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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166161/will-invertebrates-require-increasingly-carbon-rich-food-in-a-warming-world
#1
Thomas R Anderson, Dag O Hessen, Maarten Boersma, Jotaro Urabe, Daniel J Mayor
Elevated temperature causes metabolism and respiration to increase in poikilothermic organisms. We hypothesized that invertebrate consumers will therefore require increasingly carbon-rich diets in a warming environment because the increased energetic demands are primarily met using compounds rich in carbon, that is, carbohydrates and lipids. Here, we test this hypothesis using a new stoichiometric model that has carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as currencies. Model predictions did not support the hypothesis, indicating instead that the nutritional requirements of invertebrates, at least in terms of food quality expressed as C∶N ratio, may change little, if at all, at elevated temperature...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165089/a-novel-method-to-synthesize-phosphocreatine-and-phosphocreatine-prodrugs
#2
Maria Arkel, Patrizia Garbati, Annalisa Salis, Gianluca Damonte, Nara Liessi, Enrico Adriano, Umberto Benatti, Maurizio Balestrino, Enrico Millo
Background Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy currency of the body; it takes part in various and indispensable metabolic processes for the maintenance of cell homeostasis, degrading to its hydrolysis product, adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Efficient ways to restore ATP are therefore necessary in the cells. When the cell lacks energy due to ischemic conditions or high ATP demand, phosphocreatine gives its phosphate group to ADP that converts to ATP, in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme creatine kinase...
November 20, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142334/approaches-to-macroevolution-2-sorting-of-variation-some-overarching-issues-and-general-conclusions
#3
David Jablonski
Approaches to macroevolution require integration of its two fundamental components, within a hierarchical framework. Following a companion paper on the origin of variation, I here discuss sorting within an evolutionary hierarchy. Species sorting-sometimes termed species selection in the broad sense, meaning differential origination and extinction owing to intrinsic biological properties-can be split into strict-sense species selection, in which rate differentials are governed by emergent, species-level traits such as geographic range size, and effect macroevolution, in which rates are governed by organism-level traits such as body size; both processes can create hitchhiking effects, indirectly causing the proliferation or decline of other traits...
2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142333/approaches-to-macroevolution-1-general-concepts-and-origin-of-variation
#4
David Jablonski
Approaches to macroevolution require integration of its two fundamental components, i.e. the origin and the sorting of variation, in a hierarchical framework. Macroevolution occurs in multiple currencies that are only loosely correlated, notably taxonomic diversity, morphological disparity, and functional variety. The origin of variation within this conceptual framework is increasingly understood in developmental terms, with the semi-hierarchical structure of gene regulatory networks (GRNs, used here in a broad sense incorporating not just the genetic circuitry per se but the factors controlling the timing and location of gene expression and repression), the non-linear relation between magnitude of genetic change and the phenotypic results, the evolutionary potential of co-opting existing GRNs, and developmental responsiveness to nongenetic signals (i...
2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129282/using-plant-nutrient-landscapes-to-assess-anthropocene-effects-on-insect-herbivores
#5
REVIEW
Paul A Lenhart
Global climate change will dramatically affect insect herbivores through changes in plant quality. Linking how multiple climate factors affect plant macronutrient content may be the most accurate way to understand the response of insect herbivores. Studies should embrace the complexity of interacting climate factors in natural systems and characterize shifts in multidimensional plant nutrient landscapes. This nutrient landscape simplifies interpretation of climate effects, although selection of appropriate currencies, scale, and interactions with allelochemicals present challenges...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129128/convergent-time-varying-regression-models-for-data-streams-tracking-concept-drift-by-the-recursive-parzen-based-generalized-regression-neural-networks
#6
Piotr Duda, Maciej Jaworski, Leszek Rutkowski
One of the greatest challenges in data mining is related to processing and analysis of massive data streams. Contrary to traditional static data mining problems, data streams require that each element is processed only once, the amount of allocated memory is constant and the models incorporate changes of investigated streams. A vast majority of available methods have been developed for data stream classification and only a few of them attempted to solve regression problems, using various heuristic approaches...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116613/how-are-cognitive-and-physical-difficulty-compared
#7
Cory Adam Potts, Stefan Pastel, David A Rosenbaum
Tasks that require less physical effort are generally preferred over more physically demanding alternatives. Similarly, tasks that require less mental effort are generally preferred over more mentally demanding alternatives. But what happens when one must choose between tasks that entail different kinds of effort, one mainly physical (e.g., carrying buckets) and the other mainly mental (e.g., counting)? We asked participants to choose between a bucket-carrying task and a counting task. Our participants were less likely to choose the bucket task when it required a long reach rather than a short reach, and our participants were also less likely to choose the bucket task the smaller the final count value...
November 7, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113451/forum-editorial-nicotine-adenine-dinucleotides-the-redox-currency-of-the-cell
#8
Joshua P Fessel, William M Oldham
There has been tremendous and rapidly growing interest in understanding intermediary metabolism as a key aspect of both normal cellular function and as a participant in the molecular pathogenesis of many different complex diseases. This area of research naturally intersects at virtually every level with the substantial and expanding body of knowledge regarding mechanisms of cellular redox balance. In this Forum Issue, the contributing authors address specifically the union of intermediary metabolism and redox biology through detailed consideration of the biochemistry and biology of nicotine adenine dinucleotides, the cell's "redox currency...
November 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111661/using-p-type-pbs-quantum-dots-to-quench-photocurrent-of-fullerene-au-np-mos2-composite-structure-for-ultrasensitive-photoelectrochemical-detection-of-atp
#9
Meng-Jie Li, Ying-Ning Zheng, Wen-Bin Liang, Ruo Yuan, Ya-Qin Chai
Ultrasensitive and rapid quantification of the universal energy currency adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an extremely critical mission in clinical applications. In this work, a "signal-off" photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor was designed for ultrasensitive ATP detection based on a fullerene (C60)-decorated Au nanoparticle@MoS2 (C60-Au NP@MoS2) composite material as a signal indicator and a p-type PbS quantum dot (QD) as an efficient signal quencher. Modification of wide band gap C60 with narrow band gap MoS2 to form an ideal PEC signal indicator was proposed, which could significantly improve photocurrent conversion efficiency, leading to a desirable PEC signal...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103184/in-silico-evaluation-of-variable-ph-on-the-binding-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-ectodomain-to-its-ligand-through-molecular-dynamics-simulation-in-tumors
#10
Inderpal Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Vijeshwar Verma, Shashank Singh, Ratna Chandra
Many aggressive and metastatic cancer cell types show Warburg Effect; therefore, it is a possible adaptation helping cancer cells to rapidly divide and utilize the glycolytic intermediates for biosynthesis of ribose sugars (for nucleotide biosynthesis), fatty acid synthesis (lipids for membrane synthesis), NADPH (cellular currency for reductive biosynthesis) and lactate. This in due course results in decrease of extracellular pH, leading to acidic tumor micro-environment. EGFR is a crucial cell surface signaling receptor implicated in cancer cell survival and progression...
November 4, 2017: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097973/currency-and-competence-of-occupational-therapists-and-consumers-with-rapidly-changing-technology
#11
REVIEW
Emily J Steel, Ricky Buchanan, Natasha Layton, Erin Wilson
Assistive technology was once a specialised field of practice, involving products designed for populations with specific impairments or functional goals. In Australia, occupational therapists have, at times, functioned as gatekeepers to public funding, prescribing products from a predefined list. An expanding range of accessible mainstream products available via international and online markets has changed the meaning and application of assistive technology for many people with disability. In the policy context of consumer choice and cost-effectiveness, have occupational therapists been left behind? This paper describes the change in context for access to assistive technology resulting in expanded possibilities for participation and inclusion...
2017: Occupational Therapy International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066927/career-planning-and-mentorship-a-few-key-considerations-for-trainees
#12
Sherif M Badawy
Publishing and securing funding are considered our "academic currency", and therefore, both should be emphasized during training, both residency and fellowship. Trainees should make an effort to find funding opportunities at or outside of their institutions and try to identify their short- and long-term goals. Establishing a track record of publications can help trainees get hired, funded, and promoted as junior faculty, and effective networking and mentorship are critical determinants of academic success. Given the positive effects of mentorship, trainees should understand what comprises a good mentor-mentee relationship and how to optimize the mentoring process...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064617/social-comparison-in-the-brain-a-coordinate-based-meta-analysis-of-functional-brain-imaging-studies-on-the-downward-and-upward-comparisons
#13
Yi Luo, Simon B Eickhoff, Sébastien Hétu, Chunliang Feng
Social comparison is ubiquitous across human societies with dramatic influence on people's well-being and decision making. Downward comparison (comparing to worse-off others) and upward comparison (comparing to better-off others) constitute two types of social comparisons that produce different neuropsychological consequences. Based on studies exploring neural signatures associated with downward and upward comparisons, the current study utilized a coordinate-based meta-analysis to provide a refinement of understanding about the underlying neural architecture of social comparison...
October 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063633/in-search-of-a-common-currency-a-comparison-of-seven-eq-5d-5l-value-sets
#14
Jan Abel Olsen, Admassu N Lamu, John Cairns
The recently published EQ-5D-5L value sets from Canada, England, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Spain, and Uruguay are compared with an aim to identify any similarities in preference pattern. We identify some striking similarities for Canada, England, the Netherlands, and Spain in terms of (a) the relative importance of the 5 dimensions; (b) the relative utility decrements across the 5 levels; and (c) the scale length. On the basis of the observed similarities across these 4 Western countries, we develop an amalgam model, WePP (western preference pattern), and compare it with these 4 value sets...
October 24, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059514/organic-solvent-free-fabrication-of-durable-and-multifunctional-superhydrophobic-paper-from-waterborne-fluorinated-cellulose-nanofiber-building-blocks
#15
Avijit Baidya, Mohd Azhardin Ganayee, Swathy Jakka Ravindran, Kam Chiu Tam, Sarit Kumar Das, Robin H A Ras, Thalappil Pradeep
In view of a great demand for paper-based technologies, nonwettable fibrous substrates with excellent durability have drawn much attention in recent years. In this context, the use of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), the smallest unit of cellulosic substrates (5-20 nm wide and 500 nm to several microns in length), to design waterproof paper can be an economical and smart approach. In this study, an eco-friendly and facile methodology to develop a multifunctional waterproof paper via the fabrication of fluoroalkyl functionalized CNFs in the aqueous medium is presented...
October 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045494/results-of-a-massive-experiment-on-virtual-currency-endowments-and-money-demand
#16
Nenad Živić, Igor Andjelković, Tolga Özden, Milovan Dekić, Edward Castronova
We use a 575,000-subject, 28-day experiment to investigate monetary policy in a virtual setting. The experiment tests the effect of virtual currency endowments on player retention and virtual currency demand. An increase in endowments of a virtual currency should lower the demand for the currency in the short run. However, in the long run, we would expect money demand to rise in response to inflation in the virtual world. We test for this behavior in a virtual field experiment in the football management game Top11...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044848/a-novel-approach-to-synthesis-a-dual-mode-luminescent-composite-pigment-for-uncloneable-high-security-codes-to-combat-counterfeiting
#17
Kanika -, Pawan Kumar, Satbir Singh, Bipin Kumar Gupta
We demonstrate a strategy to protect valuable items such as currency, pharmaceuticals, important documents etc. against counterfeiting by marking them with luminescent security codes. These luminescent security codes were printed by employing luminescent ink formulated from a cost effective dual mode luminescent composite pigment of Gd1.7Yb0.2Er0.1O3 and Zn0.98Mn0.02S phosphors using commercially available PVC Gold medium. In the composite, Gd1.7Yb0.2Er0.1O3 and Zn0.98Mn0.02S accounts for upconversion and downconversion processes, respectively...
October 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043498/sex-specific-strategies-of-resource-allocation-in-response-to-competition-for-light-in-a-dioecious-plant
#18
Jeanne Tonnabel, Patrice David, John R Pannell
The differential plasticity hypothesis suggests that sexual dimorphism in dioecious plants could evolve in response to sex-specific resource requirements for reproduction (i.e., high carbon requirements for ovules and high nitrogen demands for pollen). When resources become limiting during growth, males and females should, therefore, adjust their allocation to resource-harvesting organs differently. To investigate the potential for plants to respond to resource limitation late in life and to test the differential plasticity hypothesis, we grew male and female individuals of the annual wind-pollinated plant Mercurialis annua in a common garden...
December 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041915/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-xelox-versus-xelox-plus-bevacizumab-for-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-in-a-public-hospital-school
#19
Andrea Queiróz Ungari, Leonardo Régis Leira Pereira, Altacílio Aparecido Nunes, Fernanda Maris Peria
BACKGROUND: Metastatic colorectal cancer imposes a substantial burden on patients and society. Over the last years, progresses in the treatment have been made especially due to the introduction of monoclonal antibodies, such as bevacizumab which, on the other hand, has considerably increased the costs of treatment. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of bevacizumab plus XELOX in comparison with XELOX alone in metastatic colorectal cancer in first-line therapy, from the perspective of a public hospital school in Brazil...
October 17, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040796/an-anterior-posterior-axis-within-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-separates-self-and-reward
#20
Alla Yankouskaya, Glyn Humphreys, Moritz Stolte, Mark Stokes, Zargol Moradi, Jie Sui
Although theoretical discourse and experimental studies on the self and reward biases have a long tradition, currently we have only a limited understanding of how the biases are represented in the brain and, more importantly, how they relate to each other. We used multi-voxel pattern analysis to test for common representations of self and reward in perceptual matching in healthy human subjects. Voxels across an anterior-posterior axis in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) distinguished (i) self-others and (ii) high-low reward, but cross generalization between these dimensions decreased from anterior to posterior vmPFC...
October 10, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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