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Fatemeh Kokabisaghi
BACKGROUND: Over the years, economic sanctions have contributed to violation of right to health in target countries. Iran has been under comprehensive unilateral economic sanctions by groups of countries (not United Nations [UN]) in recent years. They have been intensified from 2012 because of international community's uncertainty about peaceful purpose of Iran's nuclear program and inadequacy of trust-building actions of this country. This review aimed to identify the humanitarian effects of the sanctions on the right of Iranians to health and the obligations of Iran and international community about it...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Pablo I Nikel, Víctor de Lorenzo
The itinerary followed by Pseudomonas putida from being a soil-dweller and plant colonizer bacterium to become a flexible and engineer-able platform for metabolic engineering stems from its natural lifestyle, which is adapted to harsh environmental conditions and all sorts of physicochemical stresses. Over the years, these properties have been capitalized biotechnologically owing to the expanding wealth of genetic tools designed for deep-editing the P. putida genome. A suite of dedicated vectors inspired in the core tenets of synthetic biology have enabled to suppress many of the naturally-occurring undesirable traits native to this species while enhancing its many appealing properties, and also to import catalytic activities and attributes from other biological systems...
May 11, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Aaron Conway, Jed Duff, Joanna Sutherland
AIM: To determine the cost-effectiveness of forced air warming during sedation in a cardiac catheterisation laboratory. BACKGROUND: Forced air warming improves thermal comfort in comparison with standard care. It is not known whether the extra costs required for forced air warming are good value. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a randomised controlled trial conducted in 2016-2017. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken using Monte Carlo simulations from input distributions to estimate costs and effects associated with using forced air warming to reduce risk of thermal discomfort for patients receiving sedation in a cardiac catheterisation laboratory...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Alexander Hahn, Janet Vonck, Deryck J Mills, Thomas Meier, Werner Kühlbrandt
The chloroplast adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase uses the electrochemical proton gradient generated by photosynthesis to produce ATP, the energy currency of all cells. Protons conducted through the membrane-embedded Fo motor drive ATP synthesis in the F1 head by rotary catalysis. We determined the high-resolution structure of the complete cF1 Fo complex by cryo-electron microscopy, resolving side chains of all 26 protein subunits, the five nucleotides in the F1 head, and the proton pathway to and from the rotor ring...
May 11, 2018: Science
Herwig Czech
Background: Hans Asperger (1906-1980) first designated a group of children with distinct psychological characteristics as 'autistic psychopaths' in 1938, several years before Leo Kanner's famous 1943 paper on autism. In 1944, Asperger published a comprehensive study on the topic (submitted to Vienna University in 1942 as his postdoctoral thesis), which would only find international acknowledgement in the 1980s. From then on, the eponym 'Asperger's syndrome' increasingly gained currency in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the conceptualization of the condition...
2018: Molecular Autism
Xinli You, Boon S Liew, Azmin K Rosman, Dcsn, Kamarul Imran Musa, Zamzuri Idris
OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents occurs mainly in the younger age group in which injury-related disability leads to long-term impact on employment and economic and social consequences across the lifespan. This study was designed to assign a monetary cost (in Malaysian ringgits [RM]) to the treatment of patients with surgically treated isolated traumatic head injury as determined up to 1 year after injury. METHODS Relevant resource items used were identified and valued using the direct measurement of costs method, cost accounting methods, standard unit costs method, fees, charges and/or market prices method...
May 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
K S Mohindra, Subrata Mukherjee
In November 2016, the Government of India (GOI) demonetized the commonly used Rs500 and Rs1,000 denominations. This was a short-term economic policy, known as notebandi, implemented as a means to address black money, counterfeit currencies, and terrorist activities. Notebandi was unrolled in a chaotic, confusing, and complex manner, leaving many people with limited access to cash in their daily activities. And the poor, who tend to earn their livelihoods from cash, were faced with economic exclusion and even destitution...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
Christoph U Lehmann, Adi V Gundlapalli, Jeffrey J Williamson, Douglas B Fridsma, William R Hersh, Marie Krousel-Wood, Christopher J Ondrula, Benson Munger
OBJECTIVES:  To review the highlights of the new Clinical Informatics subspecialty including its history, certification requirements, development of and performance on the certification examination in the United States. METHODS:  We reviewed processes for the development of a subspecialty. Data from board certification examinations were collated and analyzed. We discussed eligibility requirements in the fellowship as well as practice pathways. RESULTS:  Lessons learned from the development of the Clinical Informatics subspecialty, opportunities, challenges, and future directions for the field are discussed...
April 22, 2018: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
Ramon I Klein Geltink, Ryan L Kyle, Erika L Pearce
Metabolism drives function, on both an organismal and a cellular level. In T cell biology, metabolic remodeling is intrinsically linked to cellular development, activation, function, differentiation, and survival. After naive T cells are activated, increased demands for metabolic currency in the form of ATP, as well as biomass for cell growth, proliferation, and the production of effector molecules, are met by rewiring cellular metabolism. Consequently, pharmacological strategies are being developed to perturb or enhance selective metabolic processes that are skewed in immune-related pathologies...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Peter R Schreiner
"… The value and meaning of scientific truth has not been overcome by postmodernism or post-factual tendencies. Just because politics is mostly a representation of opinions, this does not imply that truth has become irrelevant. Quite the opposite, the value of truth is growing in turbulent times and for scientists it constitutes the currency of credibility and accountability …" Read more in the Guest Editorial by Peter R. Schreiner.
April 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Björn Ekman
BACKGROUND: Digital technologies in health care are expected to increase in scope and to affect ever more parts of the health care system. It is important to enhance the knowledge of whether new digital methods and innovations provide value for money compared with traditional models of care. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate whether a digital health care model for primary care is a less costly alternative compared with traditional in-office primary care in Sweden...
September 22, 2017: PharmacoEconomics open
Anastasia Shuster, Dino J Levy
Although it is well established that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) represents value using a common currency across categories of rewards, it is unknown whether the vmPFC represents value irrespective of the sensory modality in which alternatives are presented. In the current study, male and female human subjects completed a decision-making task while their neural activity was recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging. On each trial, subjects chose between a safe alternative and a lottery, which was presented visually or aurally...
March 2018: ENeuro
Kouichi Tanabe, Kaho Fujiwara, Hana Ogura, Hatsuna Yasuda, Nobuyuki Goto, Fumiko Ohtsu
BACKGROUND: Patients and their families are able to obtain information about palliative care from websites easily nowadays. However, there are concerns on the accuracy of information on the Web and how up to date it is. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to elucidate problematic points of medical information about palliative care obtained from websites, and to compare the quality of the information between Japanese and US websites. METHODS: We searched Google Japan and Google USA for websites relating to palliative care...
April 3, 2018: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
Rainer Erices, Andreas Frewer, Antje Gumz
BACKGROUND: After the building of the Berlin Wall in the 1960s, a number of international pharmaceutical manufacturers from the West had their drugs tested in Eastern Germany (GDR). So far, the extensive collection of documents on the subject stored in the archives of the GDR State Security Service (Stasi, MfS) has not been systematically analysed. Until now, the role of the Stasi with respect to the surveillance of the trials has been unclear. METHODS: A keyword search within the database of the Stasi files was conducted...
2018: PloS One
Richard H Epstein, Franklin Dexter
For this special article, we reviewed the computer code, used to extract the data, and the text of all 47 studies published between January 2006 and August 2017 using anesthesia information management system (AIMS) data from Thomas Jefferson University Hospital (TJUH). Data from this institution were used in the largest number (P = .0007) of papers describing the use of AIMS published in this time frame. The AIMS was replaced in April 2017, making this finite sample finite. The objective of the current article was to identify factors that made TJUH successful in publishing anesthesia informatics studies...
March 27, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Xiang Hao, Liang Chen, Wei Sang, Qiang Yan
Living systems can experience time-dependent dynamic self-assembly for periodic, adaptive behavior via energy dissipation pathway. Creating in vitro mimics is a daunting mission. Here a "living" giant vesicle system that can perform a periodic pulsating motion using adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-fuelled dissipative self-assembly is described. This dynamic system is built on transient supramolecular interactions between the polymer and cellular energy currency ATP. The vesicles capturing ATPs will deviate away from equilibrium, leading to an energy ascent that drives a continuous vesicular expansion, until a competitive ATP hydrolysis predominates to break the ATP-polymer interactions and deplete the energy stored in the vesicles, leading to an opposing vesicular contraction...
March 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Lloyd M Smith, Neil L Kelleher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Science
Ida Babakhanyan, Benjamin S McKenna, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Cindy J Nowinski, Robert K Heaton
Background: The National Institutes of Health Toolbox Emotion Battery (NIHTB-EB) is a "common currency", computerized assessment developed to measure the full spectrum of emotional health. Though comprehensive, the NIHTB-EB's 17 scales may be unwieldy for users aiming to capture more global indices of emotional functioning. Methods: NIHTB-EB was administered to 1,036 English-speaking and 408 Spanish-speaking adults as a part of the NIH Toolbox norming project...
2018: Patient related Outcome Measures
Michal Sarfaty, Peter S Hall, Kelvin K W Chan, Kiran Virik, Moshe Leshno, Noa Gordon, Assaf Moore, Victoria Neiman, Eli Rosenbaum, Daniel A Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Immune-modulating drugs have recently been introduced to the second-line setting of advanced bladder cancer. Pembrolizumab increases overall survival and is associated with less toxicity compared with chemotherapy in this setting based on the Keynote 045 study. The high cost of immunotherapy necessitates an assessment of its value by considering both efficacy and cost. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of pembrolizumab for the second-line treatment of advanced bladder cancer from the perspective of payers in multiple countries...
March 22, 2018: European Urology
Vanessa da Silva Oliveira, Ricardo Saldanha Honorato, Fernanda Araújo Honorato, Claudete Fernandes Pereira
Spectra recorded using a portable near infrared (NIR) spectrometer, Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) associated to Successive Projections Algorithm (SPA) models were applied to identify counterfeit and authentic Brazilian Real (R$20, R$50 and R$100) banknotes, enabling a simple field analysis. NIR spectra (950-1650nm) were recorded from seven different areas of the banknotes (two with fluorescent ink, one over watermark, three with intaglio printing process and one over the serial numbers with typography printing)...
March 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
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