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Yanhua Chen, Rosario N Mantegna, Athanasios A Pantelous, Konstantin M Zuev
In this study, we assess the dynamic evolution of short-term correlation, long-term cointegration and Error Correction Model (hereafter referred to as ECM)-based long-term Granger causality between each pair of US, UK, and Eurozone stock markets from 1980 to 2015 using the rolling-window technique. A comparative analysis of pairwise dynamic integration and causality of stock markets, measured in common and domestic currency terms, is conducted to evaluate comprehensively how exchange rate fluctuations affect the time-varying integration among the S&P 500, FTSE 100 and EURO STOXX 50 indices...
2018: PloS One
Željko Režek, Harold L Dibble, Shannon P McPherron, David R Braun, Sam C Lin
Temporal variability in flaking stone has been used as one of the currencies for hominin behavioural and biological evolution. This variability is usually traced through changes in artefact forms and techniques of production, resulting overall in unilineal and normative models of hominin adaptation. Here, we focus on the fundamental purpose of flaking stone-the production of a sharp working edge-and model this behaviour over evolutionary time to reassess the evolutionary efficiency of stone tool technology...
March 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Alexandra Whicher, Eloi Camprubi, Silvana Pinna, Barry Herschy, Nick Lane
Metabolism is primed through the formation of thioesters via acetyl CoA and the phosphorylation of substrates by ATP. Prebiotic equivalents such as methyl thioacetate and acetyl phosphate have been proposed to catalyse analogous reactions at the origin of life, but their propensity to hydrolyse challenges this view. Here we show that acetyl phosphate (AcP) can be synthesised in water within minutes from thioacetate (but not methyl thioacetate) under ambient conditions. AcP is stable over hours, depending on temperature, pH and cation content, giving it an ideal poise between stability and reactivity...
March 3, 2018: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Barry Sheehan, Finbarr Murphy, Martin Mullins, Irini Furxhi, Anna L Costa, Felice C Simeone, Paride Mantecca
Hazard identification is the key step in risk assessment and management of manufactured nanomaterials (NM). However, the rapid commercialisation of nano-enabled products continues to out-pace the development of a prudent risk management mechanism that is widely accepted by the scientific community and enforced by regulators. However, a growing body of academic literature is developing promising quantitative methods. Two approaches have gained significant currency. Bayesian networks (BN) are a probabilistic, machine learning approach while the weight of evidence (WoE) statistical framework is based on expert elicitation...
February 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jay M Poupko, William Lee Hearn, Federico Rossano
Several studies have reported on wide-spread contamination of U.S. paper currency with cocaine and to a lesser extent other illicit drugs. Canines are trained and employed to search for and alert to drugs. Canine alert to currency has been used as evidence that currency has been directly involved in illicit drug trafficking to justify currency seizure and forfeiture. This assertion, particularly when the only evidence is based upon canine alert, has been challenged in the courts considering that most currency in circulation is contaminated with cocaine...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Alex Diamantopoulos, Emily Wright, Katerina Vlahopoulou, Laura Cornic, Nils Schoof, Toby M Maher
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a debilitating condition with significant morbidity and poor survival. Since 2010, there has been increased activity in the development of treatments that aim to delay progression of the disease. OBJECTIVE: Our study involves a comprehensive review of the literature for evidence on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), healthcare resource use (HCRU) and costs, and an assessment of the burden of illness of the condition...
March 1, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Robin M Tinghitella, Whitley R Lehto, V Faith Lierheimer
Our knowledge of how male competition contributes to speciation is dominated by investigations of competition between within-species morphs or closely related species that differ in conspicuous traits expressed during the breeding season (e.g. color, song). In such studies, it is important to consider the manner in which putatively sexually selected traits influence the outcome of competitive interactions within and between types because these traits can communicate information about competitor quality and may not be utilized by homotypic and heterotypic receivers in the same way...
February 2018: Current Zoology
Ankit Sabharwal, Disha Sharma, Shamsudheen Karuthedath Vellarikkal, Rijith Jayarajan, Ankit Verma, Vigneshwar Senthivel, Vinod Scaria, Sridhar Sivasubbu
Mitochondria are organelles involved in a variety of biological functions in the cell, apart from their principal role in generation of ATP, the cellular currency of energy. The mitochondria, in spite of being compact organelles, are capable of performing complex biological functions largely because of the ability to exchange proteins, RNA, chemical metabolites and other biomolecules between cellular compartments. A close network of biomolecular interactions are known to modulate the crosstalk between the mitochondria and the nuclear genome...
February 24, 2018: Mitochondrion
Jiacheng Ma, Annemieke Kavelaars, Patrick M Dougherty, Cobi J Heijnen
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a serious adverse side effect of many chemotherapeutic agents, affecting >60% of patients with cancer. Moreover, CIPN persists long into survivorship in approximately 20% to 30% of these patients. To the authors' knowledge, no drugs have been approved to date by the US Food and Drug Administration to effectively manage chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. The majority of the drugs tested for the management of CIPN aim at symptom relief, including pain and paresthesia, yet are not very efficacious...
February 20, 2018: Cancer
Jinyu Liu, Yan Li, Jie Chen, Yirong Wang, Mengting Zou, Ruyue Su, Ying Huang
Mitochondrial gene expression is essential for adenosine triphosphate synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation, which is the universal energy currency of cells. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mtf2 (also called Nam1) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The Δmtf2 mutant with the intron-containing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exhibited impaired growth on a rich medium containing the non-fermentable carbon source glycerol, suggesting that mtf2 is involved in mitochondrial function...
January 12, 2018: Microbiology
Yong-Xiang Zuo, Zi-Ping Ma
OBJECTIVE: To explore the operating procedures and therapeutic effects of medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with Tightrope(Arthrex, FL, USA) button fixation at lateral femoral cortex. METHODS: From May 2014 to July 2016, 9 patients with traumatic patellar dislocation were treated. There were 5 males and 4 females, ranging in age from 16 to 47 years old, with an average of 23.7 years old. All the patients underment arthroscopic lateral retinaculum release and joint debridement first...
November 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Michael Garcia, Christopher Daugherty, Bertha Ben Khallouq, Todd Maugans
OBJECTIVE The Internet is used frequently by patients and family members to acquire information about pediatric neurosurgical conditions. The sources, nature, accuracy, and usefulness of this information have not been examined recently. The authors analyzed the results from searches of 10 common pediatric neurosurgical terms using a novel scoring test to assess the value of the educational information obtained. METHODS Google and Bing searches were performed for 10 common pediatric neurosurgical topics (concussion, craniosynostosis, hydrocephalus, pediatric brain tumor, pediatric Chiari malformation, pediatric epilepsy surgery, pediatric neurosurgery, plagiocephaly, spina bifida, and tethered spinal cord)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Patrick J Silva, Valerie M Schaibley, Kenneth S Ramos
While the promise of the Human Genome Project provided significant insights into the structure of the human genome, the complexities of disease at the individual level have made it difficult to utilize -omic information in clinical decision making. Some of the existing constraints have been minimized by technological advancements that have reduced the cost of sequencing to a rate far in excess of Moore's Law (a halving in cost per unit output every 18 months). The reduction in sequencing costs has made it economically feasible to create large data commons capturing the diversity of disease across populations...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Charles C Ezenduka, Daniel Resende Falleiros, Brian B Godman
BACKGROUND: Accurate information on the facility costs of treatment is essential to enhance decision making and funding for malaria control. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of providing treatment for uncomplicated malaria through a public health facility in Nigeria. METHODS: Hospital costs were estimated from a provider perspective, applying a standard costing procedure. Capital and recurrent expenditures were estimated using an ingredient approach combined with step-down methodology...
September 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
Yong Kheng Goh, Haslifah M Hasim, Chris G Antonopoulos
In this paper, we study data from financial markets, using the normalised Mutual Information Rate. We show how to use it to infer the underlying network structure of interrelations in the foreign currency exchange rates and stock indices of 15 currency areas. We first present the mathematical method and discuss its computational aspects, and apply it to artificial data from chaotic dynamics and to correlated normal-variates data. We then apply the method to infer the structure of the financial system from the time-series of currency exchange rates and stock indices...
2018: PloS One
Tuyen Danh Pham, Dat Tien Nguyen, Wan Kim, Sung Ho Park, Kang Ryoung Park
In automatic paper currency sorting, fitness classification is a technique that assesses the quality of banknotes to determine whether a banknote is suitable for recirculation or should be replaced. Studies on using visible-light reflection images of banknotes for evaluating their usability have been reported. However, most of them were conducted under the assumption that the denomination and input direction of the banknote are predetermined. In other words, a pre-classification of the type of input banknote is required...
February 6, 2018: Sensors
Tiuri R van Rossum, Fedde Scheele, Henk E Sluiter, Emma Paternotte, Ide C Heyligers
INTRODUCTION: As competency-based education has gained currency in postgraduate medical education, it is acknowledged that trainees, having individual learning curves, acquire the desired competencies at different paces. To accommodate their different learning needs, time-variable curricula have been introduced making training no longer time-bound. This paradigm has many consequences and will, predictably, impact the organization of teaching hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of time-variable postgraduate education on the organization of teaching hospital departments...
January 31, 2018: Medical Teacher
Mike Tipton
Publications remain an important part of the currency of academia, they are intimately related to your professional standing, advancement and funding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
George Saliba
This paper deals primarily with the identification of an inaccurately catalogued alchemical poem attributed to the famous Umayyad prince Khālid b. Yazīd (d. 705), edited, translated, and commented upon here for the first time. The paper also addresses the authenticity of Khālid's interest in alchemy and connects that interest to the need of the early Islamic empire to develop its own gold coinage as a sign of political independence from Byzantine coinage that was up till then the currency of the lands occupied by early Muslims in the regions of modern-day Egypt and Syria...
August 2017: Ambix
Jung Hwan Jo, Eui Joo Kim, Ji Rak Kim, Moon Jong Kim, Jin Woo Chung, Ji Woon Park
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality and readability of Internet-based information on halitosis. STUDY DESIGN: An Internet search through 3 engines (Google, Yahoo, and Bing) was done with the terms ("bad breath," "halitosis," "oral malodor," "foul breath," "mouth malodor," "breath malodor," "fetor ex ore," "fetor oris," "ozostomia," and "stomatodysodia"). The first 50 websites from each engine resulting from each search term were screened. Included websites were evaluated using Health on the Net (HON) criteria, Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks, DISCERN, Ensuring Quality Information for Patients (EQIP), Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) score, and Flesch-Kincaid Grade level...
December 8, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
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