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Tharwat Mohy El Dine, Omar Sadek, Emmanuel Gras, David Perrin
The Balz-Schiemann reaction endures as a method for the preparation of (hetero)aryl fluorides yet is eschewed due to the need for harsh conditions or high temperatures along with the need to isolate potentially explosive diazonium salts. In a departure from these conditions, we show that various organotrifluoroborates (RBF3-s) may serve as fluoride ion sources for solution-phase fluoro-dediazoniation in organic solvents under mild conditions. This methodology was successfully extended to a one-pot process obviating aryl diazonium salt isolation...
July 13, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
W Brad Hubbard, Margaret Lashof-Sullivan, Shaylen Greenberg, Carly Norris, Joseph Eck, Erin Lavik, Pamela VandeVord
Explosions account for 79% of combat related injuries and often lead to polytrauma, a majority of which include blast-induced traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). These injuries lead to internal bleeding in multiple organs and, in the case of bTBI, long term neurological deficits. Currently, there are no treatments for internal bleeding beyond fluid resuscitation and surgery. There is also a dearth of treatments for TBI. We have developed a novel approach using hemostatic nanoparticles that encapsulate an anti-inflammatory, dexamethasone, to stop the bleeding and reduce inflammation after injury...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hiromichi Tagawa, Takayuki R Saitoh, Bence Kocsis
Recently, several gravitational wave detections have shown evidence for compact object mergers. However, the astrophysical origin of merging binaries is not well understood. Stellar binaries are typically at much larger separations than what is needed for the binaries to merge due to gravitational wave emission, which leads to the so-called final AU problem. In this Letter we propose a new channel for mergers of compact object binaries which solves the final AU problem. We examine the binary evolution following gas expansion due to a weak failed supernova explosion, neutrino mass loss, core disturbance, or envelope instability...
June 29, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Harri Geiger, Valentin R Troll, Ester M Jolis, Frances M Deegan, Chris Harris, David R Hilton, Carmela Freda
The island of Bali in Indonesia is home to two active stratovolcanoes, Agung and Batur, but relatively little is known of their underlying magma plumbing systems. Here we define magma storage depths and isotopic evolution of the 1963 and 1974 eruptions using mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry and oxygen and helium isotopes in mineral separates. Olivine crystallised from a primitive magma and has average δ18 O values of 4.8‰. Clinopyroxene records magma storage at the crust-mantle boundary, and displays mantle-like isotope values for Helium (8...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Fernando
Michael Merson, the second Director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program on AIDS, and co-author Stephen Inrig have described, in gripping detail, the personal antagonisms, interpersonal wrangling, and bureaucratic intrigue that explained the failure of the first global response to the HIV epidemic (Merson & Inrig, 2018). However, I believe that the decision of WHO, Western researchers, and the media to ignore the role of reuse of contaminated syringes and needles in health care settings and to instead emphasize African people's sex with multiple partners was more critical in the explosion of HIV in Africa than personal animosities and bureaucratic disputes...
July 9, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Noemi Bitterman, Yoni Zimmer
IntroductionNatural and man-made disasters are becoming global concerns. Natural disasters appear to be growing in number and intensity due to global warming, population explosion, increased travel, and overcrowding of cities. In addition, man-made disasters do not seem to be diminishing.At disaster sites, an immediate response is needed. National and international organizations; nongovernmental, military, and commercial organizations; and even private donors enlist to provide humanitarian and medical support and to send supplies, shelters, and temporary health care facilities to disaster zones...
July 13, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Alexandre W Bisson-Filho, Jenny Zheng, Ethan Garner
Since the identification of the archaeal domain in the mid-1970s, we have collected a great deal of metagenomic, biochemical, and structural information from archaeal species. However, there is still little known about how archaeal cells organize their internal cellular components in space and time. In contrast, live-cell imaging has allowed bacterial and eukaryotic cell biologists to learn a lot about biological processes by observing the motions of cells, the dynamics of their internal organelles, and even the motions of single molecules...
July 15, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Dongzhen Chen, Xiaodong Zhu, Jian Huang, Gen Wang, Yue Zhao, Feng Chen, Jing Wei, Zhongxiao Song, Yongxi Zhao
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a promising analysis technique for detecting various analytes in complex samples due to its unique vibrational fingerprints and high signal enhancement. However, impurity interference and substrate unreliability are direct suppression factors for practical application. Herein, we synthesize polydopamine @ gold (PDA @ Au) nanowaxberry, where Au nanoparticles are deposited on the surface of PDA sphere with high density and uniformity. Seed-mediated synthesis is used for fabrication of nanowaxberry...
July 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Oleg Lupan, Vasile Postica, Mathias Hoppe, Niklas Wolff, Oleksandr Polonskyi, Thierry Pauporté, Bruno Viana, Odile Majérus, Lorenz Kienle, Franz Faupel, Rainer Adelung
Noble metals and their oxide nano-clusters are considered to be the most promising candidates for fabricating advanced H2 gas sensors. Through this work, we propose a novel strategy to grow and modulate the density of PdO/PdO2 nanoparticles uniformly on nanostructured Pd-doped ZnO (ZnO : Pd) films by a one-step solution approach followed by thermal annealing at 650 °C, and thus to detect ppm-level H2 gas in a selective manner. The gas sensing properties of such hybridized materials showed that the PdO-functionalized ZnO samples offer significantly improved H2 gas sensing properties in an operating temperature range of 25-200 °C...
July 12, 2018: Nanoscale
Meiheng Lu, Panwang Zhou, Zhongwei Li, Jianyong Liu, Yanqiang Yang, Keli Han
As security needs have increased, mechanism investigation has become of high importance in the development of new sensitive and selective chemosensors for chemical explosives. This study details a theoretical investigation of the sensing mechanism of a new phosphonate pyrene chemosensor for trinitrotoluene (TNT), suggesting a different interaction mode between the probe and TNT from the one previously reported. The invalidity of the mechanism of binding TNT through intermolecular hydrogen bonds was proved using the Gibbs free energy profile and 1H NMR analysis...
July 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jeffery W Rankin, Kelsey M Doney, Craig P McGowan
Many cursorial and large hopping species are extremely efficient locomotors with various morphological adaptations believed to reduce mechanical demand and improve movement efficiency, including elongated distal limb segments. However, despite having elongated limbs, small hoppers such as desert kangaroo rats ( Dipodomys deserti ) are less efficient locomotors than their larger counterparts, which may be in part due to avoiding predators through explosive jumping movements. Despite potentially conflicting mechanical demands between the two movements, kangaroo rats are both excellent jumpers and attain high hopping speeds, likely due to a specialized hindlimb musculoskeletal morphology...
July 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Yuliang Wang, Mikhail E Zaytsev, Guillaume Lajoinie, Hai Le The, Jan C T Eijkel, Albert van den Berg, Michel Versluis, Bert M Weckhuysen, Xuehua Zhang, Harold J W Zandvliet, Detlef Lohse
When illuminated by a laser, plasmonic nanoparticles immersed in water can very quickly and strongly heat up, leading to the nucleation of so-called plasmonic vapor bubbles. While the long-time behavior of such bubbles has been well-studied, here, using ultrahigh-speed imaging, we reveal the nucleation and early life phase of these bubbles. After some delay time from the beginning of the illumination, a giant bubble explosively grows, and collapses again within 200 μs (bubble life phase 1). The maximal bubble volume [Formula: see text] remarkably increases with decreasing laser power, leading to less total dumped energy E...
July 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
T Temple, M Ladyman, N Mai, E Galante, M Ricamora, R Shirazi, F Coulon
Contamination of military ranges by the use of explosives can lead to irreversible environmental damage, specifically to soil and groundwater. The fate and effects of traditional explosive residues are well understood, while less is known about the impact of Insensitive High Explosives (IHEs) that are currently being brought into military service. Current research has focussed on the investigation of individual constituents of IHE formulations, which may not be representative of real-world scenarios when explosive residues will be deposited together...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yuxin Zhang, Yichao Yan, Yao Wang, Mengting Ai, Hongchuan Jiang, Liang Wang, Xiaohui Zhao, Wanli Zhang, Yanrong Li
Integrating energetic materials on a chip has received great attention for its widely potential applications in the microscale energy consumption system, including electric initiation device. In this article, reactive Al/PTFE nanolaminates with periodic layer structure are prepared by magnetron sputtering, which consists of fuel Al, oxidant PTFE, and inert layer Al-F compound in a metastable system. The as-deposited Al/PTFE nanolaminates exhibit a significantly high energy output, and the onset temperature and the heat of reaction are 410 °C and 3034 J/g, respectively...
July 11, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Andrzej Mizera, Jun Pang, Hongyang Qu, Qixia Yuan
Boolean networks is a well-established formalism for modelling biological systems. A vital challenge for analysing a Boolean network is to identify all the attractors. This becomes more challenging for large asynchronous Boolean networks, due to the asynchronous updating scheme. Existing methods are prohibited due to the well-known state-space explosion problem in large Boolean networks. In this paper, we tackle this challenge by proposing a SCC-based decomposition method. We prove the correctness of our proposed method and demonstrate its efficiency with two real-life biological networks...
June 27, 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Erkun Yang, Cheng Deng, Chao Li, Wei Liu, Jie Li, Dacheng Tao
With explosive growth of data volume and ever-increasing diversity of data modalities, cross-modal similarity search, which conducts nearest neighbor search across different modalities, has been attracting increasing interest. This paper presents a deep compact code learning solution for efficient cross-modal similarity search. Many recent studies have proven that quantization-based approaches perform generally better than hashing-based approaches on single-modal similarity search. In this paper, we propose a deep quantization approach, which is among the early attempts of leveraging deep neural networks into quantization-based cross-modal similarity search...
February 14, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Yiqing Guo, Xiuping Jia, David Paull
The explosive availability of remote sensing images has challenged supervised classification algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVM), as training samples tend to be highly limited due to the expensive and laborious task of ground truthing. The temporal correlation and spectral similarity between multitemporal images have opened up an opportunity to alleviate this problem. In this study, a SVM-based Sequential Classifier Training (SCT-SVM) approach is proposed for multitemporal remote sensing image classification...
February 22, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Weifeng Liu, Xueqi Ma, Yicong Zhou, Dapeng Tao, Jun Cheng
The explosive growth of multimedia data on the Internet makes it essential to develop innovative machine learning algorithms for practical applications especially where only a small number of labeled samples are available. Manifold regularized semi-supervised learning (MRSSL) thus received intensive attention recently because it successfully exploits the local structure of data distribution including both labeled and unlabeled samples to leverage the generalization ability of a learning model. Although there are many representative works in MRSSL, including Laplacian regularization (LapR) and Hessian regularization, how to explore and exploit the local geometry of data manifold is still a challenging problem...
May 22, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Jeng-Tze Huang
Issues of adaptive fuzzy direct compensation-based state/output feedback control for nonstrict-feedback systems are presented. The key to its feasibility is the differentiation-free feature, which is achieved in two steps. First, with the nominal adaptive fuzzy virtual controllers as the inputs, a set of low-pass filters are constructed to avoid the explosion of complexity and the algebraic-loop problems. Second, via using sufficiently small time constants, the boundedness of the filters' errors is ensured without the calculation of the filter error dynamics, which otherwise would incur another loop problem...
April 12, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Qibin Hou, Ming-Ming Cheng, Xiaowei Hu, Ali Borji, Zhuowen Tu, Philip H S Torr
Recent progress on salient object detection is substantial, benefiting mostly from the explosive development of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Semantic segmentation and salient object detection algorithms developed lately have been mostly based on Fully Convolutional Neural Networks (FCNs). There is still a large room for improvement over the generic FCN models that do not explicitly deal with the scale-space problem. Holistically-Nested Edge Detector (HED) provides a skip-layer structure with deep supervision for edge and boundary detection, but the performance gain of HED on saliency detection is not obvious...
March 14, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
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