Read by QxMD icon Read

Vascular resistance

Shadi Shafaghi, Azizollah Abbasi Dezfuli, Zahra Ansari Aval, Kambiz Sheikhy, Behrooz Farzanegan, Esmaeil Mortaz, Habib Emami, Clemens Aigner, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini-Baharanchi, Katayoun Najafizadeh
OBJECTIVES: Although the number of lung transplants is limited because of general shortage of organ donors, ex vivo lung perfusion is a novel method with 2 main benefits, including better evaluation of lung potential and recovery of injured lungs. The main aim of this study was to establish and operationalize ex vivo lung perfusion as the first experience in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective operational research study on 5 cases, including 1 pig from Vienna Medical University and 4 patients from Masih Daneshvari Hospital...
October 14, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Ashley M Stokes, Charles P Hart, C Chad Quarles
High-grade gliomas are often characterized by hypoxia, which is associated with both poor long-term prognosis and therapy resistance. The adverse role hypoxia plays in treatment resistance and disease progression has led to the development of hypoxia imaging methods and hypoxia-targeted treatments. Here, we determined the tumor hypoxia and vascular perfusion characteristics of 2 rat orthotopic glioma models using 18-fluoromisonidozole positron emission tomography. In addition, we determined tumor response to the hypoxia-activated prodrug evofosfamide (TH-302) in these rat glioma models...
September 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
Leroy L Cooper, Gary F Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and cognitive decline. This mini-review focuses on relations of aortic stiffness with microvascular dysfunction and discusses the contribution of abnormal pulsatile hemodynamics to cerebrovascular damage and cognitive decline. We also provide a rationale for considering aortic stiffness as a putative and important contributor to memory impairment in older individuals. SUMMARY: Aging is associated with stiffening of the aorta but not the muscular arteries, which reduces wave reflection and increases the transmission of pulsatility into the periphery...
September 2016: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
Alexander Reinthaller
Angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in normal ovarian physiology as well as in the formation and progression of ovarian cancer. Several well-designed phase II and III trials studied the efficacy of antiangiogenic agents in advanced ovarian cancer. The results of these trials demonstrated significantly prolonged progression-free survival when antiangiogenic agents were used as a maintenance therapy. To date, no effect on overall survival could be ascertained. The most widely studied antiangiogenic agent, bevacizumab - a monoclonal humanized antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor - was effective in all phases of the disease (first-line therapy, platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant recurrence)...
2016: Memo
Shahbaz R Arain, Julie K Freed, Jutta Novalija, Paul S Pagel, Thomas J Ebert
OBJECTIVE: The mechanism of perioperative hypotension in patients taking an angiotensin-receptor blocker up to the time of surgery remains unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that short-term angiotensin-receptor blocker treatment attenuated the sympathetic and vascular responses to autonomic stimuli in volunteers undergoing anesthesia. DESIGN: Randomized, crossover, blinded, pilot design. SETTING: Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
David M Turer, Kelly L Koch, Todd M Koelling, Audrey H Wu, Francis D Pagani, Jonathan W Haft
Centrifugal and axial flow left ventricular assist devices have different hydrodynamic properties that may impact the effectiveness of left ventricular unloading. We sought to determine if patients implanted with the HeartWare HVAD (HW) and HeartMate II (HMII) had a similar degree of hemodynamic support by comparing parameters measured using echocardiography and right heart catheterization. Using our prospectively collected database, we identified 268 patients implanted with the HMII and 93 with the HW. Demographic characteristics were similar between groups...
July 26, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Anna Otte, Yuanyuan Yang, Juliane von der Ohe, Catharina Melzer, Peter Hillemanns, Friedrich Feuerhake, Ralf Hass
Chemotherapeutic drug testing of SCCOHT-1 and BIN-67 tumor cells revealed synergistic growth-inhibition of >95% in vitro with a combination of foretinib and FK228. Application of this drug combination in vivo in NODscid mice-induced SCCOHT-1GFP tumors was associated with ~6-fold reduction in tumor mass within 10 days, whereby synergistic effects of the two compounds remained undetectable compared to previous results with foretinib treatment alone. Histopathologic evaluation revealed a reduced vascularization and a lower amount of proliferating cells in the treated tumors...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Man Zhao, Shuliang Yu, Man Zhang
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major obstacle to bladder cancer chemotherapy. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the development of MDR, including extrusion of the drug by cell membrane pumps, associated with P‑glycoprotein (P‑gp) and multidrug resistance‑associated protein (MRP); increased DNA damage repair, associated with topoisomerase II (Topo II); suppression of drug‑induced apoptosis, associated with p53; and regulation of cancer cell growth, associated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Sophia Frentzas, Eve Simoneau, Victoria L Bridgeman, Peter B Vermeulen, Shane Foo, Eleftherios Kostaras, Mark R Nathan, Andrew Wotherspoon, Zu-Hua Gao, Yu Shi, Gert Van den Eynden, Frances Daley, Clare Peckitt, Xianming Tan, Ayat Salman, Anthoula Lazaris, Patrycja Gazinska, Tracy J Berg, Zak Eltahir, Laila Ritsma, Jacco van Rheenen, Alla Khashper, Gina Brown, Hanna Nyström, Malin Sund, Steven Van Laere, Evelyne Loyer, Luc Dirix, David Cunningham, Peter Metrakos, Andrew R Reynolds
The efficacy of angiogenesis inhibitors in cancer is limited by resistance mechanisms that are poorly understood. Notably, instead of through the induction of angiogenesis, tumor vascularization can occur through the nonangiogenic mechanism of vessel co-option. Here we show that vessel co-option is associated with a poor response to the anti-angiogenic agent bevacizumab in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases. Moreover, we find that vessel co-option is also prevalent in human breast cancer liver metastases, a setting in which results with anti-angiogenic therapy have been disappointing...
October 17, 2016: Nature Medicine
Ferruh Artunc, Erwin Schleicher, Cora Weigert, Andreas Fritsche, Norbert Stefan, Hans-Ulrich Häring
Insulin resistance is a systemic disorder that affects many organs and insulin-regulated pathways. The disorder is characterized by a reduced action of insulin despite increased insulin concentrations (hyperinsulinaemia). The effects of insulin on the kidney and vasculature differ in part from the effects on classical insulin target organs. Insulin causes vasodilation by enhancing endothelial nitric oxide production through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. In insulin-resistant states, this pathway is impaired and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway stimulates vasoconstriction...
October 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Georges Jabbour, Pascale Mauriege, Denis Joanisse, Horia-Daniel Iancu
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks of supramaximal exercise training (SET) on performance variables and metabolic changes in sedentary obese adults. Twenty-four obese adults were randomly allocated into a non-trained (NT) [n = 12; body mass index (BMI) = 33(3)] and SET group [n = 12; BMI = (33(2)]. After baseline metabolic and fitness measurements, the participants completed a 6-week SET intervention. Metabolic, anthropometric, and fitness assessments were repeated post-intervention...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Anikó Ilona Nagy, Ashwin Venkateshvaran, Béla Merkely, Lars H Lund, Aristomenis Manouras
AIMS: The diastolic pulmonary pressure gradient (DPG) has recently been introduced as a specific marker of combined pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension (Cpc-PH) in left heart disease (LHD). However, its diagnostic and prognostic superiority compared with traditional haemodynamic indices has been challenged lately. Current recommendations explicitly denote that in the normal heart, DPG values are greater than zero, with DPG ≥7 mmHg indicating Cpc-PH. However, clinicians are perplexed by the frequent observation of DPG <0 mmHg (DPGNEG ), as its physiological explanation and clinical impact are unclear to date...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
N H Sperna Weiland, D Breevoord, D A Jöbsis, E M F H de Beaumont, V Evers, B Preckel, M W Hollmann, S van Dieren, B A J M de Mol, R V Immink
Despite a rise in blood pressure, cerebral oxygenation decreases following phenylephrine administration, and we hypothesised that phenylephrine reduces cerebral oxygenation by activating cerebral α1 receptors. We studied patients on cardiopulmonary bypass during constant flow. Phenylephrine raised mean arterial pressure (α1 -mediated) from mean (SD) 69 (8) mmHg to 79 (8) mmHg; p = 0.001, and vasopressin raised mean arterial pressure (V1 mediated) from 69 (8) mmHg to 83 (6) mmHg; p = 0.001. Both drugs elicited a comparable decrease in cerebral oxygenation from 61 (7)% to 60 (7)%; p = 0...
October 17, 2016: Anaesthesia
Ji-Eun Im, Sun-Hwa Song, Wonhee Suh
PURPOSE: Stem cell factor (SCF) has been recently acknowledged as a novel endothelial permeability factor. However, the mechanisms by which SCF-induced activation of the SCF cognate receptor, cKit, enhances endothelial permeability have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the role of Src in SCF-induced breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). METHODS: In vitro endothelial permeability and in vivo retinal vascular permeability assays were performed to investigate the role of Src in SCF-induced breakdown of the BRB...
2016: Molecular Vision
Kara Rye, Gerri Mortimore, Andrew Austin, Jan Freeman
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cirrhosis and portal hypertension are characterised by a hyperdynamic circulation, which is independently associated with variceal size. Non-invasive techniques for measurement of systemic haemodynamics are now available. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the accuracy of systemic haemodynamics measured non-invasively for the detection of oesophageal varices in cirrhotic patients as compared to other currently available non-invasive methods. METHODS: In a study of 29 cirrhotic patients, systemic haemodynamics were studied non-invasively using the Finometer(®) (mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO)/index, heart rate (HR), peripheral vascular resistance) and portal pressure was assessed by hepatic venous pressure gradient...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Dhurjoti Prosad Bhattacharjee, Sauvik Saha, Sanjib Paul, Shibsankar Roychowdhary, Shirsendu Mondal, Suhrita Paul
BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery increases arterial pressures, heart rate (HR), and systemic vascular resistance. In this randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we investigated and compared the efficacy of esmolol and dexmedetomidine to provide perioperative hemodynamic stability in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Sixty patients, of either sex undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were randomly allocated into three groups containing twenty patients each...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Tetsuro Sawata, Masashi Bando, Masayuki Nakayama, Naoko Mato, Hideaki Yamasawa, Yukihiko Sugiyama
Objective The influence of smoking on the pathogenesis and clinical course of interstitial pneumonia has recently attracted attention. To clarify the influence of smoking on the clinical patient characteristics and therapeutic effects in patients with interstitial pneumonia presenting with a non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) pattern, we compared the clinical patient characteristics and therapeutic effects in smokers and nonsmokers in this study. Methods We divided 31 NSIP (16 idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and 15 collagen vascular disease-associated nonspecific interstitial pneumonia) patients into smoker and non-smoker groups for each case...
2016: Internal Medicine
Martin A Alpert, Jad Omran, Brian P Bostick
Obesity produces a variety of hemodynamic alterations that may cause changes in cardiac morphology which predispose to left and right ventricular dysfunction. Various neurohormonal and metabolic alterations commonly associated with obesity may contribute to these abnormalities of cardiac structure and function. These changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics, cardiac morphology, and ventricular function may, in severely obese patients, predispose to heart failure, even in the absence of other forms of heart disease (obesity cardiomyopathy)...
October 15, 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Munehiro Kitada, Yoshio Ogura, Daisuke Koya
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to atherosclerosis is the main cause of death in both the elderly and patients with metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Aging processes contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Calorie restriction (CR) is recognized as a dietary intervention for promoting longevity and delaying age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis. Sirt1, an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, is considered an anti-aging molecule and is induced during CR. Sirt1 deacetylates target proteins and is linked to cellular metabolism, the redox state and survival pathways...
October 15, 2016: Aging
Wonho Kim, Ramon Quesada, Melanie B Schernthaner, Raul E Herrera, Juan-Carlos Zevallos, Victor N Becerra, Juan M Acuña, Barry T Katzen
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether successful revascularization of total occlusion of a large lower-extremity artery is associated with improvement of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. BACKGROUND: Total occlusion of a large lower-extremity artery might affect the systemic vascular resistance and increase the afterload, because the left ventricle must work harder to eject blood into a smaller vascular bed. Chronic elevation of afterload is a cause of LV diastolic dysfunction...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"