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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150596/forming-a-three-dimensional-porous-organic-network-via-solid-state-explosion-of-organic-single-crystals
#1
Seo-Yoon Bae, Dongwook Kim, Dongbin Shin, Javeed Mahmood, In-Yup Jeon, Sun-Min Jung, Sun-Hee Shin, Seok-Jin Kim, Noejung Park, Myoung Soo Lah, Jong-Beom Baek
Solid-state reaction of organic molecules holds a considerable advantage over liquid-phase processes in the manufacturing industry. However, the research progress in exploring this benefit is largely staggering, which leaves few liquid-phase systems to work with. Here, we show a synthetic protocol for the formation of a three-dimensional porous organic network via solid-state explosion of organic single crystals. The explosive reaction is realized by the Bergman reaction (cycloaromatization) of three enediyne groups on 2,3,6,7,14,15-hexaethynyl-9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150001/crispr-history-discovery-characterization-and-prosperity
#2
Wenyuan Han, Qunxin She
CRISPR research is a very young research field since it was only 10years ago when the system was found to confer antiviral defense. Nevertheless, there has been an explosion of publications in CRISPR research in the past 5years. The research was started with the comparative genomics of microbial genomes early this century, which revealed the prevalence of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) in bacteria and archaea. Series of hypotheses were made based on bioinformatics analyses and tested experimentally within a few years after the CRISPR acronym was coined...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147689/a-theoretical-prediction-on-the-shear-induced-phase-transformation-of-tkx-50
#3
Zhipeng Lu, Xianggui Xue, Chaoyang Zhang
Dihydroxylammonium 5,5'-bistetrazole-1,1'-diolate (TKX-50) is a new and attractive energetic material that outperforms numerous common explosives because of its excellent properties and performance, and is thus a promising candidate to replace some of them. Nevertheless, knowledge of its physico-chemical properties, in particular, the underlying mechanism for it undergoing external stimuli for complete decay still remains poor. In the present study, we ascertain a preferred slip system of (010)/[101] and a shear-induced phase transition of TKX-50 with the aid of theoretical calculations...
November 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146491/respiratory-stress-in-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain-complex-mutants-of-candida-albicans-activates-snf1-kinase-response
#4
Pengyi Zhang, Hongbin Li, Jie Cheng, April Y Sun, Liqing Wang, Gordana Mircevska, Richard Calderone, Dongmei Li
We have previously established that mitochondrial Complex I (CI) mutants of Candida albicans display reduced oxygen consumption, decreased ATP production, and increased reactive oxidant species (ROS) during cell growth. Using the Seahorse XF96 analyzer, the energetic phenotypes of Electron Transport Chain (ETC) complex mutants are further characterized in the current study. The underlying regulation of energetic changes in these mutants is determined in glucose and non-glucose conditions when compared to wild type (WT) cells...
November 13, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144602/neuroplasticity-following-short-term-strength-training-occurs-at-supraspinal-level-and-is-specific-for-the-trained-task
#5
Louis-Solal Giboin, Benjamin Weiss, Felix Thomas, Markus Gruber
AIMS: Different modalities of strength training cause performance enhancements, which are specific for the trained task. However, the involved mechanisms are still largely unknown. It has been demonstrated that strength training could induce neuroplasticity, which might underlie the performance improvements during the first training sessions. Thus, we hypothesized to find task-specific neuroplasticity after a short-term strength training of two distinct strength tasks. METHODS: Young healthy male subjects were exposed to 4 sessions of either maximal isometric explosive (EXPL group, N = 9) or slow sustained (SUS group, N = 10) knee extensions...
November 16, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144434/the-role-of-non-coding-rnas-in-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-flowering-plants
#6
REVIEW
Helena Štorchová
The interactions between mitochondria and nucleus substantially influence plant development, stress response and morphological features. The prominent example of a mitochondrial-nuclear interaction is cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), when plants produce aborted anthers or inviable pollen. The genes responsible for CMS are located in mitochondrial genome, but their expression is controlled by nuclear genes, called fertility restorers. Recent explosion of high-throughput sequencing methods enabled to study transcriptomic alterations in the level of non-coding RNAs under CMS biogenesis...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144134/haloarene-linked-unsymmetrically-substituted-triarylethenes-small-aiegens-to-detect-nitroaromatics-and-volatile-organic-compounds
#7
Moghal Zubair Khalid Baig, Prabhat Kumar Sahu, Moloy Sarkar, Manab Chakravarty
Unsymmetrically substituted triarylalkenes as aggregation-induced emission-active fluorogens (AIEgens) are sporadically explored by different researchers. In this paper, naphthalene, biphenyl and haloarene-linked new triarylethenes are conveniently synthesized and presented as unsymmetrically substituted extensive π-conjugates to continue the discovery of small molecules as new AIEgens. Moreover, fluorophores attached to haloarenes are noteworthy but such compounds are barely investigated as AIEgens. The possible mechanism underlying this AIE-behavior has also been addressed by the support of experimental/theoretical outcomes...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143024/an-analysis-of-the-explosion-limits-of-hydrogen-oxygen-mixtures-with-nonlinear-chain-reactions
#8
Wenkai Liang, Chung K Law
The ignition boundary of hydrogen/oxygen mixtures is a Z-shaped curve in the pressure-temperature space, demonstrating the existence of three explosion limits. In this study, a general analysis governing all the three explosion limits in an isothermal environment is performed by considering both linear chain reactions (reactant-radical reactions) and nonlinear chain reactions (radical-radical reactions), in addition to the zeroth-order reactant-reactant reactions. For the nonlinear reactions, it is further shown that the linear-nonlinear coupling has the major influence, while the effect of nonlinear-nonlinear coupling is negligible...
November 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142265/publisher-correction-tropical-explosive-volcanic-eruptions-can-trigger-el-ni%C3%A3-o-by-cooling-tropical-africa
#9
Myriam Khodri, Takeshi Izumo, Jérôme Vialard, Serge Janicot, Christophe Cassou, Matthieu Lengaigne, Juliette Mignot, Guillaume Gastineau, Eric Guilyardi, Nicolas Lebas, Alan Robock, Michael J McPhaden
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this article.
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141134/cellular-analysis-using-microfluidics
#10
Jay Sibbitts, Kathleen A Sellens, Shu Jia, Scott A Klasner, Christopher T Culbertson
Cells are the fundamental building blocks of life. Changes within a cell can propagate throughout much larger, more complex systems. Understanding how these changes arise internally within a cell and how cellular signals are transmitted through larger systems of cells, whether those systems be an organ, organism or a larger environmental assemblage, are critical, for example, to understanding how diseases arise and spread and how cells communicate and coordinate their actions. Microfluidic devices provide unique platforms from which to study many of these intra- and intercellular processes...
November 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140634/combustibility-determination-for-cotton-gin-dust-and-almond-huller-dust
#11
Sidney E Hughs, Phillip J Wakelyn
It has been documented that some dusts generated while processing agricultural products, such as grain and sugar, can constitute combustible dust hazards. After a catastrophic dust explosion in a sugar refinery in 2008, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) initiated action to develop a mandatory standard to comprehensively address the fire and explosion hazards of combustible dusts. Cotton fiber and related materials from cotton ginning, in loose form, can support smoldering combustion if ignited by an outside source...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140524/noncodev5-a-comprehensive-annotation-database-for-long-non-coding-rnas
#12
ShuangSang Fang, LiLi Zhang, JinCheng Guo, YiWei Niu, Yang Wu, Hui Li, LianHe Zhao, XiYuan Li, XueYi Teng, XianHui Sun, Liang Sun, Michael Q Zhang, RunSheng Chen, Yi Zhao
NONCODE (http://www.bioinfo.org/noncode/) is a systematic database that is dedicated to presenting the most complete collection and annotation of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), especially long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Since NONCODE 2016 was released two years ago, the amount of novel identified ncRNAs has been enlarged by the reduced cost of next-generation sequencing, which has produced an explosion of newly identified data. The third-generation sequencing revolution has also offered longer and more accurate annotations...
November 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140305/probabilistic-prognosis-of-environmental-radioactivity-concentrations-due-to-radioisotopes-discharged-to-water-bodies-from-nuclear-power-plants
#13
Juan Tomás Zerquera, Juan C Mora, Beatriz Robles
Due to their very low values, the complexity of comparing the contribution of nuclear power plants (NPPs) to environmental radioactivity with modeled values is recognized. In order to compare probabilistic prognosis of radioactivity concentrations with environmental measurement values, an exercise was performed using public data of radioactive routine discharges from three representative Spanish nuclear power plants. Specifically, data on liquid discharges from three Spanish NPPs: Almaraz, Vandellós II, and Ascó to three different aquatic bodies (river, lake, and coast) were used...
November 15, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138444/the-elusive-evidence-of-volcanic-lightning
#14
K Genareau, P Gharghabi, J Gafford, M Mazzola
Lightning strikes are known to morphologically alter and chemically reduce geologic formations and deposits, forming fulgurites. A similar process occurs as the result of volcanic lightning discharge, when airborne volcanic ash is transformed into lightning-induced volcanic spherules (LIVS). Here, we adapt the calculations used in previous studies of lightning-induced damage to infrastructure materials to determine the effects on pseudo-ash samples of simplified composition. Using laboratory high-current impulse experiments, this research shows that within the lightning discharge channel there is an ideal melting zone that represents roughly 10% or less of the total channel radius at which temperatures are sufficient to melt the ash, regardless of peak current...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136920/forensic-utility-of-a-nitrogen-and-oxygen-isotope-ratio-time-series-of-ammonium-nitrate-and-its-isolated-ions
#15
Brittany L Grimm, Libby A Stern, Alexander J Lowe
Ammonium nitrate (AN) based fertilizers are inexpensive and easily obtained, characteristics that often lead to their use in homemade explosive devices. The stable nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios ((15)N/(14)N and (18)O/(16)O, expressed as δ(15)N and δ(18)O) of AN have the potential to aid in forensic investigations by providing supplemental properties for sample-to-sample comparison in materials which are otherwise chemically identical. The forensic utility of stable isotope analyses depends on demonstrated variation between different sources and minimal variation within a source...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136069/ionization-and-separation-as-a-strategy-for-significantly-enhancing-the-thermal-stability-of-an-instable-system-a-case-for-hydroxylamine-based-salts-relative-to-that-for-pure-hydroxylamine
#16
Yu Ma, Xudong He, Liya Meng, Xianggui Xue, Chaoyang Zhang
Energetic ionic salts (EISs) are attracting extensive attention because of their ready preparation and some excellent properties and performances that are comparable to those of common explosives with neutral molecules. Hydroxylamine (HA) is protonated or ionized as H-HA(+) and preferred to be introduced into EISs to form HA-based EISs with almost all kinds of anions since these EISs possess higher packing densities and thus more excellent detonation performances than others with the same anions. Moreover, relative to that of pure HA, the thermal stability of HA-based EISs is significantly enhanced...
November 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135223/room-temperature-synthesis-of-gan-driven-by-kinetic-energy-beyond-the-limit-of-thermodynamics
#17
Takane Imaoka, Takeru Okada, Seiji Samukawa, Kimihisa Yamamoto
The nitridation reaction is significantly important to utilize the unique properties of nitrides and nitrogen-doped materials. However, nitridation generally requires a high temperature or highly reactive reagents (often explosive) because the energies of N-N bond cleavage and nitrogen anion formation (N(3-)) are very high. We demonstrate the first room-temperature synthesis of GaN directly from GaCl3 by nanoscale atom exchange reaction. Nonequilibrium nitrogen molecules with very high translational energy were used as a chemically stable and safe nitrogen source...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132142/solar-abundance-ratios-of-the-iron-peak-elements-in-the-perseus-cluster
#18
(no author information available yet)
The metal abundance of the hot plasma that permeates galaxy clusters represents the accumulation of heavy elements produced by billions of supernovae. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy of the intracluster medium provides an opportunity to investigate the nature of supernova explosions integrated over cosmic time. In particular, the abundance of the iron-peak elements (chromium, manganese, iron and nickel) is key to understanding how the progenitors of typical type Ia supernovae evolve and explode. Recent X-ray studies of the intracluster medium found that the abundance ratios of these elements differ substantially from those seen in the Sun, suggesting differences between the nature of type Ia supernovae in the clusters and in the Milky Way...
November 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132126/improved-analysis-of-ground-vibrations-produced-by-man-made-sources
#19
Daniel Ainalis, Loïc Ducarne, Olivier Kaufmann, Jean-Pierre Tshibangu, Olivier Verlinden, Georges Kouroussis
Man-made sources of ground vibration must be carefully monitored in urban areas in order to ensure that structural damage and discomfort to residents is prevented or minimised. The research presented in this paper provides a comparative evaluation of various methods used to analyse a series of tri-axial ground vibration measurements generated by rail, road, and explosive blasting. The first part of the study is focused on comparing various techniques to estimate the dominant frequency, including time-frequency analysis...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131608/metabolism-and-photolysis-of-2-4-dinitroanisole-in-arabidopsis
#20
Hunter W Schroer, Xueshu Li, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Craig L Just
New insensitive munitions explosives, including 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), are replacing traditional explosive compounds to protect soldiers and simplify transport logistics. Despite the occupational safety benefits of these new explosives, feasible strategies for cleaning up DNAN from soil and water have not been developed. Here, we evaluate the metabolism of DNAN by the model plant Arabidopsis to determine whether phytoremediation can be used to clean up contaminated sites. Furthermore, we evaluate the role of photodegradation of DNAN and its plant metabolites within Arabidopsis leaves to determine the potential impact of photolysis on the phytoremediation of contaminants...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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