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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631348/updating-of-working-memory-in-ecstasy-polydrug-users-findings-from-fnirs
#1
Catharine Montgomery, John E Fisk, Carl A Roberts
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: Cognitive deficits are now well documented in ecstasy (MDMA) users with type and relative demand of task emerging as important factors. The updating component of executive processes appears to be particularly affected. The study reported here used functional near infrared spectroscopy imaging to investigate changes in cortical haemodynamics during memory updating. METHOD: Twenty ecstasy users and 20 non-users completed verbal and spatial memory updating tasks and brain blood oxygenation and deoxygenation change was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy...
June 19, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623726/diagnostic-causal-reasoning-with-verbal-information
#2
Björn Meder, Ralf Mayrhofer
In diagnostic causal reasoning, the goal is to infer the probability of causes from one or multiple observed effects. Typically, studies investigating such tasks provide subjects with precise quantitative information regarding the strength of the relations between causes and effects or sample data from which the relevant quantities can be learned. By contrast, we sought to examine people's inferences when causal information is communicated through qualitative, rather vague verbal expressions (e.g., "X occasionally causes A")...
June 14, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585461/age-differences-in-autobiographical-memory-across-the-adult-lifespan-older-adults-report-stronger-phenomenology
#3
Martina Luchetti, Angelina R Sutin
As an individual's life story evolves across adulthood, the subjective experience (phenomenology) of autobiographical memory likely changes. In addition to age at retrieval, both the recency of the memory and the age when a memory is formed may be particularly important to its phenomenology. The present work examines the effect of three temporal factors on phenomenology ratings: (a) age of the participant, (b) age at the event reported in the memory, and (c) memory age (recency). A large sample of Americans (N = 1120), stratified by chronological age, recalled and rated two meaningful memories, a Turning Point and an Early Childhood Memory...
June 6, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552838/medicine-in-balkans-during-the-roman-period
#4
Daniş Baykan
BACKGROUND: The foundation of this study is the declaration (1) I have given at the "5th Balkan Congress on The History & Ethics of Medicine" that took place between October 11 and 15, 2011. Here, the data on medicine in the Balkans during Roman Period will be studied. The main inputs of the study being the tomb-contexts of physicians and medicine-related finds obtained from excavations. The initial text is updated by researching the catalogues over the archaeological finds of related museums (2-4) in Balkan counties specifically after 2010...
May 29, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548562/memory-for-melodies-in-unfamiliar-tuning-systems-investigating-effects-of-recency-and-number-of-intervening-items
#5
Steffen A Herff, Kirk N Olsen, Roger T Dean, Jon Prince
In a continuous recognition paradigm, most stimuli elicit superior recognition performance when the item to be recognised is the most recent stimulus (a recency-in-memory effect). Furthermore, increasing the number of intervening items cumulatively disrupts memory in most domains. Memory for melodies composed in familiar tuning systems also shows superior recognition for the most recent melody, but no disruptive effects from the number of intervening melodies. A possible explanation has been offered in a novel regenerative multiple representations (RMR) conjecture...
May 26, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487435/risk-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-with-nsaids-in-real-world-use-bayesian-meta-analysis-of-individual-patient-data
#6
REVIEW
Michèle Bally, Nandini Dendukuri, Benjamin Rich, Lyne Nadeau, Arja Helin-Salmivaara, Edeltraut Garbe, James M Brophy
Objective To characterise the determinants, time course, and risks of acute myocardial infarction associated with use of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).Design Systematic review followed by a one stage bayesian individual patient data meta-analysis.Data sources Studies from Canadian and European healthcare databases.Review methods Eligible studies were sourced from computerised drug prescription or medical databases, conducted in the general or an elderly population, documented acute myocardial infarction as specific outcome, studied selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors (including rofecoxib) and traditional NSAIDs, compared risk of acute myocardial infarction in NSAID users with non-users, allowed for time dependent analyses, and minimised effects of confounding and misclassification bias...
May 9, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473258/representational-specializations-of-the-hippocampus-in-phylogenetic-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Elisabeth A Murray, Steven P Wise, Kim S Graham
In a major evolutionary transition that occurred more than 520 million years ago, the earliest vertebrates adapted to a life of mobile, predatory foraging guided by distance receptors concentrated on their heads. Vision and olfaction served as the principal sensory systems for guiding their search for nutrients and safe haven. Among their neural innovations, these animals had a telencephalon that included a homologue of the hippocampus. Experiments on goldfish, turtles, lizards, rodents, macaque monkeys and humans have provided insight into the initial adaptive advantages provided by the hippocampus homologue...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472160/an-online-paradigm-for-exploring-the-self-reference-effect
#8
Sarah V Bentley, Katharine H Greenaway, S Alexander Haslam
People reliably encode information more effectively when it is related in some way to the self-a phenomenon known as the self-reference effect. This effect has been recognized in psychological research for almost 40 years, and its scope as a tool for investigating the self-concept is still expanding. The self-reference effect has been used within a broad range of psychological research, from cultural to neuroscientific, cognitive to clinical. Traditionally, the self-reference effect has been investigated in a laboratory context, which limits its applicability in non-laboratory samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420680/use-of-azithromycin-and-risk-of-ventricular-arrhythmia
#9
Gianluca Trifirò, Maria de Ridder, Janet Sultana, Alessandro Oteri, Peter Rijnbeek, Serena Pecchioli, Giampiero Mazzaglia, Irene Bezemer, Edeltraut Garbe, Tania Schink, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Trine Frøslev, Mariam Molokhia, Igor Diemberger, Miriam C J M Sturkenboom
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting findings from observational studies of the arrhythrogenic potential of azithromycin. Our aim was to quantify the association between azithromycin use and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort of new antibiotic users identified from a network of 7 population-based health care databases in Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom for the period 1997-2010...
April 18, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399475/everyday-functional-ability-in-hiv-and-methamphetamine-dependence
#10
Arpi Minassian, Brook L Henry, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Scott L Letendre, Robert K Heaton, William Perry
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) use is a risk factor for the transmission of HIV. Each is associated with neurocognitive impairment and subsequent problems in everyday functioning, yet additive effects of HIV and METH are not consistently observed. This study used the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA-2) to assess whether METH use disorder and HIV together resulted in poorer functional outcome than either condition alone. METHOD: Participants in the Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center (TMARC) cohort were stratified based upon HIV infection and METH use disorder: HIV-/METH- (n=49), HIV-/METH+ (n=48), HIV+/METH- (n=37), and HIV+/METH+ (n=38)...
March 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397352/effects-of-expanding-the-look-back-period-to-all-available-data-in-the-assessment-of-covariates
#11
Sonja S Nakasian, Jeremy A Rassen, Jessica M Franklin
BACKGROUND: A fixed baseline period has been a common covariate assessment approach in pharmacoepidemiological studies from claims but may lead to high levels of covariate misclassification. Simulation studies have recommended expanding the look-back approach to all available data (AAD) for binary indicators of diagnoses, procedures, and medications, but there have been few real data analyses using this approach. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to explore the impact on treatment effect estimates and covariate prevalence of expanding the look-back period within five validated studies in the Aetion system, a rapid cycle analytics platform...
April 11, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395129/marijuana-use-and-serum-testosterone-concentrations-among-u-s-males
#12
J E Thistle, B I Graubard, M Braunlin, H Vesper, B Trabert, M B Cook, K A McGlynn
Marijuana has been reported to have several effects on the male reproductive system. Marijuana has previously been linked to reduced adult testosterone, however, a study in Denmark reported increased testosterone concentrations among marijuana users. This study was performed to estimate the effect of marijuana use on testosterone in U.S. males. Data on serum testosterone, marijuana use, and covariates for 1577 men from the 2011-2012 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed...
April 10, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394458/the-retrosplenial-cortex-and-object-recency-memory-in-the-rat
#13
Anna L Powell, Seralynne D Vann, Cristian M Olarte-Sánchez, Lisa Kinnavane, Moira Davies, Eman Amin, John P Aggleton, Andrew J D Nelson
It has been proposed that the retrosplenial cortex forms part of a 'where/when' information network. The present study focussed on the related issue of whether retrosplenial cortex also contributes to 'what/when' information, by examining object recency memory. In Experiment 1, rats with retrosplenial lesions were found to be impaired at distinguishing the temporal order of objects presented in a continuous series ('Within-Block' condition). The same lesioned rats could, however, distinguish between objects that had been previously presented in one of two discrete blocks ('Between-Block' condition)...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388817/social-and-demographic-correlates-of-male-androgen-levels-in-wild-white-faced-capuchin-monkeys-cebus-capucinus
#14
Franka S Schaebs, Susan E Perry, Don Cohen, Roger Mundry, Tobias Deschner
The Challenge Hypothesis, designed originally to explain the patterning of competitive behavior and androgen levels in seasonally breeding birds, predicts that males will increase their androgen levels in order to become more competitive in reproductive contexts. Here we test predictions derived from the Challenge Hypothesis in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), a species that has somewhat seasonal reproduction. We analyzed demographic and hormonal data collected over a 5.25-year period, from 18 males in nine social groups living in or near Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica...
July 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383937/rapid-visual-processing-of-picture-stimuli-by-pigeons-in-an-rsvp-rapid-serial-visual-presentation-task
#15
Masako Jitsumori, Tomokazu Ushitani
Three experiments that were carried out in series with 5 pigeons used novel training methods to investigate the rapid visual processing of picture stimuli by pigeons. On each trial, a sequence containing 1 of 2 bird pictures (the target) and nontarget bird pictures (the distractors) was presented. After the termination of the last item in the sequence, the pigeons were required to choose 1 of 2 colored squares corresponding to the target presented in the preceding sequence. The pigeons learned the task with 2-item lists (1 target and 1 distractor) in Experiment1 and with 3-item lists (1 target and 2 distractors) in Experiment 2...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370351/statins-and-polyneuropathy-revisited-case-control-study-in-denmark-1999-2013
#16
Toke de Koning Svendsen, Peter Nørregaard Hansen, Luis Alberto García Rodríguez, Lene Andersen, Jesper Hallas, Søren Hein Sindrup, David Gaist
AIM: In a previous study, we found a positive association between statin use and polyneuropathy risk. Other studies reported equivocal results. The present study aimed to confirm our findings with a design similar to that used in our previous study but with a larger data set. METHODS: We searched medical registry data to identify patients diagnosed with incident polyneuropathy of no known cause (idiopathic polyneuropathy) between 1999 and 2013; we verified diagnoses through medical records...
April 1, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364345/what-is-the-time-course-of-working-memory-attentional-refreshing
#17
Benoît Lemaire, Aurore Pageot, Gaën Plancher, Sophie Portrat
One way of maintaining information in working memory is through attentional refreshing, a process that was recently shown to be independent from verbal rehearsal. In the classical working memory complex span task, the usual assumption is that memoranda are refreshed in a cumulative fashion, starting from the first item, going in a forward order until the latest one, and cycling until there is no time to continue the process. However, there is no evidence that refreshing operates in that way. The present study proposes a computational modelling study, which constitutes a powerful method to investigate alternative hypotheses...
March 31, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341362/sinus-bradycardia-in-habitual-cocaine-users
#18
Sona M Franklin, Sudarone Thihalolipavan, John M Fontaine
Common physiological manifestations of cocaine are related to its adrenergic effects, due to inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine uptake at the postsynaptic terminal. Few studies have documented bradycardia secondary to cocaine use, representing the antithesis of its adrenergic effects. We assessed the prevalence of sinus bradycardia (SB) in habitual cocaine users and postulated a mechanism for this effect. One hundred sixty-two patients with a history of cocaine use were analyzed and compared with age- and gender-matched controls...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333950/drug-resistant-hiv-behaviors-and-characteristics-among-los-angeles-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-new-hiv-diagnosis
#19
Pamina M Gorbach, Marjan Javanbakht, Lorelei Bornfleth, Robert K Bolan, Martha Lewis Blum
Epidemiology of drug resistant HIV has focused on trends and less attention has been given to identification of factors, especially behaviors including substance use, in acquisition of drug-resistant HIV. From 2009 to 2012 The Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking testing for HIV in a community clinic in Los Angeles assessing those testing positive for acute and recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 125 classified as newly HIV infected and 91 as chronically infected (newly HIV-diagnosed); specimens were available and viable for resistance testing for 154 of the 216 HIV positives with new diagnoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332511/risk-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-after-discontinuation-of-antihypertensive-agents-a-case-control-study
#20
F F Alharbi, P C Souverein, M C de Groot, A H Maitland-van der Zee, A de Boer, O H Klungel
We performed a nested case-control study in a cohort of antihypertensive drug users to assess the association between discontinuation of different antihypertensive agents and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Cases and controls were drawn from the Utrecht Cardiovascular Pharmacogenetics database. Patients who were hospitalised for their first AMI were considered cases and controls were not hospitalised for AMI. Antihypertensive users were defined as current users if the index date (date of AMI) fell within the prescribed duration or as discontinuers if this date fell outside the prescribed duration...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
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