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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095744/the-effects-of-age-on-the-learning-and-forgetting-of-primacy-middle-and-recency-components-of-a-multi-trial-word-list
#1
Jason W Griffin, Samantha E John, Jason W Adams, Cara A Bussell, Jessica L Saurman, Brandon E Gavett
The serial position effect reveals that recall of a supraspan list of words follows a predictable pattern, whereby words at the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of a list are recalled more easily than words in the middle. This effect has typically been studied using single list-learning trials, but in neuropsychology, multi-trial list-learning tests are more commonly used. The current study examined trends in learning for primacy, middle, and recency effects across multiple trials in younger and older age cohorts...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068973/patterns-of-use-of-oral-health-care-services-and-barriers-to-dental-care-among-ambulatory-older-chilean
#2
Rodrigo Mariño, Rodrigo A Giacaman
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the patterns of use of oral health care services among ambulant 65-74 years or older adults, living in the Maule Region of Chile, factors associated with their use of oral health care services, and self-reported barriers to using oral health care services. METHODS: Four hundred and thirty eight older adults, aged 65-74 years, living independently in the community were orally examined and underwent an oral health interview. Recency of visits was related to the use of oral health care services within the 12 months prior to the study...
January 9, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067469/visual-working-memory-resources-are-best-characterized-as-dynamic-quantifiable-mnemonic-traces
#3
Bella Z Veksler, Rachel Boyd, Christopher W Myers, Glenn Gunzelmann, Hansjörg Neth, Wayne D Gray
Visual working memory (VWM) is a construct hypothesized to store a small amount of accurate perceptual information that can be brought to bear on a task. Much research concerns the construct's capacity and the precision of the information stored. Two prominent theories of VWM representation have emerged: slot-based and continuous-resource mechanisms. Prior modeling work suggests that a continuous resource that varies over trials with variable capacity and a potential to make localization errors best accounts for the empirical data...
January 9, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059028/three-semantic-serial-position-functions-at-the-same-time
#4
Ian Neath, Matthew R Kelley, Aimée M Surprenant
Serial position functions are so ubiquitous that researchers frequently use buffer items to control for primacy and recency effects regardless of the memory task. However, most theories offer different explanations for different types of tests. In contrast, the relative distinctiveness principle offers one explanation for all tasks: items with fewer close neighbors will generally be more distinct and therefore better remembered than items with more close neighbors. An experiment assessed two predictions of this account...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040044/lateralization-of-simulated-sources-and-echoes-differing-in-frequency-based-on-interaural-temporal-differences
#5
Raymond H Dye, Joseph Boomer, Joleen Frankel, Jacquelyn P Hill, Alycia N Peloquin
This study examined listeners' ability to process interaural temporal differences (ITDs) in one of two sequential sounds when the two differed in spectral content. A correlational analysis assessed weights given to ITDs of simulated source and echo pulses for echo delays of 8-128 ms for conditions in which responses were based on the source or echo, a 3000-Hz Gaussian (target) pulse. The other (distractor) pulse was spectrally centered at 1500, 2000, 3000, 4000, or 5000 Hz. Also measured were proportion correct and proportion of responses predicted from the weights...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005957/the-effects-of-stability-and-presentation-order-of-rewards-on-justice-evaluations
#6
Hyomin Park, David Melamed
Justice research has evolved by elucidating the factors that affect justice evaluations, as well as their consequences. Unfortunately, few researchers have paid attention to the pattern of rewards over time as a predictor of justice evaluations. There are two main objectives of this research. First, it aims to test the effect of reward stability on justice evaluations. Based on justice theory and prospect theory, we assume that an under-reward at one time cannot be fully offset by an equivalent over-reward at another time...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999772/evaluating-and-using-observational-evidence-the-contrasting-views-of-policy-makers-and-epidemiologists
#7
Lily O'Donoughue Jenkins, Paul M Kelly, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: Currently, little is known about the types of evidence used by policy makers. This study aimed to investigate how policy makers in the health domain use and evaluate evidence and how this differs from academic epidemiologists. By having a better understanding of how policy makers select, evaluate, and use evidence, academics can tailor the way in which that evidence is produced, potentially leading to more effective knowledge translation. METHODS: An exploratory mixed-methods study design was used...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991808/suicide-and-self-injury-related-implicit-cognition-a-large-scale-examination-and-replication
#8
Jeffrey J Glenn, Alexandra J Werntz, S J Katarina Slama, Shari A Steinman, Bethany A Teachman, Matthew K Nock
Suicide and self-injury are difficult to predict because at-risk individuals are often unable or unwilling to report their intentions. Therefore, tools to reliably assess risk without reliance on self-report are critically needed. Prior research suggests that people who engage in suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) often implicitly (i.e., outside conscious control) associate themselves with self-harm and death, indicating that self-harm-related implicit cognition may serve as a useful behavioral marker for suicide risk...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918285/humans-and-monkeys-use-different-strategies-to-solve-the-same-short-term-memory-tasks
#9
John H Wittig, Barak Morgan, Evan Masseau, Barry J Richmond
The neural mechanisms underlying human working memory are often inferred from studies using old-world monkeys. Humans use working memory to selectively memorize important information. We recently reported that monkeys do not seem to use selective memorization under experimental conditions that are common in monkey research, but less common in human research. Here we compare the performance of humans and monkeys under the same experimental conditions. Humans selectively remember important images whereas monkeys largely rely on recency information from nonselective memorization...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913758/timing-of-most-recent-health-care-visit-by-older-people-living-with-and-without-hiv-findings-from-the-sage-well-being-of-older-people-study-in-uganda
#10
Joseph O Mugisha, Enid J Schatz, Joel Negin, Paul Mwaniki, Paul Kowal, Janet Seeley
The objective of this article is to document factors associated with the recency of health-care service utilization by people aged 50 years and over living with and without HIV in Uganda. A survey was conducted with 510 Ugandans aged 50 and older, living with and without HIV. The survey included information on sociodemographic characteristics, health state, self-reported chronic conditions, and timing of most recent visit to a health-care facility (time since last visit [TSLV]). We use ordinal logistic regression to identify independent factors associated TSLV...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897678/a-tale-of-two-temporal-coding-strategies-common-and-dissociable-brain-regions-involved-in-recency-versus-associative-temporal-order-retrieval-strategies
#11
Jennifer S Lieberman, Colin T Kyle, Amber Schedlbauer, Jared Stokes, Arne D Ekstrom
Numerous studies indicate the importance of the hippocampus to temporal order retrieval. However, behavioral studies suggest that there are different ways to retrieve temporal order information from encoded sequences, one involving an associative strategy (retrieving associations using neighboring items in a list) and another involving a recency strategy (determining which of two items came first). It remains unresolved, however, whether both strategies recruit the hippocampus or only associative strategies, consistent with the hippocampus's role in relational processing...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893822/deciphering-multiplicity-of-hiv-1c-infection-transmission-of-closely-related-multiple-viral-lineages
#12
Vlad Novitsky, Sikhulile Moyo, Rui Wang, Simani Gaseitsiwe, M Essex
BACKGROUND: A single viral variant is transmitted in the majority of HIV infections. However, about 20% of heterosexually transmitted HIV infections are caused by multiple viral variants. Detection of transmitted HIV variants is not trivial, as it involves analysis of multiple viral sequences representing intra-host HIV-1 quasispecies. METHODOLOGY: We distinguish two types of multiple virus transmission in HIV infection: (1) HIV transmission from the same source, and (2) transmission from different sources...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876444/the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-verbal-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-18-f-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-fdg-pet-correlates-of-recency-and-recognition-memory
#13
Adam M Staffaroni, Rebecca J Melrose, Lorraine P Leskin, Hannah Riskin-Jones, Dylan Harwood, Mark Mandelkern, David L Sultzer
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to distinguish the functional neuroanatomy of verbal learning and recognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word Learning task. METHOD: In 81 Veterans diagnosed with dementia due to AD, we conducted a cluster-based correlation analysis to assess the relationships between recency and recognition memory scores from the CERAD Word Learning Task and cortical metabolic activity measured using [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872321/msm-in-bogot%C3%A3-are-living-with-hiv-for-extended-periods-without-diagnosis-or-treatment
#14
Maria Cecilia Zea, Patricia Olaya, Carol A Reisen, Paul J Poppen
We examined recency of infection in serum samples obtained from 69 newly identified HIV-positive cases in a sample of 1000 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bogotá. HIV antibody avidity assays were performed using the Architect HIV Ag/AB combo. Avidity indices ranged from 0.62 to 1.22, with a cut-off score below 0.80 indicative of recent infection. Two samples were classified as recent, six fell within the gray zone (0.75 to 0.85), and the remaining 61 were considered established infections. Results provided evidence of widespread, long-term, undiagnosed HIV infection, as well as an estimate of one-year incidence at ...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859647/spatial-but-not-oculomotor-information-biases-perceptual-memory-evidence-from-face-perception-and-cognitive-modeling
#15
Andrea L Wantz, Janek S Lobmaier, Fred W Mast, Walter Senn
Recent research put forward the hypothesis that eye movements are integrated in memory representations and are reactivated when later recalled. However, "looking back to nothing" during recall might be a consequence of spatial memory retrieval. Here, we aimed at distinguishing between the effect of spatial and oculomotor information on perceptual memory. Participants' task was to judge whether a morph looked rather like the first or second previously presented face. Crucially, faces and morphs were presented in a way that the morph reactivated oculomotor and/or spatial information associated with one of the previously encoded faces...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859246/neuroticism-and-extraversion-magnify-discrepancies-between-retrospective-and-concurrent-affect-reports
#16
Jennifer C Lay, Denis Gerstorf, Stacey B Scott, Theresa Pauly, Christiane A Hoppmann
OBJECTIVE: Although research often relies on retrospective affect self-reports, little is known about personality's role in retrospective reports and how these converge or deviate from affect reported in the moment. This micro-longitudinal study examines personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion) and emotional salience (peak and recent affect) associations with retrospective-momentary affect report discrepancies over different time frames. METHOD: Participants were 179 adults aged 20-78 (M = 48...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853606/reflections-of-the-social-environment-in-chimpanzee-memory-applying-rational-analysis-beyond-humans
#17
Jeffrey R Stevens, Julian N Marewski, Lael J Schooler, Ian C Gilby
In cognitive science, the rational analysis framework allows modelling of how physical and social environments impose information-processing demands onto cognitive systems. In humans, for example, past social contact among individuals predicts their future contact with linear and power functions. These features of the human environment constrain the optimal way to remember information and probably shape how memory records are retained and retrieved. We offer a primer on how biologists can apply rational analysis to study animal behaviour...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833574/working-memory-for-sequences-of-temporal-durations-reveals-a-volatile-single-item-store
#18
Sanjay G Manohar, Masud Husain
When a sequence is held in working memory, different items are retained with differing fidelity. Here we ask whether a sequence of brief time intervals that must be remembered show recency effects, similar to those observed in verbal and visuospatial working memory. It has been suggested that prioritizing some items over others can be accounted for by a "focus of attention," maintaining some items in a privileged state. We therefore also investigated whether such benefits are vulnerable to disruption by attention or expectation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821367/a-blast-from-the-past-civilians-immediate-psychological-reactions-and-associative-memory-of-prior-events-following-exploding-bus-in-israel
#19
Menachem Ben-Ezra, Shani Pitcho-Prelorentzos, Michal Mahat-Shamir
This study examined the association between self-report associative memories of prior traumatic events and psychological distress up to 48h after a terror attack. To date, the number of studies that examined this association is very small and most were conducted weeks or even months post event. For this purpose, we examined the association between self-report associative memories of prior traumatic events beyond factors such as previous exposure to trauma, political shift and sense of safety. The results showed that self-report associative memories of prior traumatic events were significantly associated with psychological distress...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783220/the-importance-of-mammillary-body-efferents-for-recency-memory-towards-a-better-understanding-of-diencephalic-amnesia
#20
Andrew J D Nelson, Seralynne D Vann
Despite being historically one of the first brain regions linked to memory loss, there remains controversy over the core features of diencephalic amnesia as well as the critical site for amnesia to occur. The mammillary bodies and thalamus appear to be the primary locus of pathology in the cases of diencephalic amnesia, but the picture is complicated by the lack of patients with circumscribed damage. Impaired temporal memory is a consistent neuropsychological finding in Korsakoff syndrome patients, but again, it is unclear whether this deficit is attributable to pathology within the diencephalon or concomitant frontal lobe dysfunction...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
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