-effects-without-cell-death-in-shell-encased-brain-cell-aggregates
#2
Thomas Sawyer, Yushan Wang, David V Ritzel, Tyson Josey, Mercy Villanueva, Cory Vair, Yanfeng Song, Yimin Shei, Steven Parks, Peggy Nelson, Grant Hennes, Lori McLaws, Changyan Fan
Previous work used underwater explosive exposures to isolate the effects of shock-induced principle stress without shear on rat brain aggregate cultures. This current study has utilized simulated air blast to expose aggregates in suspension and enclosed within a spherical shell, enabling the examination of a much more complex biomechanical insult. Culture medium-filled spheres were exposed to single pulse overpressures of 15-30 psi (6-7 msec duration) and measurements within the sphere at defined sites showed complex and spatially dependent pressure changes...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725554/successful-surgical-management-of-new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus-norse-presenting-with-gelastic-seizures-in-a-3%C3%A2-year-old-girl
#3
Ahmad Marashly, Sean Lew, Jennifer Koop
Gelastic seizures (GS) are typically associated with hypothalamic hamartomas and present during childhood. However it is now known that GS can be found in focal epilepsies arising from other regions in the brain, including mesial and neocortical frontal, temporal and parietal regions. GS have rarely been described as the presenting manifestation of New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus (NORSE). In this article we describe a previously healthy 3-year-old who presented with an explosive onset of GS that were refractory to multiple anti-seizure medications...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723138/hand-held-femtogram-detection-of-hazardous-picric-acid-with-hydrophobic-ag-nanopillar-sers-substrates-and-mechanism-of-elasto-capillarity
#4
Aron Hakonen, FengChao Wang, Per Ola Andersson, Håkan Wingfors, Tomas Rindzevicius, Michael Stenbæk Schmidt, Venugopal Rao Soma, Shicai Xu, YingQi Li, Anja Boisen, HengAn Wu
Picric acid (PA) is a severe environmental and security risk due to its unstable, toxic, and explosive properties. It is also challenging to detect in trace amounts and in situ because of its highly acidic and anionic character. Here, we assess sensing of PA under nonlaboratory conditions using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) silver nanopillar substrates and hand-held Raman spectroscopy equipment. The advancing elasto-capillarity effects are explained by molecular dynamics simulations. We obtain a SERS PA detection limit on the order of 20 ppt, corresponding attomole amounts, which together with the simple analysis methodology demonstrates that the presented approach is highly competitive for ultrasensitive analysis in the field...
February 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721718/sensitive-analysis-of-nitroguanidine-in-aqueous-and-soil-matrices-by-lc-ms
#5
Anna Voloshenko Rossin, Sergey Sladkevich, Guy Gasser, Artem Melman, Ovadia Lev
Nitroguanidine, a widely used nitramine explosive is an environmental contaminant that is refractory, persistent, highly mobile in soils and aquifers and yet under-researched. Nitroguanidine determination in water and soil poses an analytical challenge due its high hydrophilicity, low volatility, charge neutrality over a wide pH range, and low proton affinity which results in low ESI-MS sensitivity. A sensitive method for the determination of nitroguanidine in aqueous and soil matrices was developed. The method is based on reduction by zinc in acidic solution, hydrophobization by derivatization, preconcentration on C18 cartridge and LC-MS quantification...
July 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720828/universal-mechanism-for-hybrid-percolation-transitions
#6
Deokjae Lee, Wonjun Choi, J Kertész, B Kahng
Hybrid percolation transitions (HPTs) induced by cascading processes have been observed in diverse complex systems such as k-core percolation, breakdown on interdependent networks and cooperative epidemic spreading models. Here we present the microscopic universal mechanism underlying those HPTs. We show that the discontinuity in the order parameter results from two steps: a durable critical branching (CB) and an explosive, supercritical (SC) process, the latter resulting from large loops inevitably present in finite size samples...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720330/generation-of-hazardous-methyl-azide-and-its-application-to-synthesis-of-a-key-intermediate-of-picarbutrazox-a-new-potent-pesticide-in-flow
#7
Daisuke Ichinari, Aiichiro Nagaki, Jun-Ichi Yoshida
Generation and reactions of methyl azide (MeN3) were successfully performed by using a flow reactor system, demonstrating that the flow method serves as a safe method for handling hazardous explosive methyl azide. The reaction of NaN3 and Me2SO4 in a flow reactor gave a MeN3 solution, which was used for Huisgen reaction with benzoyl cyanide in a flow reactor after minimal washing. The resulting 1-methyl-5-benzoyltetrazole serves as a key intermediate of picarbutrazox (IX), a new potent pesticide.
July 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720187/experiences-with-regional-anesthesia-for-analgesia-during-prolonged-aeromedical-evacuation
#8
Jeffrey M Carness, Melissa A Wilson, Mark J Lenart, Danny E Smith, Susan F Dukes
INTRODUCTION: There is much debate regarding the appropriate analgesic management of patients undergoing medical evacuation following combat trauma. Our primary objective was to review the utility of regional anesthetic techniques in patients undergoing aeromedical evacuation following surgical limb amputation as treatment for combat trauma. METHODS: This study was conducted as an observational retrospective cohort whereby acutely injured amputee patients were identified via the U...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717994/modeling-and-investigation-of-new-explosive-materials-based-on-n-3-5-dimethyl-2-4-6-trinitrophenyl-1h-1-2-4-triazol-3-amine
#9
Jelena Tamuliene, Jonas Sarlauskas, Svajone Bekesiene
This study presents an investigation of the effects of adding extra nitro group substituents to N-(3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-amine (HEM-II) on its thermal and chemical stability as well as its explosive performance. An analysis of the thermal stabilities of HEM-II and HEM-II-based molecules based on an investigation of the binding energy per atom for each molecule was performed. The values of the gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) as well as those of the chemical hardness and softness for HEM-II and the HEM-II-based molecules were studied to determine the chemical stabilities of these molecules...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717134/ash-production-by-attrition-in-volcanic-conduits-and-plumes
#10
T J Jones, J K Russell
Tephra deposits result from explosive volcanic eruption and serve as indirect probes into fragmentation processes operating in subsurface volcanic conduits. Primary magmatic fragmentation creates a population of pyroclasts through volatile-driven decompression during conduit ascent. In this study, we explore the role that secondary fragmentation, specifically attrition, has in transforming primary pyroclasts upon transport in volcanic conduits and plumes. We utilize total grain size distributions from a suite of natural and experimentally produced tephra to show that attrition is likely to occur in all explosive volcanic eruptions...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717108/isoflurane-is-a-suitable-alternative-to-ether-for-anesthetizing-rats-prior-to-euthanasia-for-gene-expression-analysis
#11
Noriyuki Nakatsu, Yoshinobu Igarashi, Taiki Aoshi, Isao Hamaguchi, Masumichi Saito, Takuo Mizukami, Haruka Momose, Ken J Ishii, Hiroshi Yamada
Diethyl ether (ether) had been widely used in Japan for anesthesia, despite its explosive properties and toxicity to both humans and animals. We also had used ether as an anesthetic for euthanizing rats for research in the Toxicogenomics Project (TGP). Because the use of ether for these purposes will likely cease, it is required to select an alternative anesthetic which is validated for consistency with existing TGP data acquired under ether anesthesia. We therefore compared two alternative anesthetic candidates, isoflurane and pentobarbital, with ether in terms of hematological findings, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expressions...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716473/characteristics-of-mandibular-injuries-caused-by-bullets-and-improvised-explosive-devices-a-comparative-study
#12
S Y H Bede, W K Ismael, D Al-Assaf
The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in mandibular trauma caused by two mechanisms for the delivery of missile injuries: firearms and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The data investigated included sex, age, mechanism of injury, and other clinical and radiographic manifestations. Seventy consecutive patients, predominantly male, with a mean age of 28.6±14 years (range 2-60 years) were enrolled: 38 patients (54.3%) sustained mandibular fractures caused by bullet injuries and 32 patients (45...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715546/sensitivity-to-audiovisual-temporal-asynchrony-in-children-with-a-history-of-specific-language-impairment-and-their-peers-with-typical-development-a-replication-and-follow-up-study
#13
Natalya Kaganovich
Purpose: Earlier, my colleagues and I showed that children with a history of specific language impairment (H-SLI) are significantly less able to detect audiovisual asynchrony compared with children with typical development (TD; Kaganovich & Schumaker, 2014). Here, I first replicate this finding in a new group of children with H-SLI and TD and then examine a relationship among audiovisual function, attention skills, and language in a combined pool of children. Method: The stimuli were a pure tone and an explosion-shaped figure...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714760/houston-we-still-have-a-problem
#14
Martin Buchheit
Apollo 13 was initially looking like it would be the smoothest flight ever. After the explosion of an oxygen tank however, the astronauts were close to spending the rest of their lives in rotation around the planet. I wished to use this well-known incident to discuss further the link, or lack thereof, between sport sciences research and current field practices. There is a feeling that the academic culture and its publishing requirements have created a bit of an Apollo 13-like orbiting world (e.g., journals and conferences) that is mostly disconnected from the reality of elite performance...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713868/21st-century-cardio-oncology-identifying-cardiac-safety-signals-in-the-era-of-personalized-medicine
#15
Calvin Chen Sheng, Laleh Amiri-Kordestani, Todd Palmby, Thomas Force, Charles C Hong, Joseph C Wu, Kevin Croce, Geoffrey Kim, Javid Moslehi
Cardiotoxicity is a well-established complication of oncology therapies. Cardiomyopathy resulting from anthracyclines is a classic example. In the past decade, an explosion of novel cancer therapies, often targeted and more specific than traditional therapies, has revolutionized oncology therapy and dramatically changed cancer prognosis. However, some of these therapies have introduced an assortment of cardiovascular (CV) complications. At times, these devastating outcomes have only become apparent after drug approval and have limited the use of potent therapies...
August 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713281/effectiveness-of-traditional-strength-vs-power-training-on-muscle-strength-power-and-speed-with-youth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
David G Behm, James D Young, Joseph H D Whitten, Jonathan C Reid, Patrick J Quigley, Jonathan Low, Yimeng Li, Camila D Lima, Daniel D Hodgson, Anis Chaouachi, Olaf Prieske, Urs Granacher
Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713258/relationship-of-topology-multiscale-phase-synchronization-and-state-transitions-in-human-brain-networks
#17
Minkyung Kim, Seunghwan Kim, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
How the brain reconstitutes consciousness and cognition after a major perturbation like general anesthesia is an important question with significant neuroscientific and clinical implications. Recent empirical studies in animals and humans suggest that the recovery of consciousness after anesthesia is not random but ordered. Emergence patterns have been classified as progressive and abrupt transitions from anesthesia to consciousness, with associated differences in duration and electroencephalogram (EEG) properties...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709120/advances-in-design-of-protein-folds-and-assemblies
#18
REVIEW
Ajasja Ljubetič, Helena Gradišar, Roman Jerala
Conceptual and computational advances triggered an explosion of designed protein structures in the recent years. Various protein fold geometries have been robustly designed with atomic accuracy, including protein folds unseen in nature. The same principles and tools have been extended to design multi-chain assemblies. By exploiting symmetry, mega-Dalton structures have been created with exciting potential applications for synthetic biology. In this review we focus on design of single chain and multi polypeptide chain assemblies of defined size and composition...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707455/human-brown-adipose-tissue-as-a-target-for-obesity-management-beyond-cold-induced-thermogenesis
#19
REVIEW
R K C Loh, B A Kingwell, A L Carey
Elevating energy expenditure via adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential strategy to reverse obesity. Much early enthusiasm for this approach, based on rodent studies, was tempered by the belief that BAT was relatively inconsequential in healthy adult humans. Interest was reinvigorated a decade ago when a series of studies re-identified BAT, primarily in upper thoracic regions, in adults. Despite the ensuing explosion of pre-clinical investigations and identification of an extensive list of potential target molecules for BAT recruitment, our understanding of human BAT physiology remains limited, particularly regarding interventions which might hold therapeutic promise...
July 14, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705768/the-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-infections-in-burn-patients-from-the-formosa-fun-coast-dust-explosion
#20
Tzu-Chao Lin, Rui-Xin Wu, Chih-Chien Chiu, Ya-Sung Yang, Yi Lee, Jung-Chung Lin, Feng-Yee Chang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Bloodstream infection is a leading cause of mortality among burn patients. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors, causative pathogens, and the relationship between bloodstream infections and other infections among burn patients from the Formosa Fun Coast Dust Explosion. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the demographic and clinical characteristics, infection types, causative pathogen(s), and isolates' antibiotic susceptibilities from patients who were hospitalized between June 27 and September 31, 2015...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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