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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239630/a-meta-analytic-review-of-two-modes-of-learning-and-the-description-experience-gap
#1
Dirk U Wulff, Max Mergenthaler-Canseco, Ralph Hertwig
People can learn about the probabilistic consequences of their actions in two ways: One is by consulting descriptions of an action's consequences and probabilities (e.g., reading up on a medication's side effects). The other is by personally experiencing the probabilistic consequences of an action (e.g., beta testing software). In principle, people taking each route can reach analogous states of knowledge and consequently make analogous decisions. In the last dozen years, however, research has demonstrated systematic discrepancies between description- and experienced-based choices...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226786/temporal-grouping-effects-in-musical-short-term-memory
#2
Simon Gorin, Pierre Mengal, Steve Majerus
Recent theoretical accounts of verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory (STM) have proposed the existence of domain-general mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order information. These accounts are based on the observation of similar behavioural effects across several modalities, such as temporal grouping effects. Across two experiments, the present study aimed at extending these findings, by exploring a STM modality that has received little interest so far, STM for musical information. Given its inherent rhythmic, temporal and serial organisation, the musical domain is of interest for investigating serial order STM processes such as temporal grouping...
December 11, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225353/urban-landscape-genomics-identifies-fine-scale-gene-flow-patterns-in-an-avian-invasive
#3
G W Low, B Chattopadhyay, K M Garg, M Irestedt, Pgp Ericson, G Yap, Q Tang, S Wu, F E Rheindt
Invasive species exert a serious impact on native fauna and flora and have been the target of many eradication and management efforts worldwide. However, a lack of data on population structure and history, exacerbated by the recency of many species introductions, limits the efficiency with which such species can be kept at bay. In this study we generated a novel genome of high assembly quality and genotyped 4735 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers from 78 individuals of an invasive population of the Javan Myna Acridotheres javanicus across the island of Singapore...
December 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209942/the-contribution-of-stimulus-frequency-and-recency-to-set-size-effects
#4
Félice van 't Wout
Hick's law describes the increase in choice reaction time (RT) with the number of stimulus-response (S-R) mappings. However, in choice RT experiments, set-size is typically confounded with stimulus recency and frequency: With a smaller set-size, each stimulus occurs on average more frequently and more recently than with a larger set-size. To determine to what extent stimulus recency and frequency contribute to the set-size effect, stimulus set-size was manipulated independently of stimulus recency and frequency, by keeping recency and frequency constant for a subset of the stimuli...
December 5, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200611/serial-position-output-order-and-list-length-effects-for-words-presented-on-smartphones-over-very-long-intervals
#5
Cathleen Cortis Mack, Caterina Cinel, Nigel Davies, Michael Harding, Geoff Ward
Three experiments examined whether or not benchmark findings observed in the immediate retrieval from episodic memory are similarly observed over much greater time-scales. Participants were presented with experimentally-controlled lists of words at the very slow rate of one word every hour using an iPhone recall application, RECAPP, which was also used to recall the words in either any order (free recall: Experiments 1 to 3) or the same order as presented (serial recall: Experiment 3). We found strong temporal contiguity effects, weak serial position effects with very limited recency, and clear list length effects in free recall; clear primacy effects and classic error gradients in serial recall; and recency effects in a final two-alternative forced choice recognition task (Experiments 2 and 3)...
December 2017: Journal of Memory and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195764/suicide-screening-in-primary-care-use-of-an-electronic-screener-to-assess-suicidality-and-improve-provider-follow-up-for-adolescents
#6
Dillon J Etter, Allison McCord, Fangqian Ouyang, Amy Lewis Gilbert, Rebekah L Williams, James A Hall, Wanzhu Tu, Stephen M Downs, Matthew C Aalsma
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using an existing computer decision support system to screen adolescent patients for suicidality and provide follow-up guidance to clinicians in a primary care setting. Predictors of patient endorsement of suicidality and provider documentation of follow-up were examined. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the implementation of a CDSS that screened adolescent patients for suicidality and provided follow-up recommendations to providers...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192386/sequential-neighborhood-effects-the-effect-of-long-term-exposure-to-concentrated-disadvantage-on-children-s-reading-and-math-test-scores
#7
Andrew L Hicks, Mark S Handcock, Narayan Sastry, Anne R Pebley
Prior research has suggested that children living in a disadvantaged neighborhood have lower achievement test scores, but these studies typically have not estimated causal effects that account for neighborhood choice. Recent studies used propensity score methods to account for the endogeneity of neighborhood exposures, comparing disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged neighborhoods. We develop an alternative propensity function approach in which cumulative neighborhood effects are modeled as a continuous treatment variable...
November 30, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191514/perceived-neighborhood-characteristics-predict-severity-and-emotional-response-to-daily-stressors
#8
Stacey B Scott, Elizabeth Munoz, Jacqueline A Mogle, Alyssa A Gamaldo, Joshua M Smyth, David M Almeida, Martin J Sliwinski
RATIONALE: Neighborhood characteristics may influence health and well-being outcomes through stressors in daily life. OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether a varied set of perceived characteristics of neighborhood (i.e., social cohesion, safety, aesthetic quality, violence) predicted stressor frequency and severity as well as negative emotional responses to stressors. We predicted greater reported cohesion and safety and less violence would be associated with less frequent stressor exposure and severity and less intense negative affect following stressors; we conducted subsequent tests of neighborhood aesthetic quality as a predictor...
November 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187159/decision-tree-for-accurate-infection-timing-in-individuals-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv-1-infection
#9
Chris Verhofstede, Katrien Fransen, Annelies Van Den Heuvel, Kristel Van Laethem, Jean Ruelle, Ellen Vancutsem, Karolien Stoffels, Sigi Van den Wijngaert, Marie-Luce Delforge, Dolores Vaira, Laura Hebberecht, Marlies Schauvliege, Virginie Mortier, Kenny Dauwe, Steven Callens
BACKGROUND: There is today no gold standard method to accurately define the time passed since infection at HIV diagnosis. Infection timing and incidence measurement is however essential to better monitor the dynamics of local epidemics and the effect of prevention initiatives. METHODS: Three methods for infection timing were evaluated using 237 serial samples from documented seroconversions and 566 cross sectional samples from newly diagnosed patients: identification of antibodies against the HIV p31 protein in INNO-LIA, SediaTM BED CEIA and SediaTM LAg-Avidity EIA...
November 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163115/anodal-tdcs-enhances-verbal-episodic-memory-in-initially-low-performers
#10
Annegret Habich, Stefan Klöppel, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Elisa Scheller, Christoph Nissen, Jessica Peter
The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in encoding and retrieval of episodic memories, and thus, is frequently targeted in non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms, aiming for its functional modulation. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), that boosts neuronal excitability in stimulated cortical areas, has been found to increase cognitive skills differentially, depending on the initial performance. We hypothesize that the benefit of tDCS on verbal episodic memory can be extrapolated from the participants' baseline performance...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154649/the-limits-of-visual-working-memory-in-children-exploring-prioritization-and-recency-effects-with-sequential-presentation
#11
Ed D J Berry, Amanda H Waterman, Alan D Baddeley, Graham J Hitch, Richard J Allen
Recent research has demonstrated that, when instructed to prioritize a serial position in visual working memory (WM), adults are able to boost performance for this selected item, at a cost to nonprioritized items (e.g., Hu, Hitch, Baddeley, Zhang, & Allen, 2014). While executive control appears to play an important role in this ability, the increased likelihood of recalling the most recently presented item (i.e., the recency effect) is relatively automatic, possibly driven by perceptual mechanisms. In 3 Experiments 7 to 10 year-old's ability to prioritize items in WM was investigated using a sequential visual task (total N = 208)...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138069/traumatic-fractures-of-the-cervical-spine-analysis-of-changes-in-incidence-etiology-concurrent-injuries-and-complications-among-488-262-patients-from-2005-2013
#12
Peter G Passias, Gregory W Poorman, Frank A Segreto, Cyrus M Jalai, Samantha R Horn, Cole A Bortz, Dennis Vasquez-Montes, Bassel G Diebo, Shaleen Vira, Olivia J Bono, Rafael De La Garza-Ramos, John Y Moon, Charles Wang, Brandon P Hirsch, Peter L Zhou, Michael Gerling, Heiko Koller, Virginie Lafage
OBJECTIVE: The etiologies and epidemiology of traumatic cervical spine fracture have not been described with sufficient power or recency. Our goal is to describe demographics, incidence, etiology, spinal cord injuries (SCIs), concurrent injuries, treatments, and complications of traumatic cervical spine fractures. METHODS: Retrospective review of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. ICD-9 E-Codes identified trauma cases from 2005-2013. Patients with cervical fracture were isolated...
November 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130368/blocked-vs-interleaved-presentation-and-proactive-interference-in-episodic-memory
#13
Fabio Del Missier, Alessia Sassano, Valentina Coni, Martina Salomonsson, Timo Mäntylä
Although a number of theoretical accounts of proactive interference (PI) in episodic memory have been proposed, existing empirical evidence does not support conclusively a single view yet. In two experiments we tested the predictions of the temporal discrimination theory of PI against alternative accounts by manipulating the presentation schedule of study materials (lists blocked by category vs. interleaved). In line with the temporal discrimination theory, we observed a clear buildup of (and release from) PI in the blocked condition, in which all the lists of the same category were presented sequentially...
November 13, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127418/exploration-and-recency-as-the-main-proximate-causes-of-probability-matching-a-reinforcement-learning-analysis
#14
Carolina Feher da Silva, Camila Gomes Victorino, Nestor Caticha, Marcus Vinícius Chrysóstomo Baldo
Research has not yet reached a consensus on why humans match probabilities instead of maximise in a probability learning task. The most influential explanation is that they search for patterns in the random sequence of outcomes. Other explanations, such as expectation matching, are plausible, but do not consider how reinforcement learning shapes people's choices. We aimed to quantify how human performance in a probability learning task is affected by pattern search and reinforcement learning. We collected behavioural data from 84 young adult participants who performed a probability learning task wherein the majority outcome was rewarded with 0...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120848/is-the-first-cut-really-the-deepest-frequency-and-recency-of-nonsuicidal-self-injury-in-relation-to-psychopathology-and-dysregulation
#15
Melissa J Zielinski, Morgan A Hill, Jennifer C Veilleux
Research on nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has moved beyond examination of factors that associate with the mere presence or absence of the behavior, and into more nuanced examination of which discrete features of NSSI behavior relate to pathology. This study examined two features of NSSI, frequency of occurrence and recency, as cross-sectional predictors of psychopathology in a large community sample of adults with a history of NSSI (N = 315). Results of 2 × 2 factorial ANOVAs testing the interactive effects of NSSI frequency (clinical, subclinical) and recency (current, past) revealed that current NSSI was consistently associated with poorer emotional and behavioral health (e...
October 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110210/unmasking-the-component-general-and-component-specific-aspects-of-primary-and-secondary-memory-in-the-immediate-free-recall-task
#16
Bradley S Gibson, Dawn M Gondoli
The immediate free recall (IFR) task has been commonly used to estimate the capacities of the primary memory (PM) and secondary memory (SM) components of working memory (WM). Using this method, the correlation between estimates of the PM and SM components has hovered around zero, suggesting that PM and SM represent fully distinct and dissociable components of WM. However, this conclusion has conflicted with more recent studies that have observed moderately strong, positive correlations between PM and SM when separate attention and retrieval tasks are used to estimate these capacities, suggesting that PM and SM represent at least some related capacities...
November 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060818/hedonic-editing-and-order-effect-in-decision-making-with-neurometric-evaluation
#17
Wenting Yang, Jianhong Ma, Anton Giulio Maglione, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Enrica Modica, Marino Bonaiuto, Fabio Babiloni
Investment decisions are based largely on the information that investors are received from the target firm. In this research, we consider both the variable of Organization of Information, either segregate or integrate, and the Order of the information, either in the order of Negative-Positive or in the order of Positive-Negative. Three groups of information are tested in the experiment: a piece of Big Positive information and a piece of Small Negative information (BP/SN); a piece of Big Negative information and a piece of Small Positive (BN/SP); and a piece of Small Positive information and a piece of Small Negative information (SP/SN)...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047071/category-effects-on-stimulus-estimation-shifting-and-skewed-frequency-distributions-a-reexamination
#18
Sean Duffy, John Smith
Duffy, Huttenlocher, Hedges, and Crawford (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17(2), 224-230, 2010) report on experiments where participants estimate the lengths of lines. These studies were designed to test the category adjustment model (CAM), a Bayesian model of judgments. The authors report that their analysis provides evidence consistent with CAM: that there is a bias toward the running mean and not recent stimuli. We reexamine their data. First, we attempt to replicate their analysis, and we obtain different results...
October 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029156/detailed-transmission-network-analysis-of-a-large-opiate-driven-outbreak-of-hiv-infection-in-the-united-states
#19
Ellsworth M Campbell, Hongwei Jia, Anupama Shankar, Debra Hanson, Wei Luo, Silvina Masciotra, S Michele Owen, Alexandra M Oster, Romeo R Galang, Michael W Spiller, Sara J Blosser, Erika Chapman, Jeremy C Roseberry, Jessica Gentry, Pamela Pontones, Joan Duwve, Paula Peyrani, Ron M Kagan, Jeannette M Whitcomb, Philip J Peters, Walid Heneine, John T Brooks, William M Switzer
In January 2015, an outbreak of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among persons who inject drugs (PWID) was recognized in rural Indiana. By September 2016, 205 persons in this community of approximately 4400 had received a diagnosis of HIV infection. We report results of new approaches to analyzing epidemiologic and laboratory data to understand transmission during this outbreak. HIV genetic distances were calculated using the polymerase region. Networks were generated using data about reported high-risk contacts, viral genetic similarity, and their most parsimonious combinations...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024113/stress-related-cortisol-responsivity-modulates-prospective-memory
#20
Katharina Glienke, Martina Piefke
It is known that there is interindividual variation in behavioral and physiological stress reactions to the same stressor. The present study aimed at examining the impact of cortisol responsivity on performance in a complex real life-like prospective memory (PM) paradigm by a reanalysis of data published previously with the focus on the taxonomy of cognitive dimensions of PM. 21 male subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions. Another group of 20 males underwent a control procedure...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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