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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551432/hydrothermal-pretreatment-of-wood-by-mild-steam-explosion-and-hot-water-extraction
#1
Joanna Wojtasz-Mucha, Merima Hasani, Hans Theliander
The aim of this work was to compare the two most common hydrothermal pre-treatments for wood - mild steam explosion and hot water extraction - both with the prospect of enabling extraction of hemicelluloses and facilitating further processing. Although both involve autohydrolysis of the lignocellulosic tissue, they are performed under different conditions: the most prominent difference is the rapid, disintegrating, discharge employed in the steam explosion opening up the structure. In this comparative study, the emphasis was placed on local composition of the pre-treated wood chips (of industrially relevant size)...
May 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550776/influence-of-sugarcane-bagasse-variability-on-sugar-recovery-for-cellulosic-ethanol-production
#2
Liliane Pires Andrade, Elaine Crespim, Nilton de Oliveira, Rafael Carinha de Campos, Juliana Conceição Teodoro, Célia Maria Araújo Galvão, Rubens Maciel Filho
In the context of cellulosic ethanol production, special attention must be given to the raw material, as it affects final product yield. As observed for sugarcane, bagasse variations may derive from several elements, for instance edaphoclimatic factors, seasonality, maturation stage and harvesting techniques. Therefore, in the present work, to investigate the impact of raw material characteristics on process performance, sugarcane bagasse from four harvests from October/2010 to October/2011 was pretreated by steam explosion and had its soluble and insoluble solids contents measured, following enzymatic hydrolysis to assess glucan conversion...
May 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548156/a-field-deployed-surface-plasmon-resonance-spr-sensor-for-rdx-quantification-in-environmental-waters
#3
Thibault Brulé, Geneviève Granger, Natalia Bukar, Clarisse Deschênes-Rancourt, Thierry Havard, Andreea R Schmitzer, Richard Martel, Jean-Francois Masson
A field-deployable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is reported for the detection of the energetic material (commonly termed explosives) 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) at ppb concentration in environmental samples. The SPR sensor was first validated under laboratory conditions with uncontaminated natural water samples spiked with known concentrations of RDX near the EPA limit of 2 ppb, which was then applied to monitor environmental samples collected in different downgradient wells near a grenade training range...
May 26, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547850/detection-of-contact-traces-of-powdery-substances
#4
Wojciech Pawłowski, Łukasz Matyjasek, Monika Karpińska
The current practice in securing the contact traces of chemical substances taken from clothes belonging to a person suspected of manual handling explosives is focused on pockets and cuffs. The outerwear worn by people who had contact with fluorescent powders that simulate explosives and drugs was the subject of this study. Clothes were first exposed to the test substance for a period of time and then analyzed by fluorescence methods to determine the location of the highest quantity of traces. The results obtained from the study confirm that the areas with the highest concentration of powdery traces are different from those suggested by current forensic practice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542917/characterizing-the-performance-of-pipe-bombs
#5
Jimmie C Oxley, James L Smith, Evan T Bernier, Fredrick Sandstrom, Gregory G Weiss, Gunther W Recht, David Schatzer
Pipe bombs of steel or PVC fragment in reproducible patterns when similarly configured. The power of the explosion correlates with number, mass, and size of the fragments recovered, where a large number of small, low-mass fragments indicate a high-power event and vice versa. In discussing performance, describing pipe fragmentation pattern by fragment weight distribution mapping (FWDM) or fragment surface area distribution mapping (FSADM) was useful. When fillers detonated, detonation velocities of ~4.4 mm/μs were measured...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541362/preparation-of-graphene-by-electrical-explosion-of-graphite-sticks
#6
Xin Gao, Chunxiao Xu, Hao Yin, Xiaoguang Wang, Qiuzhi Song, Pengwan Chen
Graphene nanosheets were produced by electrical explosion of high-purity graphite sticks in distilled water at room temperature. The as-prepared samples were characterized by various techniques to find different forms of carbon phases, including graphite nanosheets, few-layer graphene, and especially, mono-layer graphene with good crystallinity. Delicate control of energy injection is critical for graphene nanosheet formation, whereas mono-layer graphene was produced under the charging voltage of 22.5-23.5 kV...
May 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541353/pendant-chain-engineering-to-fine-tune-the-nanomorphologies-and-solid-state-luminescence-of-naphthalimide-aieegens-application-to-phenolic-nitro-explosive-detection-in-water
#7
Niranjan Meher, Parameswar Krishnan Iyer
Strategically, a series of five angular "V" shaped naphthalimide AIEEgens with varying pendant chains (butyl, hexyl, octyl, cyclohexyl and methylcyclohexyl) have been synthesized to fine-tune their nanomorphological and photophysical properties. With similar aromatic cores and electronic states, unexpected tuning of the condensed state emission colors and nanomorphologies (reproducible on any kind of surface) of naphthalimides has been achieved for the first time simply by varying their side chains. Conclusive analysis by various spectroscopic techniques (SC-XRD, powder-XRD, DLS, FESEM) and DFT computational studies confirmed the full control of the pendant chain (in terms of bulkiness around the naphthalimide core, which restricts the ease of intermolecular π-π interactions) over the nanoaggregate morphology and solid state emissive properties of the AIEEgens; this can be rationalized to all aggregation-prone systems...
May 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540729/dye-bio-mof-1-composite-as-a-dual-emitting-platform-for-enhanced-detection-of-a-wide-range-of-explosive-molecules
#8
Chen Wang, Li Tian, Wei Zhu, Shiqiang Wang, Peng Wang, Yun Liang, Wanlin Zhang, Hongwei Zhao, Guangtao Li
By incorporating a cationic dye within metal-organic framework (MOF) through ion-exchange process, a responsive dye@bio-MOF-1 composite has been synthesized, serving as a dual-emitting platform for enhanced detection of different kinds of nitro-explosives, especially the nitroalkanes, nitramines and nitrate esters. The dye@bio-MOF-1 composite was constructed with free amines on their well-defined cavities, which is essential for the capture of explosives into their confined nanospace. It was observed that the encapsulation of explosives into the constructed dye@bio-MOF-1 composite could dramatically alter the luminescent properties of the dyes as well as the MOF skeletons owing to the size exclusivity and confinement-induced effect...
May 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540717/imaging-laser-triggered-drug-release-from-gold-nanocages-with-transient-absorption-lifetime-microscopy-talm
#9
Yongkui Xu, Qi Liu, Ruoyu He, Xianchong Miao, Minbiao Ji
Nanoparticles have shown promise in loading and delivering drugs for targeted therapy. Many progresses have been made in the design, synthesis and modification of nanoparticles to fulfill such goals. However, realizing targeted intracellular delivery and controlled release of drugs remain challenging, partly due to the lack of reliable tools to detect the drug releasing process. In this paper, we applied femtosecond laser pulses to trigger the explosion of gold nanocages (AuNCs) and controlled the intracellular release of loaded AlPcS molecules for photodynamic therapy (PDT)...
May 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538318/do-fencers-require-a-weapon-specific-approach-to-strength-and-conditioning-training
#10
Anthony N Turner, Chris J Bishop, Jon A Cree, Michael L Edwards, Shyam Chavda, Paul J Read, David M J Kirby
Turner, AN, Bishop, CJ, Cree, JA, Edwards, ML, Chavda, S, Read, PJ, and Kirby, DMJ. Do fencers require a weapon-specific approach to strength and conditioning training? J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1662-1668, 2017-There are 3 types of weapons used in Olympic fencing: the épée, foil, and sabre. The aim of this study was to determine if fencers exhibited different physical characteristics across weapons. Seventy-nine male (n = 46) and female (n = 33) national standard fencers took part in this study. Fencers from each weapon (male and female), i...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538306/effects-of-sparring-load-on-reaction-speed-and-punch-force-during-the-precompetition-and-competition-periods-in-boxing
#11
Esa Hukkanen, Keijo Häkkinen
Hukkanen, E and Häkkinen, K. Effects of sparring load on reaction speed and punch force during the precompetition and competition periods in boxing. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1563-1568, 2017-Seven, male, national-level boxers (age, 20.3 ± 2.7 years; height, 1.80 ± 0.06 m; mass, 73.8 ± 11.1 kg) participated in this study to investigate the effects of sparring on reaction time and punch force of straight punches measured during the precompetition and competition periods. Heart rate and blood lactate concentrations were also monitored...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537423/express-polymorphic-phase-control-of-rdx-based-explosives
#12
John J Brady, Brittney L Argirakis, Alexander D Gordon, Richard T Lareau, Barry T Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536284/preprinting-microbiology
#13
Patrick D Schloss
The field of microbiology has experienced significant growth due to transformative advances in technology and the influx of scientists driven by a curiosity to understand how microbes sustain myriad biochemical processes that maintain Earth. With this explosion in scientific output, a significant bottleneck has been the ability to rapidly disseminate new knowledge to peers and the public. Preprints have emerged as a tool that a growing number of microbiologists are using to overcome this bottleneck. Posting preprints can help to transparently recruit a more diverse pool of reviewers prior to submitting to a journal for formal peer review...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535877/contemporary-management-of-maxillofacial-ballistic-trauma
#14
REVIEW
J Breeze, D Tong, A Gibbons
Ballistic maxillofacial trauma in the UK is fortunately relatively rare, and generally involves low velocity handguns and shotguns. Civilian terrorist events have, however, shown that all maxillofacial surgeons need to understand how to treat injuries from improvised explosive devices. Maxillofacial surgeons in the UK have also been responsible for the management of soldiers evacuated from Iraq and Afghanistan, and in this review we describe the newer types of treatment that have evolved from these conflicts, particularly that of damage-control maxillofacial surgery...
May 20, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535254/invited-commentary-cassel-s-the-contribution-of-the-social-environment-to-host-resistance-a-modern-classic
#15
Sherman A James
John Cassel's 1976 paper "The Contribution of the Social Environment to Host Resistance" (Am J Epidemiol. 1976;104(2):107-123) is widely regarded as a classic in epidemiology. He makes the compelling argument that the quality of a person's social relationships, that is, the degree to which her relationships are more stressful than supportive (or vice versa) influences her susceptibility to disease independent of genetic endowment, diet, physical activity, etc. Cassel's provocative thesis was anchored in a cogent synthesis of findings from animal experiments and observational studies on diverse human populations...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534157/infrared-laser-ablation-with-vacuum-capture-for-fingermark-sampling
#16
Fabrizio Donnarumma, Eden E Camp, Fan Cao, Kermit K Murray
Infrared laser ablation coupled to vacuum capture was employed to collect material from fingermarks deposited on surfaces of different porosity and roughness. Laser ablation at 3 μm was performed in reflection mode with subsequent capture of the ejecta with a filter connected to vacuum. Ablation and capture of standards from fingermarks was demonstrated on glass, plastic, aluminum, and cardboard surfaces. Using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), it was possible to detect caffeine after spiking with amounts as low as 1 ng...
May 22, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531559/per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-in-firefighting-foam-concentrates-and-water-samples-collected-near-sites-impacted-by-the-use-of-these-foams
#17
Xavier Dauchy, Virginie Boiteux, Cristina Bach, Christophe Rosin, Jean-François Munoz
To extinguish large-scale fuel fires, fluorosurfactant based foams (FSBFs) were developed in the 1960s and have been used ever since. In this study, 154 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including 122 emerging PFASs used as surfactants in FSBFs were sought in nine different foam concentrates. Field investigations were also carried out in the vicinity of four sites where FSBFs are or were intensively used (two airports, a training center for firefighters and an oil storage depot after a large explosion)...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530774/a-rare-type-of-burn-injury-due-to-butane-gas-inhalation
#18
Ergin Seven, Uğur Horoz, Elif Sarı, Hülda Rifat Özakpınar, Mert Muhittin Sandıkcı, Emre İnözü, Ali Teoman Tellioğlu
BACKGROUND: Abusive inhalation of butane gas is becoming a serious public health problem among teenagers and young adult population; however, there has been little reporting on explosion burns associated with abuse of butane cigarette lighter fluid. METHODS: Retrospective study was conducted of 22 patients who were burned in last 2 years in explosion of butane gas, a flammable, odorless, and colorless aliphatic hydrocarbon. RESULTS: Details of sociodemographic profile of the patients, any underlying psychiatric illness, alcohol abuse, depth of burn injury, any associated injury, duration of hospitalization, and percentage of burned area were recorded and analyzed...
May 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530728/ultrafast-coulomb-explosion-of-a-diiodomethane-molecule-induced-by-an-x-ray-free-electron-laser-pulse
#19
Tsukasa Takanashi, Kosuke Nakamura, Edwin Kukk, Koji Motomura, Hironobu Fukuzawa, Kiyonobu Nagaya, Shin-Ichi Wada, Yoshiaki Kumagai, Denys Iablonskyi, Yuta Ito, Yuta Sakakibara, Daehyun You, Toshiyuki Nishiyama, Kazuki Asa, Yuhiro Sato, Takayuki Umemoto, Kango Kariyazono, Kohei Ochiai, Manabu Kanno, Kaoru Yamazaki, Kuno Kooser, Christophe Nicolas, Catalin Miron, Theodor Asavei, Liviu Neagu, Markus Schöffler, Gregor Kastirke, Xiao-Jing Liu, Artem Rudenko, Shigeki Owada, Tetsuo Katayama, Tadashi Togashi, Kensuke Tono, Makina Yabashi, Hirohiko Kono, Kiyoshi Ueda
Coulomb explosion of diiodomethane CH2I2 molecules irradiated by ultrashort and intense X-ray pulses from SACLA, the Japanese X-ray free electron laser facility, was investigated by multi-ion coincidence measurements and self-consistent charge density-functional-based tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) simulations. The diiodomethane molecule, containing two heavy-atom X-ray absorbing sites, exhibits a rather different charge generation and nuclear motion dynamics compared to iodomethane CH3I with only a single heavy atom, as studied earlier...
May 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530475/a-novel-electromyographic-approach-to-estimate-fatigue-threshold-in-maximum-incremental-strength-tests
#20
Jerónimo Aragón-Vela, Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Cristina Casals, Julio Plaza-Díaz, Rafael A Casuso, Luis Fontana, Jesus R Huertas
Evaluation of muscular fatigue thresholds in athletes performing short-duration and explosive exercises is difficult due to the fact that classic parameters do not suffer large variations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a new method to estimate the fatigue threshold in single muscles. Our approach is based on electromyographic data recorded during a maximun incremental strength test until the one repetition maximum (1RM) is reached. Ten men and ten women performed a half-squat strength test consisting of five incremental intensities of 1RM...
May 22, 2017: Motor Control
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