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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929235/comparative-studies-on-structures-mechanical-properties-sensitivity-stabilities-and-detonation-performance-of-cl-20-tnt-cocrystal-and-composite-explosives-by-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#1
Gui-Yun Hang, Wen-Li Yu, Tao Wang, Jin-Tao Wang, Zhen Li
To investigate and compare the differences of structures and properties of CL-20/TNT cocrystal and composite explosives, the CL-20/TNT cocrystal and composite models were established. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the structures, mechanical properties, sensitivity, stabilities and detonation performance of cocrystal and composite models with COMPASS force field in NPT ensemble. The lattice parameters, mechanical properties, binding energies, interaction energy of trigger bond, cohesive energy density and detonation parameters were determined and compared...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929145/enhanced-detection-of-explosives-by-turn-on-resonance-raman-upon-host-guest-complexation-in-solution-and-the-solid-state
#2
Edward H Witlicki, Steffen Bähring, Carsten Johnsen, Marta V Solano, Kent A Nielsen, Daniel W Silverstein, Craig W Marlatt, Lasse Jensen, Jan O Jeppesen, Amar H Flood
The recognition of nitroaromatic explosives by a tetrakis-tetrathiafulvalene-calix[4]pyrrole receptor (TTF-C[4]P) yields a "turn on" and fingerprinting response in the resonance Raman scattering observed in solution and the solid state. Intensity changes in nitro vibrations with analyte complexation occur via a mechanism of resonance between the 785 nm laser line and the strongly absorbing charge-transfer chromophore arising from the complex between electron-donating TTF-C[4]P and electron-accepting nitroaromatic explosives...
September 20, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927980/william-ladd-before-the-halifax-explosion
#3
REVIEW
Don K Nakayama
Legend holds that treating the hundreds of children injured in the Halifax explosion of December 6, 1917, compelled Dr. William E. Ladd (1880-1967) to dedicate his career to the surgical care of infants and children. However, he had made the commitment to be a pediatric surgeon several years before when he joined the voluntary staff of the Children's Hospital of Boston in 1910. In the years before Halifax, he was among the vanguard of American surgeons who brought the mortality of intussusception to 45% from 90%, and of pyloric stenosis to 15% from 60%...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926737/people-planet-and-profit-unintended-consequences-of-legacy-building-materials
#4
REVIEW
Anthony T Zimmer, HakSoo Ha
Although an explosion of new building materials are being introduced into today's market, adequate up-front research into their chemical and physical properties as well as their potential health and environmental consequences is lacking. History has provided us with several examples where building materials were broadly deployed into society only to find that health and environmental problems resulted in unintended sustainability consequences. In the following paper, we use lead and asbestos as legacy building materials to show their similar historical trends and sustainability consequences...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926674/prior-mental-disorders-and-lifetime-suicidal-behaviors-among-us-army-soldiers-in-the-army-study-to-assess-risk-and-resilience-in-servicemembers-army-starrs
#5
Alexander J Millner, Robert J Ursano, Irving Hwang, Andrew J King, James A Naifeh, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Murray B Stein, Ronald C Kessler, Matthew K Nock
We report on associations of retrospectively reported temporally prior mental disorders and Army career characteristics with subsequent first onset of suicidal behaviors in a large, representative sample of US Army soldiers who participated in the Consolidated All-Army Survey of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (N = 29,982). Results reveal that among men and women, all self-reported lifetime disorders measured (some assessed with screening scales) are associated with subsequent onset of suicide ideation...
September 19, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926145/a-crispr-reimagining-new-twists-and-turns-of-crispr-beyond-the-genome-engineering-revolution
#6
Robert J Plummer, Yi Guo, Ying Peng
Despite its explosive applications in genome engineering, CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats) has been developed into a versatile tool beyond its well-known nuclease function. In this prospect article, we summarize a few exciting "off-label" applications of CRISPR including manipulating DNA sequences, visualizing chromosomal loci in living cells, and modulating transcription and chromatin structures. These novel applications will likely elevate CRISPR tools into yet another level of sophistication and diversity, leading to many more exciting cell biological discoveries...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924691/pharmacokinetic-considerations-for-antibody-drug-conjugates-against-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Paul Malik, Colin Phipps, Andrea Edginton, Jonathan Blay
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are ushering in the next era of targeted therapy against cancer. An ADC for cancer therapy consists of a potent cytotoxic payload that is attached to a tumour-targeted antibody by a chemical linker, usually with an average drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) of 3.5-4. The theory is to deliver potent cytotoxic payloads directly to tumour cells while sparing healthy cells. However, practical application has proven to be more difficult. At present there are only two ADCs approved for clinical use...
September 18, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924502/factors-influencing-healthcare-provider-respondent-fatigue-answering-a-globally-administered-in-app-survey
#8
Vikas N O'Reilly-Shah
BACKGROUND: Respondent fatigue, also known as survey fatigue, is a common problem in the collection of survey data. Factors that are known to influence respondent fatigue include survey length, survey topic, question complexity, and open-ended question type. There is a great deal of interest in understanding the drivers of physician survey responsiveness due to the value of information received from these practitioners. With the recent explosion of mobile smartphone technology, it has been possible to obtain survey data from users of mobile applications (apps) on a question-by-question basis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924314/comparison-between-standing-broad-jump-test-and-wingate-test-for-assessing-lower-limb-anaerobic-power-in-elite-sportsmen
#9
Anup Krishnan, Deep Sharma, Madhu Bhatt, Apoorv Dixit, P Pradeep
BACKGROUND: Lower limb explosive power is an important motor quality for sporting performance and indicates use of anaerobic energy systems like stored ATP and Creatine phosphate system. Weightlifting, Fencing and Wrestling use it for monitoring and identification of potential sportsmen. The Wingate test and Standing Broad Jump (SBJ) test are reliable and accurate tests for its assessment. This study conducted on elite Indian sportsmen tries to analyse feasibility of use of the SBJ test in sports and military medicine when Wingate test is impractical...
April 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924266/effects-of-bomb-blast-injury-on-the-ears-the-aga-khan-university-hospital-experience
#10
Talha Ahmed Qureshi, Mohammad Sohail Awan, Nabeel Hamayun Hassan, Agha Hussain Aftab, Syed Adnan Ali
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency and effects of blast-related otologic injuries. METHODS: his retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised charts of patients who were victims of bomb explosions between January 2011 and July 2013. Frequency and percentages were reported using cross tabulation with size of bomb, distance of person from blast and the presence of victim in open or closed space. Association of associated variables were also analysed...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923999/mass-loss-and-stellar-superwinds
#11
REVIEW
Jorick S Vink
Mass loss bridges the gap between massive stars and supernovae (SNe) in two major ways: (i) theoretically, it is the amount of mass lost that determines the mass of the star prior to explosion and (ii) observations of the circumstellar material around SNe may teach us the type of progenitor that made the SN. Here, I present the latest models and observations of mass loss from massive stars, both for canonical massive O stars, as well as very massive stars that show Wolf-Rayet type features.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae'...
October 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923995/bridging-the-gap-from-massive-stars-to-supernovae
#12
Justyn R Maund, Paul A Crowther, Hans-Thomas Janka, Norbert Langer
Almost since the beginning, massive stars and their resultant supernovae have played a crucial role in the Universe. These objects produce tremendous amounts of energy and new, heavy elements that enrich galaxies, encourage new stars to form and sculpt the shapes of galaxies that we see today. The end of millions of years of massive star evolution and the beginning of hundreds or thousands of years of supernova evolution are separated by a matter of a few seconds, in which some of the most extreme physics found in the Universe causes the explosive and terminal disruption of the star...
October 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923994/the-direct-identification-of-core-collapse-supernova-progenitors
#13
REVIEW
Schuyler D Van Dyk
To place core-collapse supernovae (SNe) in context with the evolution of massive stars, it is necessary to determine their stellar origins. I describe the direct identification of SN progenitors in existing pre-explosion images, particularly those obtained through serendipitous imaging of nearby galaxies by the Hubble Space Telescope I comment on specific cases representing the various core-collapse SN types. Establishing the astrometric coincidence of a SN with its putative progenitor is relatively straightforward...
October 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923993/spectropolarimetry-of-stripped-envelope-supernovae-observations-and-modelling
#14
Masaomi Tanaka
Spectropolarimetry is one of the most powerful methods to study the multi-dimensional geometry of supernovae (SNe). We present a brief summary of the spectropolarimetric observations of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe. Observations indicate that stripped-envelope SNe generally have a non-axisymmetric ion distribution in the ejecta. Three-dimensional clumpy geometry nicely explains the observed properties. A typical size of the clumps deduced from observations is relatively large: [Formula: see text]25% of the photosphere...
October 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923992/the-mechanism-s-of-core-collapse-supernovae
#15
REVIEW
Sean M Couch
Core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the explosions that attend the deaths of massive stars. Despite decades of research, several aspects of the mechanism that drives these explosions remain uncertain and the subjects of continued investigation. In this short review, I will give an overview of the CCSN mechanism and current research in the field. In particular, I will focus on recent results from three-dimensional simulations and the impact of turbulence and detailed non-spherical progenitor structure on CCSNe...
October 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923991/red-supergiants-as-supernova-progenitors
#16
REVIEW
Ben Davies
It is now well-established from pre-explosion imaging that red supergiants (RSGs) are the direct progenitors of Type-IIP supernovae. These images have been used to infer the physical properties of the exploding stars, yielding some surprising results. In particular, the differences between the observed and predicted mass spectrum has provided a challenge to our view of stellar evolutionary theory. However, turning what is typically a small number of pre-explosion photometric points into the physical quantities of stellar luminosity and mass requires a number of assumptions about the spectral appearance of RSGs, as well as their evolution in the last few years of life...
October 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923015/transcriptome-analysis-of-pseudostellaria-heterophylla-in-response-to-the-infection-of-pathogenic-fusarium-oxysporum
#17
Xianjin Qin, Hongmiao Wu, Jun Chen, Linkun Wu, Sheng Lin, Muhammad Umar Khan, Mohammad Reza Boorboori, Wenxiong Lin
BACKGROUND: Pseudostellaria heterophylla (P. heterophylla), a herbaceous perennial, belongs to Caryophyllaceae family and is one of the Chinese herbal medicine with high pharmacodynamic value. It can be used to treat the spleen deficiency, anorexia, weakness after illness and spontaneous perspiration symptoms. Our previous study found that consecutive monoculture of Pseudostellaria heterophylla could lead to the deterioration of the rhizosphere microenvironment. The specialized forms of pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f...
September 18, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922211/acute-effects-of-ammonia-inhalants-on-strength-and-power-performance-in-trained-men
#18
Sandro Bartolomei, Federico Nigro, Gubellini Luca, Semprini Gabriele, Simone Ciacci, Jay R Hoffman, Franco Merni
The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of ammonia inhalants on lower body power and maximal isometric strength in trained men. Twenty experienced resistance trained men (age = 26.7 ± 3.7 y; body weight = 80.59 ± 9.0 kg; body height = 179.5 ± 5.7 cm) were tested for counter movement jump power (CMJP), maximal force and rate of force development (pRFD20) expressed during an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). Assessments were performed using either an ammonia salt inhalants (AI), a placebo (PL) or no inhalants (N)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920977/axial-substitution-of-a-precursor-resulted-in-two-high-energy-copper-ii-complexes-with-superior-detonation-performances
#19
Xin Li, Qi Yang, Qing Wei, Gang Xie, Sanping Chen, Shengli Gao
The design and synthesis of explosives with high performance, good thermal stability, and low sensitivity is an important subject for the development of energetic materials. Energetic complexes have recently emerged as a promising energetic material form. As one of the representatives, [Cu(Htztr)2(H2O)2]n (H2tztr = 3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1H-triazole) was previously reported with good energetic performance, outstanding thermostability (Tdec = 345 °C) and low sensitivity to impact and friction stimuli. However, due to the existence of water molecules, its effective energy density is remarkably decreased, resulting in a diminished detonation performance...
September 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919663/methods-for-scalar-on-function-regression
#20
Philip T Reiss, Jeff Goldsmith, Han Lin Shang, R Todd Ogden
Recent years have seen an explosion of activity in the field of functional data analysis (FDA), in which curves, spectra, images, etc. are considered as basic functional data units. A central problem in FDA is how to fit regression models with scalar responses and functional data points as predictors. We review some of the main approaches to this problem, categorizing the basic model types as linear, nonlinear and nonparametric. We discuss publicly available software packages, and illustrate some of the procedures by application to a functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset...
August 2017: International Statistical Review, Revue Internationale de Statistique
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