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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338653/a-new-alchemical-poem-attributed-to-kh%C3%A4-lid-b-yaz%C3%A4-d-d-ca-705
#1
George Saliba
This paper deals primarily with the identification of an inaccurately catalogued alchemical poem attributed to the famous Umayyad prince Khālid b. Yazīd (d. 705), edited, translated, and commented upon here for the first time. The paper also addresses the authenticity of Khālid's interest in alchemy and connects that interest to the need of the early Islamic empire to develop its own gold coinage as a sign of political independence from Byzantine coinage that was up till then the currency of the lands occupied by early Muslims in the regions of modern-day Egypt and Syria...
August 2017: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325852/quality-and-readability-of-internet-based-information-on-halitosis
#2
Jung Hwan Jo, Eui Joo Kim, Ji Rak Kim, Moon Jong Kim, Jin Woo Chung, Ji Woon Park
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality and readability of Internet-based information on halitosis. STUDY DESIGN: An Internet search through 3 engines (Google, Yahoo, and Bing) was done with the terms ("bad breath," "halitosis," "oral malodor," "foul breath," "mouth malodor," "breath malodor," "fetor ex ore," "fetor oris," "ozostomia," and "stomatodysodia"). The first 50 websites from each engine resulting from each search term were screened. Included websites were evaluated using Health on the Net (HON) criteria, Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks, DISCERN, Ensuring Quality Information for Patients (EQIP), Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) score, and Flesch-Kincaid Grade level...
December 8, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322288/an-exploration-of-how-simulated-gambling-games-may-promote-gambling-with-money
#3
REVIEW
Tess Armstrong, Matthew Rockloff, Matthew Browne, En Li
Portable media devices, such as smartphones, have allowed gambling related content to infiltrate into a new market of potential consumers. Simulated gambling products are now readily available through multiple online platforms, and are becoming a popular form of entertainment for many young media users. Despite widespread use of these products, very little is known about how continued exposure to and involvement with simulated gambling may impact on real-money gambling attitudes and behaviours, particularly for young consumers...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314478/navigating-systems-ideas-for-health-practice-towards-a-common-learning-device
#4
Martin Reynolds, Eric Sarriot, Robert Chad Swanson, Evan Rusoja
Systems thinking and reference to complexity science have gained currency in health sector practice and research. The extent to which such ideas might represent a mere passing fad or might more usefully be mobilized to tackle wicked problems in health systems is a concern underpinning this paper. Developing the usefulness of the systems idea requires appreciating how systems ideas are used essentially as constructs conceptually bounded by practitioners. Systems are used for purposes of understanding and engaging the reality of health issues, with the intent of transforming the reality into one that is more manageable, equitable, and sustainable...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281652/basalt-geochemistry-reveals-high-frequency-of-prehistoric-tool-exchange-in-low-hierarchy-marquesas-islands-polynesia
#5
Andrew McAlister, Melinda S Allen
Exchange activities, formal or otherwise, serve a variety of purposes and were prominent in many Pacific Island societies, both during island settlement and in late prehistory. Recent Polynesian studies highlight the role of exchange in the region's most hierarchical polities where it contributed to wealth economies, emergent leadership, and status rivalry in late prehistory. Building on this research, we hypothesized that exchange in low hierarchy chiefdoms (kin-based polities where there are distinctions between commoners and elites but ranking within the latter is lacking, weak, or ephemeral) would differ in frequency and function from that associated with strongly hierarchical polities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258907/systematic-reviews-with-published-protocols-compared-to-those-without-more-effort-older-search
#6
REVIEW
Katharina Allers, Falk Hoffmann, Tim Mathes, Dawid Pieper
OBJECTIVE: To explore trends in published protocols of systematic reviews (SRs) and to analyse how SRs with published protocols differ from those without. STUDY DESIGN: We searched PubMed up to 31 December 2016 to identify SR protocols. We also searched for the corresponding SR for each protocol published in 2012 and 2013 and matched this with a SR without published protocol by year and journal. RESULTS: The number of protocols published increased from 42 in 2012 to 404 in 2016; 125 were published in 2012 and 2013...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258734/interventions-to-enhance-effective-communication-during-over-the-counter-consultations-in-the-community-pharmacy-setting-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Liza J Seubert, Kerry Whitelaw, Laetitia Hattingh, Margaret C Watson, Rhonda M Clifford
BACKGROUND: Easy access to effective over-the-counter (OTC) treatments allows self-management of some conditions, however inappropriate or incorrect supply or use of OTC medicines can cause harm. Pharmacy personnel should support consumers in their health-seeking behaviour by utilising effective communication skills underpinned by clinical knowledge. OBJECTIVE: To identify interventions targeted towards improving communication between consumers and pharmacy personnel during OTC consultations in the community pharmacy setting...
December 13, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241476/inahta-impact-story-legislative-and-accreditation-requirements-for-office-based-surgery-in-australia
#8
David Tivey, Ning Ma, Joanna Duncan, Yasoba Atukorale, Robyn Lambert, Guy Maddern
BACKGROUND: There is growing trend for some surgical procedures previously performed in hospitals to be done in alternative settings, including office-based facilities. There has been some safety concerns reported in the media, which document serious adverse events following procedures performed in an office-based setting. To understand the current regulatory oversight of surgery in this setting ASERNIP-S conducted a review of the legislative and accreditation process governing these facilities in Australia...
January 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223847/funding-breakthrough-therapies-a-systematic-review-and-recommendation
#9
REVIEW
E Hanna, M Toumi, C Dussart, B Borissov, O Dabbous, K Badora, P Auquier
BACKGROUND: Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are innovative therapies likely associated with high prices. Payers need guidance to create a balance between ensuring patient access to breakthrough therapies and maintaining the financial sustainability of the healthcare system. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to identify, define, classify and compare the approaches to funding high-cost medicines proposed in the literature, to analyze their appropriateness for ATMP funding and to suggest an optimal funding model for ATMPs...
December 2, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216275/co-existence-of-multiple-trade-off-currencies-shapes-evolutionary-outcomes
#10
Alan A Cohen, Caroline Isaksson, Roberto Salguero-Gómez
Evolutionary studies often assume that energy is the primary resource (i.e. "currency") at the heart of the survival-reproduction trade-off, despite recent evidence to the contrary. The evolutionary consequences of having a single trade-off currency versus multiple competing currencies are unknown. Using simulations, we modeled the evolution of either a single physiological currency between reproduction and survival, or of multiple such currencies. For a wide array of model specifications varying functional forms and strengths of the trade-offs, we show that the presence of multiple currencies (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206868/a-model-for-foreign-exchange-markets-based-on-glassy-brownian-systems
#11
M A Sánchez-Granero, J E Trinidad-Segovia, J Clara-Rahola, A M Puertas, F J De Las Nieves
In this work we extend a well-known model from arrested physical systems, and employ it in order to efficiently depict different currency pairs of foreign exchange market price fluctuation distributions. We consider the exchange rate price in the time range between 2010 and 2016 at yearly time intervals and resolved at one minute frequency. We then fit the experimental datasets with this model, and find significant qualitative symmetry between price fluctuation distributions from the currency market, and the ones belonging to colloidal particles position in arrested states...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203854/distributed-neural-representation-of-saliency-controlled-value-and-category-during-anticipation-of-rewards-and-punishments
#12
Zhihao Zhang, Jennifer Fanning, Daniel B Ehrlich, Wenting Chen, Daeyeol Lee, Ifat Levy
An extensive literature from cognitive neuroscience examines the neural representation of value, but interpretations of these existing results are often complicated by the potential confound of saliency. At the same time, recent attempts to dissociate neural signals of value and saliency have not addressed their relationship with category information. Using a multi-category valuation task that incorporates rewards and punishments of different nature, we identify distributed neural representation of value, saliency, and category during outcome anticipation...
December 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202731/economic-evaluation-of-emergency-obstetric-care-training-a-systematic-review
#13
Aduragbemi Banke-Thomas, Megan Wilson-Jones, Barbara Madaj, Nynke van den Broek
BACKGROUND: Training healthcare providers in Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) has been shown to be effective in improving their capacity to provide this critical care package for mothers and babies. However, little is known about the costs and cost-effectiveness of such training. Understanding costs and cost-effectiveness is essential in guaranteeing value-for-money in healthcare spending. This study systematically reviewed the available literature on cost and cost-effectiveness of EmOC trainings...
December 4, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195856/codon-usage-and-expression-level-of-human-mitochondrial-13-protein-coding-genes-across-six-continents
#14
Supriyo Chakraborty, Arif Uddin, Tarikul Huda Mazumder, Monisha Nath Choudhury, Arup Kumar Malakar, Prosenjit Paul, Binata Halder, Himangshu Deka, Gulshana Akthar Mazumder, Riazul Ahmed Barbhuiya, Masuk Ahmed Barbhuiya, Warepam Jesmi Devi
The study of codon usage coupled with phylogenetic analysis is an important tool to understand the genetic and evolutionary relationship of a gene. The 13 protein coding genes of human mitochondria are involved in electron transport chain for the generation of energy currency (ATP). However, no work has yet been reported on the codon usage of the mitochondrial protein coding genes across six continents. To understand the patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial genes across six different continents, we used bioinformatic analyses to analyze the protein coding genes...
November 28, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175850/from-word-models-to-executable-models-of-signaling-networks-using-automated-assembly
#15
Benjamin M Gyori, John A Bachman, Kartik Subramanian, Jeremy L Muhlich, Lucian Galescu, Peter K Sorger
Word models (natural language descriptions of molecular mechanisms) are a common currency in spoken and written communication in biomedicine but are of limited use in predicting the behavior of complex biological networks. We present an approach to building computational models directly from natural language using automated assembly. Molecular mechanisms described in simple English are read by natural language processing algorithms, converted into an intermediate representation, and assembled into executable or network models...
November 24, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166161/will-invertebrates-require-increasingly-carbon-rich-food-in-a-warming-world
#16
Thomas R Anderson, Dag O Hessen, Maarten Boersma, Jotaro Urabe, Daniel J Mayor
Elevated temperature causes metabolism and respiration to increase in poikilothermic organisms. We hypothesized that invertebrate consumers will therefore require increasingly carbon-rich diets in a warming environment because the increased energetic demands are primarily met using compounds rich in carbon, that is, carbohydrates and lipids. Here, we test this hypothesis using a new stoichiometric model that has carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as currencies. Model predictions did not support the hypothesis, indicating instead that the nutritional requirements of invertebrates, at least in terms of food quality expressed as C∶N ratio, may change little, if at all, at elevated temperature...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165089/a-novel-method-to-synthesize-phosphocreatine-and-phosphocreatine-prodrugs
#17
Maria Arkel, Patrizia Garbati, Annalisa Salis, Gianluca Damonte, Nara Liessi, Enrico Adriano, Umberto Benatti, Maurizio Balestrino, Enrico Millo
Background Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy currency of the body; it takes part in various and indispensable metabolic processes for the maintenance of cell homeostasis, degrading to its hydrolysis product, adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Efficient ways to restore ATP are therefore necessary in the cells. When the cell lacks energy due to ischemic conditions or high ATP demand, phosphocreatine gives its phosphate group to ADP that converts to ATP, in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme creatine kinase...
November 20, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142334/approaches-to-macroevolution-2-sorting-of-variation-some-overarching-issues-and-general-conclusions
#18
David Jablonski
Approaches to macroevolution require integration of its two fundamental components, within a hierarchical framework. Following a companion paper on the origin of variation, I here discuss sorting within an evolutionary hierarchy. Species sorting-sometimes termed species selection in the broad sense, meaning differential origination and extinction owing to intrinsic biological properties-can be split into strict-sense species selection, in which rate differentials are governed by emergent, species-level traits such as geographic range size, and effect macroevolution, in which rates are governed by organism-level traits such as body size; both processes can create hitchhiking effects, indirectly causing the proliferation or decline of other traits...
2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142333/approaches-to-macroevolution-1-general-concepts-and-origin-of-variation
#19
David Jablonski
Approaches to macroevolution require integration of its two fundamental components, i.e. the origin and the sorting of variation, in a hierarchical framework. Macroevolution occurs in multiple currencies that are only loosely correlated, notably taxonomic diversity, morphological disparity, and functional variety. The origin of variation within this conceptual framework is increasingly understood in developmental terms, with the semi-hierarchical structure of gene regulatory networks (GRNs, used here in a broad sense incorporating not just the genetic circuitry per se but the factors controlling the timing and location of gene expression and repression), the non-linear relation between magnitude of genetic change and the phenotypic results, the evolutionary potential of co-opting existing GRNs, and developmental responsiveness to nongenetic signals (i...
2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129282/using-plant-nutrient-landscapes-to-assess-anthropocene-effects-on-insect-herbivores
#20
REVIEW
Paul A Lenhart
Global climate change will dramatically affect insect herbivores through changes in plant quality. Linking how multiple climate factors affect plant macronutrient content may be the most accurate way to understand the response of insect herbivores. Studies should embrace the complexity of interacting climate factors in natural systems and characterize shifts in multidimensional plant nutrient landscapes. This nutrient landscape simplifies interpretation of climate effects, although selection of appropriate currencies, scale, and interactions with allelochemicals present challenges...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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