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Type 2 macrophage

Keizo Kohno, Satomi Koya-Miyata, Akira Harashima, Toshio Ariyasu, Shimpei Ushio
NK-4 is the main component of the antiallergic drug Lumin, which has been in popular usage since the early 1950s. In this study, we examined whether NK-4 exerts a regulatory effect on the activation and effector function of Th2 cells. NK-4 inhibited IL-4 production by anti-CD3ε mAb-stimulated BALB/c mouse spleen cells, whereas NK-4 had little effect on IFN-γ production. IL-4 and IL-5 secretion by anti-CD3ε mAb- or antigen-stimulated Th2 cells (D10.G4.1) was abrogated by NK-4 without affecting cell numbers, whereas IFN-γ secretion by activated Th1 cells was unchanged...
2018: PloS One
Takehiro Sugawara, Sakura Onoue, Hiroaki Takimoto, Kazuyoshi Kawahara
Lauroyltransferase gene (lpxL), Myristoyltransferase gene (lpxM) and palmitoyltransferase gene (crcA) of Escherichia coli BL21 were independently disrupted by the insertional mutations. The knockout mutant of two transferase genes (lpxL and crcA) produced lipid A with no lauric and palmitic acids and only little amount of myristic acid. The mutant was susceptible to polymyxin B, but showed comparable growth with wild-type strain at 30°C. The palmitoyltransferase gene from E. coli (crcA) or Salmonella (pagP) was amplified by PCR, cloned in pUC119, and transferred into the double-knockout mutant by transformation...
June 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Virginie Bondu, Casey Bitting, Valerie L Poland, Joshua A Hanson, Michelle S Harkins, Sarah Lathrop, Kurt B Nolte, Daniel A Lawrence, Tione Buranda
Sin Nombre virus (SNV) causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary pulmonary syndrome (HCPS) with the loss of pulmonary vascular endothelial integrity, and pulmonary edema without causing cytopathic effects on the vascular endothelium. HCPS is associated primarily with a dysregulated immune response. We previously found occult signs of hemostatic imbalance in the form of a sharp >30-100 fold increase in the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), in serial blood plasma draws of terminal stage-patients...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Steven L Gonias, Michael A Banki, Andrew S Gilder, Pardis Azmoon, Wendy M Campana, Elisabetta Mantuano
The fibrinolysis proteinase, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), triggers cell-signaling and regulates cell physiology. In PC12 cells, Schwann cells, and macrophages, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) mediates tPA-signaling. Plasminogen activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI1) is a rapid inhibitor of tPA enzyme activity. Although tPA-initiated cell-signaling is not dependent on its enzyme active site, we show that tPA-signaling is neutralized by PAI1. In PC12 cells, PAI1 blocked ERK1/2 activation by tPA and neurite outgrowth...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Sadhan Das, Marpadga A Reddy, Parijat Senapati, Kenneth Stapleton, Linda Lanting, Mei Wang, Vishnu Amaram, Rituparna Ganguly, Lingxiao Zhang, Sridevi Devaraj, Dustin E Schones, Rama Natarajan
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages play key roles in inflammation and diabetic vascular complications. Emerging evidence implicates long noncoding RNAs in inflammation, but their role in macrophage dysfunction associated with inflammatory diabetic complications is unclear and was therefore investigated in this study. APPROACH AND RESULTS: RNA-sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that a long noncoding RNA Dnm3os (dynamin 3 opposite strand) is upregulated in bone marrow-derived macrophages from type 2 diabetic db/db mice, diet-induced insulin-resistant mice, and diabetic ApoE-/ - mice, as well as in monocytes from type 2 diabetic patients relative to controls...
June 21, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Victor R Simpson, Damer P Blake
BACKGROUND: Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) became extinct over large areas of Britain during the post mediaeval period but following re-introductions from Europe during the 1800s and early 1900s the population started to recover and in recent decades there has been a spectacular increase. Many roe deer are shot in Britain each year but despite this there is little published information on the diseases and causes of mortality of roe deer in Great Britain. CASE PRESENTATION: The lungs of two hunter-shot roe deer in Cornwall showed multiple, raised, nodular lesions associated with numerous protostrongylid-type nematode eggs and first stage larvae...
June 22, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Gi Yong Lee, Kyung Mi Kang, Seung Hyun Back, Jin Yang Baek, So Hyun Kim, Jong-Hwan Park, Soo-Jin Yang
In Korea, the major clonal type of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is sequence type 72 (ST72) with staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV (ST72-MRSA-IV). In this study, we used a previously well-characterized isogenic pair of ST72 vancomycin (VAN) susceptible-and VAN intermediate-MRSA strains (VSSA303 and VISA072) and several VSSA strains complemented with plasmids expressing single-point mutated genes (dprAG196C , femAF92C , vraRE127K , and vraSRE127K ) identified in the VISA strain...
June 21, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Christine Burkard, Tanja Opriessnig, Alan J Mileham, Tomasz Stadejek, Tahar Ait-Ali, Simon G Lillico, C Bruce A Whitelaw, Alan L Archibald
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) has a narrow host cell tropism, limited to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163 protein is expressed at high levels on the surface of specific macrophage types and a soluble form is circulating in blood. CD163 has been described as a fusion receptor for PRRSV, with the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain 5 (SRCR5) region having been shown to be the interaction site for the virus.As reported earlier, we have generated pigs in which Exon 7 of the CD163 gene has been deleted using CRISPR/Cas9 editing in pig zygotes...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
B B Zheng, Y Zhang, N N Sun, W H Huang, Y Meng
Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of exosome derived from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) on acute lung injury. Methods: RAW264.7 were cultured in vitro and divided into 2 groups: control group and LPS-induced group. The exosomes were extracted from the two groups of cell supernatant by ultracentrifugation and classified into 2 groups: C-EXO group and LPS-EXO group. In vivo, random allocation was used to averagely divide the eighteen male C57BL/6 mice into 3 groups: control group, EXO-control group and EXO-LPS group...
June 12, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Kyoung-Jin Chung, Marina Nati, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou
Immune cells are present in the adipose tissue (AT) and regulate its function. Under lean conditions, immune cells predominantly of type 2 immunity, including eosinophils, M2-like anti-inflammatory macrophages and innate lymphoid cells 2, contribute to the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis within the AT. In the course of obesity, pro-inflammatory immune cells, such as M1-like macrophages, prevail in the AT. Inflammation in the obese AT is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
June 19, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Petr Ježek, Martin Jabůrek, Blanka Holendová, Lydie Plecitá-Hlavatá
Fatty acid (FA)-stimulated insulin secretion (FASIS) is reviewed here in contrast to type 2 diabetes etiology, resulting from FA overload, oxidative stress, intermediate hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation, all converging into insulin resistance. Focusing on pancreatic islet β-cells, we compare the physiological FA roles with the pathological ones. Considering FAs not as mere amplifiers of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but as parallel insulin granule exocytosis inductors, partly independent of the KATP channel closure, we describe the FA initiating roles in the prediabetic state that is induced by retardations in the glycerol-3-phosphate (glucose)-promoted glycerol/FA cycle and by the impaired GPR40/FFA1 (free FA1) receptor pathway, specifically in its amplification by the redox-activated mitochondrial phospholipase, iPLA2γ...
June 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Li Liwei, Zhou Yanjun, Jiang Yifeng, Gao Fei, Shan Tongling, Zhao Kuan, Zhang Yujiao, Li Lin, Tong Guangzhi
Porcine galectin-3 (GAL3) is a 29-kDa protein encoded by a single gene, LGALS3, located on chromosome 1. Here, using a yeast two-hybrid screen of a cDNA library from porcine alveolar macrophage cells (PAMs), we report for the first time that GAL3 interacts with nonstructural protein 12 (Nsp12) of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Although extensive research has focused on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), little is known about the pathogen and host interactions involving individual nonstructural viral proteins, especially Nsp12...
June 16, 2018: Virus Research
Hiromi Shiratori, Carmen Feinweber, Sonja Luckhardt, Nadja Wallner, Gerd Geisslinger, Andreas Weigert, Michael J Parnham
Macrophages undergo activation by pathophysiological stimuli to pro-inflammatory and bactericidal, or wound-healing and anti-inflammatory phenotypes, termed M1 or M2, respectively. Dysregulation of the M1-M2 balance is often associated with inflammatory diseases. Therefore, mechanisms of macrophage polarization may reveal new drug targets. We profiled six compounds with claimed modulatory effects on macrophage polarization using peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Based on the distinct mRNA or protein expression in macrophages stimulated either with M1 [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) + interferon-γ, IFNγ] or M2 interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimuli, we selected a combination of M1 (IL1β, tumor necrosis factor-α,TNFα, CC chemokine receptor 7, CCR7 and CD80) and M2 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22, CCL22, CD200R and mannose receptor C type 1, MRC1) markers to monitor drug effects on "M1 polarization" or cells "pre-polarized to M1"...
June 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Kazuyasu Fujii
Primary cutaneous lymphomas comprise a group of lymphatic malignancies that occur primarily in the skin. They represent the second most common form of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and are characterized by heterogeneous clinical, histological, immunological, and molecular features. The most common type is mycosis fungoides and its leukemic variant, Sézary syndrome. Both diseases are considered T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) diseases. Not only the tumor cells but also the tumor microenvironment can promote Th2 differentiation, which is beneficial for the tumor cells because a Th1 environment enhances antitumor immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Francesco Ursini, Emilio Russo, Gianluca Pellino, Salvatore D'Angelo, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Giovambattista De Sarro, Roberto Manfredini, Roberto De Giorgio
Metformin ( dimethyl biguanide ) is a synthetic derivative of guanidine, isolated from the extracts of Galega officinalis , a plant with a prominent antidiabetic effect. Since its discovery more than 50 years ago, metformin represents a worldwide milestone in treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent evidence in humans indicates novel pleiotropic actions of metformin which span from its consolidated role in T2D management up to various regulatory properties, including cardio- and nephro-protection, as well as antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antioxidant effects...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Virginia Actis Dato, Gustavo Alberto Chiabrando
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a highly prevalent disorder which can be used to identify individuals with a higher risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. This metabolic syndrome is characterized by a combination of physiological, metabolic, and molecular alterations such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and central obesity. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1—A member of the LDL receptor family) is an endocytic and signaling receptor that is expressed in several tissues...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lauren Winter, Lydia A Wong, George Jerums, Jas-Mine Seah, Michele Clarke, Sih Min Tan, Melinda T Coughlan, Richard J MacIsaac, Elif I Ekinci
Diabetic kidney disease is a common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease in developed countries. Early detection of diabetic kidney disease will facilitate early intervention aimed at reducing the rate of progression to end-stage renal disease. Diabetic kidney disease has been traditionally classified based on the presence of albuminuria. More recently estimated glomerular filtration rate has also been incorporated into the staging of diabetic kidney disease...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
M T Ruiz-Campillo, V Molina-Hernández, J Pérez, I L Pacheco, R Pérez, A Escamilla, F J Martínez-Moreno, A Martínez-Moreno, R Zafra
During Fasciola hepatica infection, the parasite has the capability to modulate the host immune response towards a non-protector Th2 type instead of Th1. This type of immune response is closely related to the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 profile) as has been shown in vivo in murine models. In this study, an experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the expression of CD68, CD14, CD206 and iNOS in cells present in the peritoneal fluid of sheep during early stages of infection with F. hepatica (1, 3, 9 and 18 days post-infection, dpi) by immunocytochemistry...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Qianping Luo, Yong Fan, Lili Lin, Jingjing Wei, Zuanfang Li, Yongkun Li, Susumu Nakae, Wei Lin, Qi Chen
Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a novel member of the IL-1 family, expressed in many tissue and cell types, and is involved in inflammation and immune functions. Previous studies suggest that IL-33 may play a role in ischemic stroke. We tried to investigate the role of IL-33 in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury and its underlying mechanism. Our data indicated that IL-33 deficiency exacerbated the neurological dysfunction caused by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice and led to the formation of larger cerebral infarct volume as shown by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and magnetic resonance imaging...
June 12, 2018: Neuroscience
Meimei Zhang, Qingpi Yan, Leilei Mao, Suyun Wang, Lixing Huang, Xiaojin Xu, Yingxue Qin
The success of the pathogenic bacteria is partly attributable to their ability to thwart host innate immune responses, which includes resisting the antimicrobial functions of macrophages. And reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the most effective antimicrobial components of macrophages to kill invading bacteria. Our previous studies found that Aeromonas hydrophila can survive in fish macrophages, which suggested that this bacterium might take fish macrophages as their shelters to resist drug killings and other immune damage...
June 12, 2018: Gene
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