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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816733/on-duty-nonfatal-injury-that-lead-to-work-absences-among-police-officers-and-level-of-perceived-stress
#1
Christine West, Desta Fekedulegn, Michael Andrew, Cecil M Burchfiel, Siobán Harlow, C Raymond Bingham, Marjorie McCullagh, Sung Kyun Park, John Violanti
OBJECTIVE: We examined prevalence, frequency, duration, and recency of injury leave and the association of duty-related injury with perceived stress in U.S. police officers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study contained 422 active duty police officers from a mid-sized urban police department. For each participating officer, work history records were used to assess on-duty injuries that lead to work absences. Linear regression analyses were used for analyses. RESULTS: Most participants had experienced at least one injury (62%), and among those injured, 67% experienced more than one duty-related injury...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758780/the-development-of-intention-based-morality-the-influence-of-intention-salience-and-recency-negligence-and-outcome-on-children-s-and-adults-judgments
#2
Gavin Nobes, Georgia Panagiotaki, Paul E Engelhardt
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influences on 4-8 year-olds' and adults' moral judgments. In both, participants were told stories from previous studies that had indicated that children's judgments are largely outcome-based. Building on recent research in which one change to these studies' methods resulted in substantially more intention-based judgment, in Experiment 1 (N = 75) the salience and recency of intention information were increased, and in Experiment 2 (N = 99) carefulness information (i...
July 31, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752023/trends-in-the-management-of-small-renal-masses-a-survey-of-members-of-the-endourological-society
#3
Anand Mohapatra, Aaron M Potretzke, John Weaver, Barrett G Anderson, Joel Vetter, Robert S Figenshau
Treatment modalities for small renal masses (SRMs) include open or minimally invasive radical or partial nephrectomy, and laparoscopic or percutaneous ablations. Members of the Endourological Society were surveyed to evaluate how practitioner and clinical practice characteristics may be associated with the management of SRMs over time. The survey assessed characteristics of urologists (recency of residency and fellowship training, clinical practice type and location, and treatment modalities available) and their management of SRMs over the past year and over the course of the year 5 years prior...
2017: Journal of Kidney Cancer and VHL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741252/serial-recall-of-colors-two-models-of-memory-for-serial-order-applied-to-continuous-visual-stimuli
#4
Sonja Peteranderl, Klaus Oberauer
This study investigated the effects of serial position and temporal distinctiveness on serial recall of simple visual stimuli. Participants observed lists of five colors presented at varying, unpredictably ordered interitem intervals, and their task was to reproduce the colors in their order of presentation by selecting colors on a continuous-response scale. To control for the possibility of verbal labeling, articulatory suppression was required in one of two experimental sessions. The predictions were derived through simulation from two computational models of serial recall: SIMPLE represents the class of temporal-distinctiveness models, whereas SOB-CS represents event-based models...
July 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732243/modeling-trait-depression-amplifies-the-effect-of-childbearing-on-postpartum-depression
#5
Kristen G Merkitch, Katherine G Jonas, Michael W O'Hara
BACKGROUND: The literature on the relative risk for depression in the postpartum period has largely focused on state (or episodic) depression, and has not addressed trait depression (a woman's general tendency to experience depressed mood). The present study evaluates the association between childbirth and depression in the postpartum period, taking into account the role of stable differences in women's vulnerability for depression across a 10-year span. METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (N = 4385) were used...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714278/extension-of-the-association-structure-in-joint-models-to-include-weighted-cumulative-effects
#6
Katya Mauff, Ewout W Steyerberg, Giel Nijpels, Amber A W A van der Heijden, Dimitris Rizopoulos
Motivated by a study measuring diabetes-related risk factors and complications, we postulate an extension to the standard formulation of joint models for longitudinal and survival outcomes, wherein the longitudinal outcome has a cumulative effect on the hazard of the event, weighted by recency. We focus on the relationship between the biomarker HbA1c and the development of sight threatening retinopathy, since the impact of the HbA1c marker on the risk of sight threatening retinopathy is expected to be cumulative, with the evolution of the HbA1c marker over time contributing to progressively greater damage to the vascular structure of the retina...
July 17, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707178/life-span-retrieval-of-public-events-reminiscence-bump-for-high-impact-events-recency-for-others
#7
Ali I Tekcan, Aysecan Boduroglu, Aysu Mutlutürk, Aslı Aktan Erciyes
Although substantial evidence exists showing a reliable reminiscence bump for personal events, data regarding retrieval distributions for public events have been equivocal. The primary aim of the present study was to address life-span retrieval distributions of different types of public events in comparison to personal events, and to test whether the existing accounts of the bump can explain the distribution of public events. We asked a large national sample to report the most important, happiest, and saddest personal events and the most important, happiest, saddest, most proud, most fearful, and most shameful public events...
July 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702925/utilization-of-cervical-cancer-screening-among-hispanic-immigrant-women-in-coastal-south-carolina
#8
John S Luque, Yelena N Tarasenko, Hong Li, Caroline B Davila, Rachel N Knight, Rosa E Alcantar
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine prevalence and correlates of cervical cancer screening utilization and adherence among a growing population of Hispanic immigrant women in coastal South Carolina. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 196 women to assess recency of screening and hypothesized study predictors (health status, beliefs, self-efficacy, having a regular provider, barriers to screening, and trust in providers). Multiple ordinal logistic regressions identified final covariates which would predict recency of screening...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697561/specific-verbal-memory-measures-may-distinguish-alzheimer-s-disease-from-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#9
Cinzia Bussè, Pasquale Anselmi, Sara Pompanin, Giovanni Zorzi, Federica Fragiacomo, Giulia Camporese, Gian Antonio Di Bernardo, Carlo Semenza, Paolo Caffarra, Annachiara Cagnin
BACKGROUND: Standard measures of commonly used memory tests may not be appropriate to distinguish different neurodegenerative diseases affecting memory. OBJECTIVE: To study whether specific measures of verbal memory obtained with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test (RAVLT) could help distinguish dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Twenty-nine DLB and 32 AD patients participated in the study and were followed longitudinally for 3 years until the diagnosis was confirmed according to standard clinical criteria...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693564/surveillance-of-recent-hiv-infections-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-cases-in-germany-between-2008-and-2014
#10
Alexandra Hofmann, Andrea Hauser, Ruth Zimmermann, Claudia Santos-Hövener, Jörg Bätzing-Feigenbaum, Stephan Wildner, Claudia Kücherer, Norbert Bannert, Osamah Hamouda, Viviane Bremer, Barbara Bartmeyer
BACKGROUND: The HIV surveillance system in Germany is based on mandatory, anonymous notification of newly diagnosed HIV cases by laboratories. Because the time between HIV infection and the diagnosis of HIV varies widely between persons, it is difficult to determine the number of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases of HIV. In Germany, the BED-capture-enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) has been used to distinguish between recent and long-standing HIV infection. The aim of this analysis is to report the proportion of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases in Germany between 2008 and 2014 and to identify factors associated with recent infections...
July 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693360/the-hopkins-verbal-learning-test-an-in-depth-analysis-of-recall-patterns
#11
Rachel Grenfell-Essam, Eef Hogervorst, Tri Budi W Rahardjo
One of the earliest signs of dementia is memory issues and verbal word lists, such as the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), are successfully used for screening. To gain insight in how memory is affected in dementia, and to further improve the efficacy of the HVLT, in-depth analysis of the recall patterns of dementia cases and controls was conducted. Dementia cases and controls were matched for factors that can affect performance, such as age, gender and education level. Word frequency, syllable length, and orthographic neighbourhood size did not differ in the Indonesian version of the HVLT, nor did these characteristics affect recall...
July 11, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686137/using-a-large-scale-neural-model-of-cortical-object-processing-to-investigate-the-neural-substrate-for-managing-multiple-items-in-short-term-memory
#12
Qin Liu, Antonio Ulloa, Barry Horwitz
Many cognitive and computational models have been proposed to help understand working memory. In this article, we present a simulation study of cortical processing of visual objects during several working memory tasks using an extended version of a previously constructed large-scale neural model [Tagamets, M. A., & Horwitz, B. Integrating electrophysiological and anatomical experimental data to create a large-scale model that simulates a delayed match-to-sample human brain imaging study. Cerebral Cortex, 8, 310-320, 1998]...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680660/memory-for-stimulus-sequences-a-divide-between-humans-and-other-animals
#13
Stefano Ghirlanda, Johan Lind, Magnus Enquist
Humans stand out among animals for their unique capacities in domains such as language, culture and imitation, yet it has been difficult to identify cognitive elements that are specifically human. Most research has focused on how information is processed after it is acquired, e.g. in problem solving or 'insight' tasks, but we may also look for species differences in the initial acquisition and coding of information. Here, we show that non-human species have only a limited capacity to discriminate ordered sequences of stimuli...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675323/the-clinical-use-of-subjective-units-of-distress-scales-suds-in-child-mental-health-assessments-a-thematic-evaluation
#14
Nikki Kiyimba, Michelle O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: Despite the ubiquitous use of Subjective Units of Distress scales (SUDs) in mental health settings to establish levels of distressing emotion, there has been little empirical research in this area. SUDs are commonly used in therapy and assessments, and are a particularly useful tool for establishing current and previous levels of distress in children and young people. AIMS: To explore the use of the SUD analogue rating scale in initial child mental health assessments to better understand its application in this context...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673289/semantic-relatedness-and-similarity-of-biomedical-terms-examining-the-effects-of-recency-size-and-section-of-biomedical-publications-on-the-performance-of-word2vec
#15
Yongjun Zhu, Erjia Yan, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: Understanding semantic relatedness and similarity between biomedical terms has a great impact on a variety of applications such as biomedical information retrieval, information extraction, and recommender systems. The objective of this study is to examine word2vec's ability in deriving semantic relatedness and similarity between biomedical terms from large publication data. Specifically, we focus on the effects of recency, size, and section of biomedical publication data on the performance of word2vec...
July 3, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666794/measuring-contraceptive-prevalence-among-women-who-are-at-risk-of-pregnancy
#16
Madeleine Short Fabic, Stan Becker
OBJECTIVES: The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) is generally reported among in-union women ages 15-49. Here, union status and age serve as proxies for exposure to the risk of pregnancy. As a result of changing dynamics, age and union status proxies may be insufficient for determining the rate of contraceptive use among women at risk of pregnancy. Our objectives are to define a measure of contraceptive use among women at risk, to measure contraceptive use among such women and to compare this rate with conventional CPR...
June 27, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663164/assessing-user-engagement-of-an-mhealth-intervention-development-and-implementation-of-the-growing-healthy-app-engagement-index
#17
Sarah Taki, Sharyn Lymer, Catherine Georgina Russell, Karen Campbell, Rachel Laws, Kok-Leong Ong, Rosalind Elliott, Elizabeth Denney-Wilson
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is an ongoing problem in developed countries that needs targeted prevention in the youngest age groups. Children in socioeconomically disadvantaged families are most at risk. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions offer a potential route to target these families because of its relatively low cost and high reach. The Growing healthy program was developed to provide evidence-based information on infant feeding from birth to 9 months via app or website. Understanding user engagement with these media is vital to developing successful interventions...
June 29, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661175/primacy-and-recency-effects-for-taste
#18
Thomas A Daniel, Jeffrey S Katz
Historically, much of what we know about human memory has been discovered in experiments using visual and verbal stimuli. In two experiments, participants demonstrated reliably high recognition for nonverbal liquids. In Experiment 1, participants showed high accuracy for recognizing tastes (bitter, salty, sour, sweet) over a 30-s delay in a recognition task, even when the probe stimulus was only a different concentration within the same taste. In Experiment 2, participants tasted three liquids and showed both primacy and recency effects in a serial-position recognition task with varying delay lengths (15, 30, 45, 60 s)...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653790/vigirank-for-statistical-signal-detection-in-pharmacovigilance-first-results-from-prospective-real-world-use
#19
Ola Caster, Lovisa Sandberg, Tomas Bergvall, Sarah Watson, G Niklas Norén
PURPOSE: vigiRank is a data-driven predictive model for emerging safety signals. In addition to disproportionate reporting patterns, it also accounts for the completeness, recency, and geographic spread of individual case reporting, as well as the availability of case narratives. Previous retrospective analysis suggested that vigiRank performed better than disproportionality analysis alone. The purpose of the present analysis was to evaluate its prospective performance. METHODS: The evaluation of vigiRank was based on real-world signal detection in VigiBase...
August 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631348/updating-of-working-memory-in-ecstasy-polydrug-users-findings-from-fnirs
#20
Catharine Montgomery, John E Fisk, Carl A Roberts
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: Cognitive deficits are now well documented in ecstasy (MDMA) users with type and relative demand of task emerging as important factors. The updating component of executive processes appears to be particularly affected. The study reported here used functional near infrared spectroscopy imaging to investigate changes in cortical haemodynamics during memory updating. METHOD: Twenty ecstasy users and 20 non-users completed verbal and spatial memory updating tasks and brain blood oxygenation and deoxygenation change was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy...
June 19, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
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