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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420680/use-of-azithromycin-and-risk-of-ventricular-arrhythmia
#1
Gianluca Trifirò, Maria de Ridder, Janet Sultana, Alessandro Oteri, Peter Rijnbeek, Serena Pecchioli, Giampiero Mazzaglia, Irene Bezemer, Edeltraut Garbe, Tania Schink, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Trine Frøslev, Mariam Molokhia, Igor Diemberger, Miriam C J M Sturkenboom
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting findings from observational studies of the arrhythrogenic potential of azithromycin. Our aim was to quantify the association between azithromycin use and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort of new antibiotic users identified from a network of 7 population-based health care databases in Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom for the period 1997-2010...
April 18, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399475/everyday-functional-ability-in-hiv-and-methamphetamine-dependence
#2
Arpi Minassian, Brook L Henry, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Scott L Letendre, Robert K Heaton, William Perry
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) use is a risk factor for the transmission of HIV. Each is associated with neurocognitive impairment and subsequent problems in everyday functioning, yet additive effects of HIV and METH are not consistently observed. This study used the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA-2) to assess whether METH use disorder and HIV together resulted in poorer functional outcome than either condition alone. METHOD: Participants in the Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center (TMARC) cohort were stratified based upon HIV infection and METH use disorder: HIV-/METH- (n=49), HIV-/METH+ (n=48), HIV+/METH- (n=37), and HIV+/METH+ (n=38)...
March 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397352/effects-of-expanding-the-look-back-period-to-all-available-data-in-the-assessment-of-covariates
#3
Sonja S Nakasian, Jeremy A Rassen, Jessica M Franklin
BACKGROUND: A fixed baseline period has been a common covariate assessment approach in pharmacoepidemiological studies from claims but may lead to high levels of covariate misclassification. Simulation studies have recommended expanding the look-back approach to all available data (AAD) for binary indicators of diagnoses, procedures, and medications, but there have been few real data analyses using this approach. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to explore the impact on treatment effect estimates and covariate prevalence of expanding the look-back period within five validated studies in the Aetion system, a rapid cycle analytics platform...
April 11, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395129/marijuana-use-and-serum-testosterone-concentrations-among-u-s-males
#4
J E Thistle, B I Graubard, M Braunlin, H Vesper, B Trabert, M B Cook, K A McGlynn
Marijuana has been reported to have several effects on the male reproductive system. Marijuana has previously been linked to reduced adult testosterone, however, a study in Denmark reported increased testosterone concentrations among marijuana users. This study was performed to estimate the effect of marijuana use on testosterone in U.S. males. Data on serum testosterone, marijuana use, and covariates for 1577 men from the 2011-2012 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed...
April 10, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394458/the-retrosplenial-cortex-and-object-recency-memory-in-the-rat
#5
Anna L Powell, Seralynne D Vann, Cristian M Olarte-Sánchez, Lisa Kinnavane, Moira Davies, Eman Amin, John P Aggleton, Andrew J D Nelson
It has been proposed that the retrosplenial cortex forms part of a "where/when" information network. The present study focussed on the related issue of whether retrosplenial cortex also contributes to "what/when" information, by examining object recency memory. In Experiment 1, rats with retrosplenial lesions were found to be impaired at distinguishing the temporal order of objects presented in a continuous series ('Within-Block' condition). The same lesioned rats could, however, distinguish between objects that had been previously presented in one of two discrete blocks ('Between-Block' condition)...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388817/social-and-demographic-correlates-of-male-androgen-levels-in-wild-white-faced-capuchin-monkeys-cebus-capucinus
#6
Franka S Schaebs, Susan E Perry, Don Cohen, Roger Mundry, Tobias Deschner
The Challenge Hypothesis, designed originally to explain the patterning of competitive behavior and androgen levels in seasonally breeding birds, predicts that males will increase their androgen levels in order to become more competitive in reproductive contexts. Here we test predictions derived from the Challenge Hypothesis in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), a species that has somewhat seasonal reproduction. We analyzed demographic and hormonal data collected over a 5.25-year period, from 18 males in nine social groups living in or near Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica...
April 7, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383937/rapid-visual-processing-of-picture-stimuli-by-pigeons-in-an-rsvp-rapid-serial-visual-presentation-task
#7
Masako Jitsumori, Tomokazu Ushitani
Three experiments that were carried out in series with 5 pigeons used novel training methods to investigate the rapid visual processing of picture stimuli by pigeons. On each trial, a sequence containing 1 of 2 bird pictures (the target) and nontarget bird pictures (the distractors) was presented. After the termination of the last item in the sequence, the pigeons were required to choose 1 of 2 colored squares corresponding to the target presented in the preceding sequence. The pigeons learned the task with 2-item lists (1 target and 1 distractor) in Experiment1 and with 3-item lists (1 target and 2 distractors) in Experiment 2...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370351/statins-and-polyneuropathy-revisited-case-control-study-in-denmark-1999-2013
#8
Toke de Koning Svendsen, Peter Nørregaard Hansen, Luis Alberto García Rodríguez, Lene Andersen, Jesper Hallas, Søren Hein Sindrup, David Gaist
AIM: In a previous study, we found a positive association between statin use and polyneuropathy risk. Other studies reported equivocal results. The present study aimed to confirm our findings with a design similar to our previous study, but with a larger data set. METHODS: We searched medical registry data to identify patients diagnosed with incident polyneuropathy of no known cause (idiopathic polyneuropathy) in 1999-2013; we verified the diagnosis through medical records...
April 1, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364345/what-is-the-time-course-of-working-memory-attentional-refreshing
#9
Benoît Lemaire, Aurore Pageot, Gaën Plancher, Sophie Portrat
One way of maintaining information in working memory is through attentional refreshing, a process that was recently shown to be independent from verbal rehearsal. In the classical working memory complex span task, the usual assumption is that memoranda are refreshed in a cumulative fashion, starting from the first item, going in a forward order until the latest one, and cycling until there is no time to continue the process. However, there is no evidence that refreshing operates in that way. The present study proposes a computational modelling study, which constitutes a powerful method to investigate alternative hypotheses...
March 31, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341362/sinus-bradycardia-in-habitual-cocaine-users
#10
Sona M Franklin, Sudarone Thihalolipavan, John M Fontaine
Common physiological manifestations of cocaine are related to its adrenergic effects, due to inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine uptake at the postsynaptic terminal. Few studies have documented bradycardia secondary to cocaine use, representing the antithesis of its adrenergic effects. We assessed the prevalence of sinus bradycardia (SB) in habitual cocaine users and postulated a mechanism for this effect. One hundred sixty-two patients with a history of cocaine use were analyzed and compared with age- and gender-matched controls...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333950/drug-resistant-hiv-behaviors-and-characteristics-among-los-angeles-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-new-hiv-diagnosis
#11
Pamina M Gorbach, Marjan Javanbakht, Lorelei Bornfleth, Robert K Bolan, Martha Lewis Blum
Epidemiology of drug resistant HIV has focused on trends and less attention has been given to identification of factors, especially behaviors including substance use, in acquisition of drug-resistant HIV. From 2009 to 2012 The Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking testing for HIV in a community clinic in Los Angeles assessing those testing positive for acute and recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 125 classified as newly HIV infected and 91 as chronically infected (newly HIV-diagnosed); specimens were available and viable for resistance testing for 154 of the 216 HIV positives with new diagnoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332511/risk-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-after-discontinuation-of-antihypertensive-agents-a-case-control-study
#12
F F Alharbi, P C Souverein, M C de Groot, A H Maitland-van der Zee, A de Boer, O H Klungel
We performed a nested case-control study in a cohort of antihypertensive drug users to assess the association between discontinuation of different antihypertensive agents and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Cases and controls were drawn from the Utrecht Cardiovascular Pharmacogenetics database. Patients who were hospitalised for their first AMI were considered cases and controls were not hospitalised for AMI. Antihypertensive users were defined as current users if the index date (date of AMI) fell within the prescribed duration or as discontinuers if this date fell outside the prescribed duration...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331006/monkey-prefrontal-neurons-during-sternberg-task-performance-full-contents-of-working-memory-or-most-recent-item
#13
Roma O Konecky, Matthew A Smith, Carl R Olson
To explore the brain mechanisms underlying multi-item working memory, we monitored the activity of neurons in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while macaque monkeys performed spatial and chromatic versions of a Sternberg working-memory task. Each trial required holding three sequentially presented samples in working memory so as to identify a subsequent probe matching one of them. The monkeys were able to recall all three samples at levels well above chance, exhibiting modest load and recency effects. Prefrontal neurons signaled the identity of each sample during the delay period immediately following its presentation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323201/the-recency-ratio-is-associated-with-reduced-csf-glutamate-in-late-life-depression
#14
Davide Bruno, Jay Nierenberg, Thomas B Cooper, Charles R Marmar, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Kenji Hashimoto, Nunzio Pomara
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is thought to be involved in the process of memory encoding and storage. Glutamate disturbances have also been reported in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD), and in Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we set out to study the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamate levels and memory performance, which we believe has not been reported previously. In particular, we focused on recall performance broken down by serial position...
March 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288942/endemic-palm-species-shed-light-on-habitat-shifts-and-the-assembly-of-the-cerrado-and-restinga-floras
#15
Christine D Bacon, Monica Moraes R, Carlos Jaramillo, Alexandre Antonelli
Species expansions into new habitats are often associated with physiological adaptations, for instance when rain forest lineages colonize dry habitats. Although such shifts have been documented for the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), little is known about the biogeographic origin of species occupying an extreme South American habitat type, the coastal dunes (Restinga). We examined the formation of this poorly known, endangered habitat by reconstructing the evolutionary history of two endemic species. Due to the proposed recency and uniqueness of this habitat, we hypothesized that Restinga species of the palm genus Allagoptera to be recently evolved and to present derived morphological characters...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276173/information-order-effects-in-clinical-psychological-diagnoses
#16
Jan Christopher Cwik, Jürgen Margraf
Despite the wide application and long history of diagnostic systems, several sources of diagnostic errors remain in the criterion-based diagnosing of mental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presentational order of diagnosis-relevant information and pretreatment reports predict diagnostic errors. One hundred twenty psychotherapists participated in the present online study. The study employed a 2 (symptom presentation: core symptoms at vignette's beginning vs. core symptoms at the end of the case vignette) × 2 (pretreatment report: receiving a pretreatment report with an incongruent diagnosis to the case vignette vs...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274137/post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-pathological-gambling-potential-evidence-of-anti-reward-processes
#17
Cheryl L Green, Ramzi W Nahhas, Arielle A Scoglio, Igor Elman
Background Excessive gambling is considered to be a part of the addiction spectrum. Stress-like emotional states are a key feature both of pathological gambling (PG) and of substance addiction. In substance addiction, stress symptomatology has been attributed in part to "anti-reward" allostatic neuroadaptations, while a potential involvement of anti-reward processes in the course of PG has not yet been investigated. Methods To that end, individuals with PG (n = 22) and mentally healthy subjects (n = 13) were assessed for trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) using the Life Events Checklist and the Civilian Mississippi Scale, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236126/imminent-fracture-risk
#18
REVIEW
C Roux, K Briot
The clinical significance of osteoporosis is in the occurrence of fractures and re-fractures. The main risk factor of sustaining a fracture is a previous one, but a recent fracture is a better fracture risk factor than fracture history. The role of the recency of fracture has been shown for both vertebral and non-vertebral fracture risk. This imminent risk is explained by both bone-related factors (underlying osteoporosis) and fall-related factors (including those related to postfracture care). Such a short-term increased risk has been shown also in patients initiating corticosteroids and in frail osteoporotic subjects with central nervous system (CNS) diseases or drugs targeting CNS, and thus a high risk of falls...
February 24, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205046/reproductive-factors-and-risk-of-colorectal-polyps-in-a-colonoscopy-based-study-in-western-washington-state
#19
Sheetal Hardikar, Andrea N Burnett-Hartman, Jessica Chubak, Melissa P Upton, Lee-Ching Zhu, John D Potter, Polly A Newcomb
BACKGROUND: Oral contraceptives (OC) are associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancers; however, a recent study reported an increased risk of small colorectal adenomas associated with OC use. To determine if these results were replicable in a different study population, we investigated the relationship between OC use and other reproductive factors and risk of colorectal polyps in a case-control study in western Washington. METHODS: Study participants were 24-79-year-old female enrollees at an integrated health care system in western Washington who were diagnosed as having adenomas (n = 299), serrated polyps (n = 337), both types of polyps (n = 105) or as polyp-free controls (n = 615) through an index colonoscopy and completed a structured interview to collect reproductive history information...
March 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198544/dengue-virus-and-malaria-concurrent-infection-among-febrile-subjects-within-ilorin-metropolis-nigeria
#20
Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Adebimpe Adetola Seriki, Ahmad Adebayo Irekeola, Kizito Eneye Bello, Oluwapelumi Olufemi Adeyemi
Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease of public health importance. It is caused by four serotypes of Dengue virus (i.e. DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4). As a result of practices that are conducive for mosquito breading, its vector is widespread in Nigeria and this could result to possible DENV outbreaks in Nigeria and beyond. This study aimed to assess the recency of DENV infection as well as occurrence of DENV and Malaria co-infections within Ilorin, Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained from 176 febrile subjects and analyzed using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the presence of DENV antibodies...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
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