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Jessica Marsack, Rob Stephenson
End-of-life care has attracted increased attention in recent years due to increases in both the number and mean age of the world's population; however, the experiences of LGBT persons during end-of-life care remain understudied. Given the health disparities and barriers to care experienced throughout the life course of LGBT persons, the frequent involvement of legal spouses in end-of-life care, and the recency of marriage equality, it can be surmised that LGBT persons might experience significantly different barriers to their desired end-of-life care compared to their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts...
June 19, 2018: LGBT Health
Anja Franziska Ernst, Rink Hoekstra, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Andrew Gelman, Don van Ravenzwaaij
As a research field expands, scientists have to update their knowledge and integrate the outcomes of a sequence of studies. However, such integrative judgments are generally known to fall victim to a primacy bias where people anchor their judgments on the initial information. In this preregistered study we tested the hypothesis that people anchor on the outcome of a small initial study, reducing the impact of a larger subsequent study that contradicts the initial result. Contrary to our expectation, undergraduates and academics displayed a recency bias, anchoring their judgment on the research outcome presented last...
May 2018: Experimental Psychology
Michelle Gray
AIM: A theoretical discussion using categorisation theory to discuss the final analysis of findings from research which investigated midwives' responses to the changed registration-renewal requirements in Australia after the introduction of national registration. BACKGROUND: In 2010 the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law Act introduced national registration to standardise the regulation of health professionals in Australia. Annual registration-renewal standards required all health professionals to meet the same standards of clear police check, insurance for scope of practice, Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and Recency of Practice (ROP)...
June 7, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Eve Valera, Aihua Cao, Ofer Pasternak, Martha E Shenton, Marek Kubicki, Nikos Makris, Noor Adra
A large proportion (range of 44-75%) of women who experience intimate-partner violence (IPV) have been shown to sustain repetitive mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) from their abusers. Further, despite requests for research on TBI-related health outcomes, there are currently only a handful of studies addressing this issue, and only one prior imaging study that has investigated the neural correlates of IPV-related TBIs. In response, we examined specific regions of white matter microstructure in 20 women with histories of IPV...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Dominic M D Tran, R Frederick Westbrook
Exposure to a high-fat high-sugar (HFHS) diet rapidly impairs novel-place- but not novel-object-recognition memory in rats (Tran & Westbrook, 2015, 2017). Three experiments sought to investigate the generality of diet-induced cognitive deficits by examining whether there are conditions under which object-recognition memory is impaired. Experiments 1 and 3 tested the strength of short- and long-term object-memory trace, respectively, by varying the interval of time between object familiarization and subsequent novel object test...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Steffen A Herff, Kirk N Olsen, Roger T Dean, Jon Prince
In a continuous recognition paradigm, most stimuli elicit superior recognition performance when the item to be recognized is the most recent stimulus (a recency-in-memory effect). Furthermore, increasing the number of intervening items cumulatively disrupts memory in most domains. Memory for melodies composed in familiar tuning systems also shows superior recognition for the most recent melody, but no disruptive effects from the number of intervening melodies. A possible explanation has been offered in a novel regenerative multiple representations (RMR) conjecture...
June 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Alexander J Millner, Daniel D L Coppersmith, Bethany A Teachman, Matthew K Nock
Assessing suicidal thoughts and behaviors is difficult because at-risk individuals often fail to provide honest or accurate accounts of their suicidal thoughts or intentions. Research has shown that the Death Implicit Association Test (D-IAT), a behavioral test that measures implicit (i.e., outside of conscious control) associations between oneself and death concepts, can differentiate among people with different suicidal histories, such as those with different severity or recency of suicidal behaviors. We report here on the development and evaluation of a shorter and simpler version of the D-IAT called the Death Brief Implicit Association Test (D-BIAT)...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Marie C Bradley, Assiamira Ferrara, Ninah Achacoso, Samantha F Ehrlich, Charles P Quesenberry, Laurel A Habel
Background: Several epidemiologic studies have reported strong inverse associations between metformin use and risk of colorectal cancer, although time-related biases, such as immortal time bias, may in part explain these findings. We reexamined this association using methods to minimize these biases. Methods: A cohort study was conducted among 47,351 members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California with diabetes and no history of cancer or metformin use. Follow-up for incident colorectal cancer occurred from January 1, 1997, until June 30, 2012...
May 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Inder Singh, Zoran Tiganj, Marc W Howard
A growing body of evidence suggests that short-term memory does not only store the identity of recently experienced stimuli, but also information about when they were presented. This representation of 'what' happened 'when' constitutes a neural timeline of recent past. Behavioral results suggest that people can sequentially access memories for the recent past, as if they were stored along a timeline to which attention is sequentially directed. In the short-term judgment of recency (JOR) task, the time to choose between two probe items depends on the recency of the more recent probe but not on the recency of the more remote probe...
April 23, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga, Mark A Zamorski, Ian Colman
The psychometric properties of the ten-item Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10) have been extensively explored in civilian populations. However, documentation of its psychometric properties in military populations is limited, and there is no universally accepted cut-off score on the K10 to distinguish clinical vs. sub-clinical levels of distress. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the K10 in Canadian Armed Forces personnel. Data on 6700 Regular Forces personnel were obtained from the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey...
2018: PloS One
Kevin W Soo, Benjamin M Rottman
One challenge when inferring the strength of cause-effect relations from time series data is that the cause and/or effect can exhibit temporal trends. If temporal trends are not accounted for, a learner could infer that a causal relation exists when it does not, or even infer that there is a positive causal relation when the relation is negative, or vice versa. We propose that learners use a simple heuristic to control for temporal trends-that they focus not on the states of the cause and effect at a given instant, but on how the cause and effect change from one observation to the next, which we call transitions...
April 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Glenn Kiekens, Penelope Hasking, Laurence Claes, Philippe Mortier, Randy P Auerbach, Mark Boyes, Pim Cuijpers, Koen Demyttenaere, Jennifer G Green, Ronald C Kessler, Matthew K Nock, Ronny Bruffaerts
BACKGROUND: Approximately one in five college students report a history of nonsuicidal self-injury. However, it is unclear how many students meet criteria for the recently proposed DSM-5 nonsuicidal self-injury disorder (NSSI-D). In this study, we used full NSSI-D criteria to identify those students most in need of clinical care. METHODS: Using data from the Leuven College Surveys (n = 4,565), we examined the 12-month prevalence of DSM-5 NSSI-D in a large and representative sample of incoming college students...
April 26, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
V Annabelle Lee Cheong Lem, Caroline Moul, Justin A Harris, Evan J Livesey
The Perruchet effect refers to a dissociation between the conscious expectancy of an outcome and the strength or speed of responding in anticipation of that outcome. This dissociation is considered by some to be the best evidence for multiple learning processes with expectancy governed by participants' explicit beliefs and responding driven by the associative history of the cues that partially predict the outcome. However, an alternative nonassociative explanation is that the trends in responding are the result of recent experience with the same outcome (i...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Davide Bruno, Rebecca L Koscik, John L Woodard, Nunzio Pomara, Sterling C Johnson
ABSTRACTObjectives:Individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) present poor immediate primacy recall accompanied by intact or exaggerated recency, which then tends to decline after a delay. Bruno et al. (Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 38, 2016, pp. 967-973) have shown that higher ratio scores between immediate and delayed recency (i.e. the recency ratio; Rr) are associated with cognitive decline in high-functioning older individuals. We tested whether Rr predicted conversion to early mild cognitive impairment (early MCI) from a cognitively healthy baseline...
April 18, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Leone Ridsdale, Gabriella Wojewodka, Emily J Robinson, Adam J Noble, Myfanwy Morgan, Stephanie J C Taylor, Paul McCrone, Mark P Richardson, Gus Baker, Sabine Landau, Laura H Goldstein
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions affecting about 1% of adults. Up to 40% of people with epilepsy (PWE) report recurring seizures while on medication. And optimal functioning requires good self-management. Our objective was to evaluate a group self-management education courses for people with epilepsy and drug-resistant seizures by means of a multicenter, pragmatic, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. METHODS: We recruited adults with epilepsy, having ≥2 seizures in the prior 12 months, from specialist clinics...
May 2018: Epilepsia
Joel R Kuhn, Lynn J Lohnas, Michael J Kahana
The well-known recency effect in immediate free recall reverses when subjects attempt to recall items studied and tested on a series of prior lists, as in the final-free-recall procedure (Craik, 1970). In this case, the last few items on each list are actually remembered less well than are the midlist items. Because dual-store theories of recall naturally predict negative recency, this phenomenon has long been cited as evidence favoring these models. In a final-free-recall study, we replicate the negative-recency effect for the within-list serial position curve and the positive-recency effect for the between-list serial position curve...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Neha Sharma, Shoubhik Debnath, Varun Dutt
Research shows that people tend to overweight small probabilities in description and underweight them in experience, thereby leading to a different pattern of choices between description and experience; a phenomenon known as the Description-Experience (DE) gap. However, little is known on how the addition of an intermediate option and contextual framing influences the DE gap and people's search strategies. This paper tests the effects of an intermediate option and contextual framing on the DE gap and people's search strategies, where problems require search for information before a consequential choice...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kristina A Uban, Megan K Horton, Joanna Jacobus, Charles Heyser, Wesley K Thompson, Susan F Tapert, Pamela A F Madden, Elizabeth R Sowell
Biospecimen collection in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study - of hair samples, shed deciduous (baby) teeth, and body fluids - will serve dual functions of screening for study eligibility, and providing measures of biological processes thought to predict or correlate with key study outcomes on brain and cognitive development. Biosamples are being collected annually to screen for recency of drug use prior to the neuroimaging or cognitive testing visit, and to store for the following future studies: (1) on the effects of exposure to illicit and recreational drugs (including alcohol and nicotine); (2) of pubertal hormones on brain and cognitive developmental trajectories; (3) on the contribution of genomics and epigenomics to child and adolescent development and behavioral outcomes; and (4) with pre- and post-natal exposure to environmental neurotoxicants and drugs of abuse measured from novel tooth analyses...
March 16, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Graham J Hitch, Yanmei Hu, Richard J Allen, Alan D Baddeley
Previous research on memory for a short sequence of visual stimuli indicates that access to the focus of attention (FoA) can be achieved in either of two ways. The first is automatic and is indexed by the recency effect, the enhanced retention of the final item. The second is strategic and based on instructions to prioritize items differentially, a process that draws on executive capacity and boosts retention of information deemed important. In both cases, the increased level of retention can be selectively reduced by presenting a poststimulus distractor (or suffix)...
March 10, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Erin C Dunn, Katherine M Crawford, Thomas W Soare, Katherine S Button, Miriam R Raffeld, Andrew D A C Smith, Ian S Penton-Voak, Marcus R Munafò
BACKGROUND: Emotion recognition skills are essential for social communication. Deficits in these skills have been implicated in mental disorders. Prior studies of clinical and high-risk samples have consistently shown that children exposed to adversity are more likely than their unexposed peers to have emotion recognition skills deficits. However, only one population-based study has examined this association. METHODS: We analyzed data from children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective birth cohort (n = 6,506)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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