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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047071/category-effects-on-stimulus-estimation-shifting-and-skewed-frequency-distributions-a-reexamination
#1
Sean Duffy, John Smith
Duffy, Huttenlocher, Hedges, and Crawford (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17(2), 224-230, 2010) report on experiments where participants estimate the lengths of lines. These studies were designed to test the category adjustment model (CAM), a Bayesian model of judgments. The authors report that their analysis provides evidence consistent with CAM: that there is a bias toward the running mean and not recent stimuli. We reexamine their data. First, we attempt to replicate their analysis, and we obtain different results...
October 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029156/detailed-transmission-network-analysis-of-a-large-opiate-driven-outbreak-of-hiv-infection-in-the-united-states
#2
Ellsworth M Campbell, Hongwei Jia, Anupama Shankar, Debra Hanson, Wei Luo, Silvina Masciotra, S Michele Owen, Alexandra M Oster, Romeo R Galang, Michael W Spiller, Sara J Blosser, Erika Chapman, Jeremy C Roseberry, Jessica Gentry, Pamela Pontones, Joan Duwve, Paula Peyrani, Ron M Kagan, Jeannette M Whitcomb, Philip J Peters, Walid Heneine, John T Brooks, William M Switzer
In January 2015, an outbreak of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among persons who inject drugs (PWID) was recognized in rural Indiana. By September 2016, 205 persons in this community of approximately 4400 had received a diagnosis of HIV infection. We report results of new approaches to analyzing epidemiologic and laboratory data to understand transmission during this outbreak. HIV genetic distances were calculated using the polymerase region. Networks were generated using data about reported high-risk contacts, viral genetic similarity, and their most parsimonious combinations...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024113/stress-related-cortisol-responsivity-modulates-prospective-memory
#3
Katharina Glienke, Martina Piefke
It is known that there is interindividual variation in behavioral and physiological stress reactions to the same stressor. The present study aimed at examining the impact of cortisol responsivity on performance in a complex real life-like prospective memory (PM) paradigm by a reanalysis of data published previously with the focus on the taxonomy of cognitive dimensions of PM. 21 male subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions. Another group of 20 males underwent a control procedure...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017089/reduced-interhemispheric-executive-control-network-coupling-in-men-during-early-cocaine-abstinence-a-pilot-study
#4
Julie M McCarthy, Chun S Zuo, Justin M Shepherd, Nadeeka Dias, Scott E Lukas, Amy C Janes
BACKGROUND: Individuals who use cocaine have fewer cognitive resources needed to maintain abstinence. This is evidenced by blunted brain function during cognitive control tasks and reduced communication between brain regions associated with cognitive function. For instance, relapse vulnerability is heightened in individuals with less communication between the right and left frontoparietal executive control network (ECN). Given that recent cocaine use enhances such communication, it is plausible that recency of cocaine use influences interhemispheric ECN communication...
October 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914669/infection-staging-and-incidence-surveillance-applications-of-high-dynamic-range-diagnostic-immuno-assay-platforms
#5
Eduard Grebe, Alex Welte, Jake Hall, Sheila M Keating, Shelley N Facente, Kara Marson, Jeffrey N Martin, Susan J Little, Matthew A Price, Esper G Kallas, Michael P Busch, Christopher D Pilcher, Gary Murphy
BACKGROUND: Custom HIV staging assays, including the Sedia™ HIV-1 Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA (LAg) and avidity modifications of the Ortho VITROS® anti-HIV-1+2 and Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assays, are used to identify 'recent' infections in clinical settings and for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation. However, the high dynamic range of chemiluminescent platforms allows differentiating recent and longstanding infection on signal intensity, and this raises the prospect of using unmodified diagnostic assays for infection timing and surveillance applications...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895798/nonmedical-opioid-use-in-relation-to-recency-of-heroin-use-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-adults-in-the-united-states
#6
Joseph J Palamar, Jenni A Shearston
Nonmedical opioid use has been linked to lifetime heroin use; however, research is needed to examine associations between nonmedical opioid use and current or recent heroin use, as current users appear to be at highest risk for harm. Data were from a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized adults (age 18-64) in households participating in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health who reported lifetime heroin use (2005-2014, N = 7,111). We examined associations between frequency and recency of nonmedical opioid use and recency of heroin use...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893851/synthetic-cannabinoid-use-among-high-school-seniors
#7
Joseph J Palamar, Monica J Barratt, Leigh Coney, Silvia S Martins
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined the prevalence and correlates of current synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use among high school seniors in the United States. METHODS: Monitoring the Future, an annual nationally representative survey of high school seniors, began querying current (30-day) SC use in 2014. Data were examined from the 2 most recent cohorts (2014-2015; N = 7805). Prevalence of self-reported use was examined and differences in demographics and recency and frequency of other drug use was compared between current marijuana-only users and current SC (plus marijuana) users using χ(2) and generalized linear model using Poisson...
October 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888893/face-working-memory-deficits-in-developmental-prosopagnosia-tests-of-encoding-limits-and-updating-processes
#8
Margaret C Jackson, Paul Counter, Jeremy J Tree
Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a condition in which individuals experience life-long problems recognising faces. In recent years, unpacking the nature of the impairments of this population has been the focus of numerous studies. One focus has been on the nature of face-based memory impairments for such individuals, with the onus being mainly on long-term memory deficits. Far fewer have considered the nature of face-based working memory (WM) impairments for DP cases, and the current study seeks to address this...
September 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816733/on-duty-nonfatal-injury-that-lead-to-work-absences-among-police-officers-and-level-of-perceived-stress
#9
Christine West, Desta Fekedulegn, Michael Andrew, Cecil M Burchfiel, Siobán Harlow, C Raymond Bingham, Marjorie McCullagh, Sung Kyun Park, John Violanti
OBJECTIVE: We examined prevalence, frequency, duration, and recency of injury leave and the association of duty-related injury with perceived stress in U.S. police officers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study contained 422 active duty police officers from a mid-sized urban police department. For each participating officer, work history records were used to assess on-duty injuries that lead to work absences. Linear regression analyses were used for analyses. RESULTS: Most participants had experienced at least one injury (62%), and among those injured, 67% experienced more than one duty-related injury...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758780/the-development-of-intention-based-morality-the-influence-of-intention-salience-and-recency-negligence-and-outcome-on-children-s-and-adults-judgments
#10
Gavin Nobes, Georgia Panagiotaki, Paul E Engelhardt
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influences on 4-8 year-olds' and adults' moral judgments. In both, participants were told stories from previous studies that had indicated that children's judgments are largely outcome-based. Building on recent research in which one change to these studies' methods resulted in substantially more intention-based judgment, in Experiment 1 (N = 75) the salience and recency of intention information were increased, and in Experiment 2 (N = 99) carefulness information (i...
October 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752023/trends-in-the-management-of-small-renal-masses-a-survey-of-members-of-the-endourological-society
#11
Anand Mohapatra, Aaron M Potretzke, John Weaver, Barrett G Anderson, Joel Vetter, Robert S Figenshau
Treatment modalities for small renal masses (SRMs) include open or minimally invasive radical or partial nephrectomy, and laparoscopic or percutaneous ablations. Members of the Endourological Society were surveyed to evaluate how practitioner and clinical practice characteristics may be associated with the management of SRMs over time. The survey assessed characteristics of urologists (recency of residency and fellowship training, clinical practice type and location, and treatment modalities available) and their management of SRMs over the past year and over the course of the year 5 years prior...
2017: Journal of Kidney Cancer and VHL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741252/serial-recall-of-colors-two-models-of-memory-for-serial-order-applied-to-continuous-visual-stimuli
#12
Sonja Peteranderl, Klaus Oberauer
This study investigated the effects of serial position and temporal distinctiveness on serial recall of simple visual stimuli. Participants observed lists of five colors presented at varying, unpredictably ordered interitem intervals, and their task was to reproduce the colors in their order of presentation by selecting colors on a continuous-response scale. To control for the possibility of verbal labeling, articulatory suppression was required in one of two experimental sessions. The predictions were derived through simulation from two computational models of serial recall: SIMPLE represents the class of temporal-distinctiveness models, whereas SOB-CS represents event-based models...
July 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732243/modeling-trait-depression-amplifies-the-effect-of-childbearing-on-postpartum-depression
#13
Kristen G Merkitch, Katherine G Jonas, Michael W O'Hara
BACKGROUND: The literature on the relative risk for depression in the postpartum period has largely focused on state (or episodic) depression, and has not addressed trait depression (a woman's general tendency to experience depressed mood). The present study evaluates the association between childbirth and depression in the postpartum period, taking into account the role of stable differences in women's vulnerability for depression across a 10-year span. METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (N = 4385) were used...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714278/extension-of-the-association-structure-in-joint-models-to-include-weighted-cumulative-effects
#14
Katya Mauff, Ewout W Steyerberg, Giel Nijpels, Amber A W A van der Heijden, Dimitris Rizopoulos
Motivated by a study measuring diabetes-related risk factors and complications, we postulate an extension to the standard formulation of joint models for longitudinal and survival outcomes, wherein the longitudinal outcome has a cumulative effect on the hazard of the event, weighted by recency. We focus on the relationship between the biomarker HbA1c and the development of sight threatening retinopathy, since the impact of the HbA1c marker on the risk of sight threatening retinopathy is expected to be cumulative, with the evolution of the HbA1c marker over time contributing to progressively greater damage to the vascular structure of the retina...
July 17, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707178/life-span-retrieval-of-public-events-reminiscence-bump-for-high-impact-events-recency-for-others
#15
Ali I Tekcan, Aysecan Boduroglu, Aysu Mutlutürk, Aslı Aktan Erciyes
Although substantial evidence exists showing a reliable reminiscence bump for personal events, data regarding retrieval distributions for public events have been equivocal. The primary aim of the present study was to address life-span retrieval distributions of different types of public events in comparison to personal events, and to test whether the existing accounts of the bump can explain the distribution of public events. We asked a large national sample to report the most important, happiest, and saddest personal events and the most important, happiest, saddest, most proud, most fearful, and most shameful public events...
July 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702925/utilization-of-cervical-cancer-screening-among-hispanic-immigrant-women-in-coastal-south-carolina
#16
John S Luque, Yelena N Tarasenko, Hong Li, Caroline B Davila, Rachel N Knight, Rosa E Alcantar
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine prevalence and correlates of cervical cancer screening utilization and adherence among a growing population of Hispanic immigrant women in coastal South Carolina. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 196 women to assess recency of screening and hypothesized study predictors (health status, beliefs, self-efficacy, having a regular provider, barriers to screening, and trust in providers). Multiple ordinal logistic regressions identified final covariates which would predict recency of screening...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697561/specific-verbal-memory-measures-may-distinguish-alzheimer-s-disease-from-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#17
Cinzia Bussè, Pasquale Anselmi, Sara Pompanin, Giovanni Zorzi, Federica Fragiacomo, Giulia Camporese, Gian Antonio Di Bernardo, Carlo Semenza, Paolo Caffarra, Annachiara Cagnin
BACKGROUND: Standard measures of commonly used memory tests may not be appropriate to distinguish different neurodegenerative diseases affecting memory. OBJECTIVE: To study whether specific measures of verbal memory obtained with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test (RAVLT) could help distinguish dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Twenty-nine DLB and 32 AD patients participated in the study and were followed longitudinally for 3 years until the diagnosis was confirmed according to standard clinical criteria...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693564/surveillance-of-recent-hiv-infections-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-cases-in-germany-between-2008-and-2014
#18
Alexandra Hofmann, Andrea Hauser, Ruth Zimmermann, Claudia Santos-Hövener, Jörg Bätzing-Feigenbaum, Stephan Wildner, Claudia Kücherer, Norbert Bannert, Osamah Hamouda, Viviane Bremer, Barbara Bartmeyer
BACKGROUND: The HIV surveillance system in Germany is based on mandatory, anonymous notification of newly diagnosed HIV cases by laboratories. Because the time between HIV infection and the diagnosis of HIV varies widely between persons, it is difficult to determine the number of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases of HIV. In Germany, the BED-capture-enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) has been used to distinguish between recent and long-standing HIV infection. The aim of this analysis is to report the proportion of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases in Germany between 2008 and 2014 and to identify factors associated with recent infections...
July 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693360/the-hopkins-verbal-learning-test-an-in-depth-analysis-of-recall-patterns
#19
Rachel Grenfell-Essam, Eef Hogervorst, Tri Budi W Rahardjo
One of the earliest signs of dementia is memory issues and verbal word lists, such as the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), are successfully used for screening. To gain insight in how memory is affected in dementia, and to further improve the efficacy of the HVLT, in-depth analysis of the recall patterns of dementia cases and controls was conducted. Dementia cases and controls were matched for factors that can affect performance, such as age, gender and education level. Word frequency, syllable length, and orthographic neighbourhood size did not differ in the Indonesian version of the HVLT, nor did these characteristics affect recall...
July 11, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686137/using-a-large-scale-neural-model-of-cortical-object-processing-to-investigate-the-neural-substrate-for-managing-multiple-items-in-short-term-memory
#20
Qin Liu, Antonio Ulloa, Barry Horwitz
Many cognitive and computational models have been proposed to help understand working memory. In this article, we present a simulation study of cortical processing of visual objects during several working memory tasks using an extended version of a previously constructed large-scale neural model [Tagamets, M. A., & Horwitz, B. Integrating electrophysiological and anatomical experimental data to create a large-scale model that simulates a delayed match-to-sample human brain imaging study. Cerebral Cortex, 8, 310-320, 1998]...
November 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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