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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333950/drug-resistant-hiv-behaviors-and-characteristics-among-los-angeles-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-new-hiv-diagnosis
#1
Pamina M Gorbach, Marjan Javanbakht, Lorelei Bornfleth, Robert K Bolan, Martha Lewis Blum
Epidemiology of drug resistant HIV has focused on trends and less attention has been given to identification of factors, especially behaviors including substance use, in acquisition of drug-resistant HIV. From 2009 to 2012 The Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking testing for HIV in a community clinic in Los Angeles assessing those testing positive for acute and recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 125 classified as newly HIV infected and 91 as chronically infected (newly HIV-diagnosed); specimens were available and viable for resistance testing for 154 of the 216 HIV positives with new diagnoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332511/risk-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-after-discontinuation-of-antihypertensive-agents-a-case-control-study
#2
F F Alharbi, P C Souverein, M C de Groot, A H Maitland-van der Zee, A de Boer, O H Klungel
We performed a nested case-control study in a cohort of antihypertensive drug users to assess the association between discontinuation of different antihypertensive agents and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Cases and controls were drawn from the Utrecht Cardiovascular Pharmacogenetics database. Patients who were hospitalised for their first AMI were considered cases and controls were not hospitalised for AMI. Antihypertensive users were defined as current users if the index date (date of AMI) fell within the prescribed duration or as discontinuers if this date fell outside the prescribed duration...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331006/monkey-prefrontal-neurons-during-sternberg-task-performance-full-contents-of-working-memory-or-most-recent-item
#3
Roma O Konecky, Matthew A Smith, Carl R Olson
To explore the brain mechanisms underlying multi-item working memory, we monitored the activity of neurons in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while macaque monkeys performed spatial and chromatic versions of a Sternberg working-memory task. Each trial required holding three sequentially presented samples in working memory so as to identify a subsequent probe matching one of them. The monkeys were able to recall all three samples at levels well above chance, exhibiting modest load and recency effects. Prefrontal neurons signaled the identity of each sample during the delay period immediately following its presentation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323201/the-recency-ratio-is-associated-with-reduced-csf-glutamate-in-late-life-depression
#4
Davide Bruno, Jay Nierenberg, Thomas B Cooper, Charles R Marmar, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Kenji Hashimoto, Nunzio Pomara
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is thought to be involved in the process of memory encoding and storage. Glutamate disturbances have also been reported in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD), and in Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we set out to study the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamate levels and memory performance, which we believe has not been reported previously. In particular, we focused on recall performance broken down by serial position...
March 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288942/endemic-palm-species-shed-light-on-habitat-shifts-and-the-assembly-of-the-cerrado-and-restinga-floras
#5
Christine D Bacon, Monica Moraes R, Carlos Jaramillo, Alexandre Antonelli
Species expansions into new habitats are often associated with physiological adaptations, for instance when rain forest lineages colonize dry habitats. Although such shifts have been documented for the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), little is known about the biogeographic origin of species occupying an extreme South American habitat type, the coastal dunes (Restinga). We examined the formation of this poorly known, endangered habitat by reconstructing the evolutionary history of two endemic species. Due to the proposed recency and uniqueness of this habitat, we hypothesized that Restinga species of the palm genus Allagoptera to be recently evolved and to present derived morphological characters...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276173/information-order-effects-in-clinical-psychological-diagnoses
#6
Jan Christopher Cwik, Jürgen Margraf
Despite the wide application and long history of diagnostic systems, several sources of diagnostic errors remain in the criterion-based diagnosing of mental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presentational order of diagnosis-relevant information and pretreatment reports predict diagnostic errors. One hundred twenty psychotherapists participated in the present online study. The study employed a 2 (symptom presentation: core symptoms at vignette's beginning vs. core symptoms at the end of the case vignette) × 2 (pretreatment report: receiving a pretreatment report with an incongruent diagnosis to the case vignette vs...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274137/post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-pathological-gambling-potential-evidence-of-anti-reward-processes
#7
Cheryl L Green, Ramzi W Nahhas, Arielle A Scoglio, Igor Elman
Background Excessive gambling is considered to be a part of the addiction spectrum. Stress-like emotional states are a key feature both of pathological gambling (PG) and of substance addiction. In substance addiction, stress symptomatology has been attributed in part to "anti-reward" allostatic neuroadaptations, while a potential involvement of anti-reward processes in the course of PG has not yet been investigated. Methods To that end, individuals with PG (n = 22) and mentally healthy subjects (n = 13) were assessed for trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) using the Life Events Checklist and the Civilian Mississippi Scale, respectively...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236126/imminent-fracture-risk
#8
REVIEW
C Roux, K Briot
The clinical significance of osteoporosis is in the occurrence of fractures and re-fractures. The main risk factor of sustaining a fracture is a previous one, but a recent fracture is a better fracture risk factor than fracture history. The role of the recency of fracture has been shown for both vertebral and non-vertebral fracture risk. This imminent risk is explained by both bone-related factors (underlying osteoporosis) and fall-related factors (including those related to postfracture care). Such a short-term increased risk has been shown also in patients initiating corticosteroids and in frail osteoporotic subjects with central nervous system (CNS) diseases or drugs targeting CNS, and thus a high risk of falls...
February 24, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205046/reproductive-factors-and-risk-of-colorectal-polyps-in-a-colonoscopy-based-study-in-western-washington-state
#9
Sheetal Hardikar, Andrea N Burnett-Hartman, Jessica Chubak, Melissa P Upton, Lee-Ching Zhu, John D Potter, Polly A Newcomb
BACKGROUND: Oral contraceptives (OC) are associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancers; however, a recent study reported an increased risk of small colorectal adenomas associated with OC use. To determine if these results were replicable in a different study population, we investigated the relationship between OC use and other reproductive factors and risk of colorectal polyps in a case-control study in western Washington. METHODS: Study participants were 24-79-year-old female enrollees at an integrated health care system in western Washington who were diagnosed as having adenomas (n = 299), serrated polyps (n = 337), both types of polyps (n = 105) or as polyp-free controls (n = 615) through an index colonoscopy and completed a structured interview to collect reproductive history information...
March 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198544/dengue-virus-and-malaria-concurrent-infection-among-febrile-subjects-within-ilorin-metropolis-nigeria
#10
Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Adebimpe Adetola Seriki, Ahmad Adebayo Irekeola, Kizito Eneye Bello, Oluwapelumi Olufemi Adeyemi
Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease of public health importance. It is caused by four serotypes of Dengue virus (i.e. DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4). As a result of practices that are conducive for mosquito breading, its vector is widespread in Nigeria and this could result to possible DENV outbreaks in Nigeria and beyond. This study aimed to assess the recency of DENV infection as well as occurrence of DENV and Malaria co-infections within Ilorin, Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained from 176 febrile subjects and analyzed using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the presence of DENV antibodies...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196831/child-and-adolescent-mental-health-repeat-visits-to-the-emergency-department-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Stephanie L Leon, Paula Cloutier, Christine Polihronis, Roger Zemek, Amanda S Newton, Clare Gray, Mario Cappelli
OBJECTIVES: Repeat visits represent up to 45% of mental health (MH) presentations to emergency departments (EDs) and are associated with higher health care costs. We aimed to synthesize available literature on predictors of pediatric MH repeat ED visits and differences between repeat visitors and nonrepeat visitors. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using PsycINFO, PubMed, and CINAHL databases. Reporting followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement checklist...
February 14, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178146/pairwise-diversity-and-tmrca-as-potential-markers-for-hiv-infection-recency
#12
Sikhulile Moyo, Eduan Wilkinson, Alain Vandormael, Rui Wang, Jia Weng, Kenanao P Kotokwe, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Rosemary Musonda, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Susan Engelbrecht, Tulio de Oliveira, Vladimir Novitsky
Intrahost human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 diversity increases linearly over time. We assessed the extent to which mean pairwise distances and the time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) inferred from intrahost HIV-1C env sequences were associated with the estimated time of HIV infection. Data from a primary HIV-1C infection study in Botswana were used for this analysis (N = 42). A total of 2540 HIV-1C env gp120 variable loop region 1 to conserved region 5 (V1C5) of the HIV-1 envelope gp120 viral sequences were generated by single genome amplification and sequencing, with an average of 61 viral sequences per participant and 11 sequences per time point per participant...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169319/early-life-stress-impairs-recognition-memory-and-perturbs-the-functional-maturation-of-prefrontal-hippocampal-perirhinal-networks
#13
Samuel A J Reincke, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz
Early life exposure to stressful situations impairs cognitive performance of adults and contributes to the etiology of several psychiatric disorders. Most of affected cognitive abilities rely on coupling by synchrony within complex neuronal networks, including prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HP), and perirhinal cortex (PRH). Yet it remains poorly understood how early life stress (ELS) induces dysfunction within these networks during the course of development. Here we used intermittent maternal separation during the first 2 postnatal weeks to mimic ELS and monitored the recognition memory and functional coupling within prefrontal-hippocampal-perirhinal circuits in juvenile rats...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160610/learning-in-settings-with-partial-feedback-and-the-wavy-recency-effect-of-rare-events
#14
Ori Plonsky, Ido Erev
Analyses of human learning reveal a discrepancy between the long- and the short-term effects of outcomes on subsequent choice. The long-term effect is simple: favorable outcomes increase the choice rate of an alternative whereas unfavorable outcomes decrease it. The short-term effects are more complex. Favorable outcomes can decrease the choice rate of the best option. This pattern violates the positive recency assumption that underlies the popular models of learning. The current research tries to clarify the implications of these results...
February 1, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159730/hiv-trends-in-the-united-states-diagnoses-and-estimated-incidence
#15
H Irene Hall, Ruiguang Song, Tian Tang, Qian An, Joseph Prejean, Patricia Dietz, Angela L Hernandez, Timothy Green, Norma Harris, Eugene McCray, Jonathan Mermin
BACKGROUND: The best indicator of the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs is the incidence of infection; however, HIV is a chronic infection and HIV diagnoses may include infections that occurred years before diagnosis. Alternative methods to estimate incidence use diagnoses, stage of disease, and laboratory assays of infection recency. Using a consistent, accurate method would allow for timely interpretation of HIV trends. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the recent progress toward reducing HIV infections in the United States overall and among selected population segments with available incidence estimation methods...
February 3, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095744/the-effects-of-age-on-the-learning-and-forgetting-of-primacy-middle-and-recency-components-of-a-multi-trial-word-list
#16
Jason W Griffin, Samantha E John, Jason W Adams, Cara A Bussell, Jessica L Saurman, Brandon E Gavett
The serial position effect reveals that recall of a supraspan list of words follows a predictable pattern, whereby words at the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of a list are recalled more easily than words in the middle. This effect has typically been studied using single list-learning trials, but in neuropsychology, multi-trial list-learning tests are more commonly used. The current study examined trends in learning for primacy, middle, and recency effects across multiple trials in younger and older age cohorts...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068973/patterns-of-use-of-oral-health-care-services-and-barriers-to-dental-care-among-ambulatory-older-chilean
#17
Rodrigo Mariño, Rodrigo A Giacaman
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the patterns of use of oral health care services among ambulant 65-74 years or older adults, living in the Maule Region of Chile, factors associated with their use of oral health care services, and self-reported barriers to using oral health care services. METHODS: Four hundred and thirty eight older adults, aged 65-74 years, living independently in the community were orally examined and underwent an oral health interview. Recency of visits was related to the use of oral health care services within the 12 months prior to the study...
January 9, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067469/visual-working-memory-resources-are-best-characterized-as-dynamic-quantifiable-mnemonic-traces
#18
Bella Z Veksler, Rachel Boyd, Christopher W Myers, Glenn Gunzelmann, Hansjörg Neth, Wayne D Gray
Visual working memory (VWM) is a construct hypothesized to store a small amount of accurate perceptual information that can be brought to bear on a task. Much research concerns the construct's capacity and the precision of the information stored. Two prominent theories of VWM representation have emerged: slot-based and continuous-resource mechanisms. Prior modeling work suggests that a continuous resource that varies over trials with variable capacity and a potential to make localization errors best accounts for the empirical data...
January 9, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059028/three-semantic-serial-position-functions-at-the-same-time
#19
Ian Neath, Matthew R Kelley, Aimée M Surprenant
Serial position functions are so ubiquitous that researchers frequently use buffer items to control for primacy and recency effects regardless of the memory task. However, most theories offer different explanations for different types of tests. In contrast, the relative distinctiveness principle offers one explanation for all tasks: items with fewer close neighbors will generally be more distinct and therefore better remembered than items with more close neighbors. An experiment assessed two predictions of this account...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040044/lateralization-of-simulated-sources-and-echoes-differing-in-frequency-based-on-interaural-temporal-differences
#20
Raymond H Dye, Joseph Boomer, Joleen Frankel, Jacquelyn P Hill, Alycia N Peloquin
This study examined listeners' ability to process interaural temporal differences (ITDs) in one of two sequential sounds when the two differed in spectral content. A correlational analysis assessed weights given to ITDs of simulated source and echo pulses for echo delays of 8-128 ms for conditions in which responses were based on the source or echo, a 3000-Hz Gaussian (target) pulse. The other (distractor) pulse was spectrally centered at 1500, 2000, 3000, 4000, or 5000 Hz. Also measured were proportion correct and proportion of responses predicted from the weights...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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