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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441412/progressive-multiple-sclerosis-patients-show-substantial-lesion-activity-that-correlates-with-clinical-disease-severity-and-sex-a-retrospective-autopsy-cohort-analysis
#1
Sabina Luchetti, Nina L Fransen, Corbert G van Eden, Valeria Ramaglia, Matthew Mason, Inge Huitinga
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly heterogeneous disease with large inter-individual differences in disease course. MS lesion pathology shows considerable heterogeneity in localization, cellular content and degree of demyelination between patients. In this study, we investigated pathological correlates of disease course in MS using the autopsy cohort of the Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB), containing 182 MS brain donors. Using a standardized autopsy procedure including systematic dissection from standard locations, 3188 tissue blocks containing 7562 MS lesions were dissected...
February 13, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438524/elevated-cyclic-amp-inhibits-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-stimulated-t-cell-ifn-%C3%AE-secretion-through-type-i-protein-kinase-a
#2
Yoon-Tae Chung, Virginia Pasquinelli, Javier O Jurado, Xisheng Wang, Na Yi, Peter F Barnes, Veronica E Garcia, Buka Samten
cAMP is critical in immune regulation, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) intoxicates macrophages through cAMP secretion. To examine the role of cAMP in the immune response to Mtb infection, we determined cAMP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from tuberculosis patients and the mechanisms for cAMP suppression of T cell IFN-γ production. PBMC from tuberculosis patients contained significantly higher cAMP levels than latent tuberculosis infected subjects (LTBI), with an inverse correlation with Mtb-stimulated IFN-γ production...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437254/crispr-cas9-knockout-of-usp18-enhances-type-i-ifn-responsiveness-and-restricts-hiv-1-infection-in-macrophages
#3
Jared P Taylor, Melanie N Cash, Katherine E Santostefano, Mahito Nakanishi, Naohiro Terada, Mark A Wallet
The IFN-stimulated gene ubiquitin-specific proteinase 18 (USP18) encodes a protein that negatively regulates T1 IFN signaling via stearic inhibition of JAK1 recruitment to the IFN-α receptor 2 subunit (IFNAR2). Here, we demonstrate that USP18 expression is induced by HIV-1 in a T1 IFN-dependent manner. Experimental depletion of USP18 by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) gene editing results in a significant restriction of HIV-1 replication in an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived macrophage model...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436680/curcumin-increases-cholesterol-efflux-via-heme-oxygenase%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-mediated-abca1-and-sr%C3%A2-bi-expression-in-macrophages
#4
Yi Zhong, Jian Feng, Zhongcai Fan, Jiafu Li
Curcumin, which is an extract from a traditional Chinese medicine, has previously been demonstrated to exhibit an anti‑atherosclerotic effect, which is closely associated with an increase in cholesterol efflux. However, it is unclear as to whether the increased effect is mediated by heme oxygenase (HO)‑1. Macrophages were treated with different concentrations of curcumin, HO‑1 inhibitor and small interfering (si)RNA in different experiments. Analysis of protein expression was conducted via western blotting...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435315/fluid-resuscitation-with-lactated-ringer-s-solution-vs-normal-saline-in-acute-pancreatitis-a-triple-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Enrique de-Madaria, Iván Herrera-Marante, Verónica González-Camacho, Laia Bonjoch, Noé Quesada-Vázquez, Isabel Almenta-Saavedra, Cayetano Miralles-Maciá, Nelly G Acevedo-Piedra, Manuela Roger-Ibáñez, Claudia Sánchez-Marin, Rosa Osuna-Ligero, Ángel Gracia, Pere Llorens, Pedro Zapater, Vikesh K Singh, Rocío Moreu-Martín, Daniel Closa
Background: Little is known regarding the optimal type of fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis (AP). Objective: The objective of this article was to compare the effect of lactated Ringer's solution (LR) vs normal saline (NS) in the inflammatory response in AP. Methods: We conducted a triple-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Patients ≥ 18 admitted with AP were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive LR or NS. Primary outcome variables were number of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria at 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours and blood C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at 48 hours and 72 hours...
February 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433065/mir-330-5p-tim-3-axis-regulates-macrophage-m2-polarization-and-insulin-resistance-in-diabetes-mice
#6
Jiling Sun, Qiujing Huang, Shufa Li, Fanqing Meng, Xunhua Li, Xiaoyun Gong
Obesity is associated with a state of low-grade inflammatory response in adipose tissue, and contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Immune cells such as macrophages can infiltrate adipose tissue and are responsible for the majority of inflammatory cytokine production. Therefore, adipose tissue promotes macrophage infiltration, resulting in local inflammation and insulin resistance. Tim-3 negatively regulates IFN-γ secretion and influences the ability to induce T cell tolerance in diabetes. MicroRNA contributes to the development of immunological tolerance and involves in macrophage polarization...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432728/galectin-3-is-essential-for-proper-bone-cell-differentiation-and-activity-bone-remodeling-and-biomechanical-competence-in-mice
#7
Carla Iacobini, Claudia Blasetti Fantauzzi, Rossella Bedini, Raffaella Pecci, Armando Bartolazzi, Bruno Amadio, Carlo Pesce, Giuseppe Pugliese, Stefano Menini
OBJECTIVE: Galectin-3 is constitutively expressed in bone cells and was recently shown to modulate osteogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells and atherosclerotic calcification. However, the role of galectin-3 in bone physiology is largely undefined. To address this issue, we analyzed (1) the skeletal features of 1-, 3- and 6-month-old galectin-3 null (Lgals3-/-) and wild type (WT) mice and (2) the differentiation and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts derived from these animals...
February 9, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432557/epigenetic-modifiers-as-new-immunomodulatory-therapies-in-solid-tumours
#8
S Aspeslagh, D Morel, J-C Soria, S Postel-Vinay
Background: Immune therapies have revolutionized cancer treatment over the last few years by allowing improvements in overall survival. However, the majority of patients is still primary or secondary resistant to such therapies, and enhancing sensitivity to immune therapies is therefore crucial to improve patient outcome. Several recent lines of evidence suggest that epigenetic modifiers have intrinsic immunomodulatory properties, which could be of therapeutic interest. Material and Methods: We reviewed preclinical evidence and clinical studies which describe or exploit immunomodulatory properties of epigenetic agents...
February 7, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432123/catestatin-inhibits-obesity-induced-macrophage-infiltration-and-inflammation-in-the-liver-and-suppresses-hepatic-glucose-production-leading-to-improved-insulin-sensitivity
#9
Wei Ying, Sumana Mahata, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Zhenqi Zhou, Joshua Wollam, Jessica Vu, Rafael Mayoral, Nai-Wen Chi, Nicholas J G Webster, Angelo Corti, Sushil K Mahata
The activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) and monocyte (Mc)-derived recruited macrophages (McMΦs) in the liver contributes to obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice treated with Chromogranin A (CgA) peptide catestatin (CST) showed several positive results. These included decreased hepatic/plasma lipids and plasma insulin, diminished expression of gluconeogenic genes, attenuated expression of pro-inflammatory genes, increased expression of anti-inflammatory genes in McMΦs, and inhibition of the infiltration of McMΦs resulting in improvement of insulin sensitivity...
February 6, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430360/comparative-study-on-the-antileishmanial-activities-of-chemically-and-biologically-synthesized-silver-nanoparticles-agnps
#10
Ikram Ullah, Gizem Cosar, Emrah Sefik Abamor, Melahat Bagirova, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Adil M Allahverdiyev
The present study was conducted to investigate the antileishmanial activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) compared to chemically synthesized AgNPs. A nano dimension size (10-15 nm) biogenic AgNPs was produced and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction. The chemically synthesized AgNPs was recovering from our previous study with a nanoparticle (NP) size in the range of 10-40 nm. The antileishmanial activities were investigated through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell viability assay...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427237/differential-expression-of-lp-pla2-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-and-the-influence-of-lipids
#11
Laura Jackisch, Warunee Kumsaiyai, Jonathan D Moore, Nasser Al-Daghri, Ioannis Kyrou, Thomas M Barber, Harpal Randeva, Sudhesh Kumar, Gyanendra Tripathi, Philip G McTernan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a circulatory macrophage-derived factor that increases with obesity and leads to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite this, its role in adipose tissue and the adipocyte is unknown. Therefore, the aims of this study were to clarify the expression of Lp-PLA2 in relation to different adipose tissue depots and type 2 diabetes, and ascertain whether markers of obesity and type 2 diabetes correlate with circulating Lp-PLA2...
February 9, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426925/ageing-potentiates-diet-induced-glucose-intolerance-%C3%AE-cell-failure-and-tissue-inflammation-through-tlr4
#12
Wei He, Ting Yuan, Dolma Choezom, Hannah Hunkler, Karthika Annamalai, Blaz Lupse, Kathrin Maedler
Ageing and obesity are two major risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A chronic, low-grade, sterile inflammation contributes to insulin resistance and β-cell failure. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is a major pro-inflammatory pathway; its ligands as well as downstream signals are increased systemically in patients with T2D and at-risk individuals. In the present study we investigated the combined effects of high fat/high sucrose diet (HFD) feeding, ageing and TLR4-deficiency on tissue inflammation, insulin resistance and β-cell failure...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424488/lipopolysaccharide-enhances-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signalling-pathway-and-rat-pancreatic-fibrosis
#13
Li Sun, Ming Xiu, Shuhua Wang, David R Brigstock, Hongyan Li, Limei Qu, Runping Gao
Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a critical role in fibrogenesis during alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP). Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) is a key regulator of extracellular matrix production and PSC activation. Endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been recognized as a trigger factor in the pathogenesis of ACP. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which LPS modulates TGF-β1 signalling and pancreatic fibrosis. Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a Lieber-DeCarli alcohol (ALC) liquid diet for 10 weeks with or without LPS challenge during the last 3 weeks...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423057/interleukin-34-sustains-pro-tumorigenic-signals-in-colon-cancer-tissue
#14
Eleonora Franzè, Vicenzo Dinallo, Angela Rizzo, Martina Di Giovangiulio, Gerolamo Bevivino, Carmine Stolfi, Flavio Caprioli, Alfredo Colantoni, Angela Ortenzi, Antonio Di Grazia, Giuseppe Sica, Pier Paolo Sileri, Piero Rossi, Giovanni Monteleone
Interleukin-34 (IL-34), a cytokine produced by a wide range of cells, binds to the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR-1) and receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase zeta (PTP-z) and controls myeloid cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. various types of cancers over-express IL-34 but the role of the cytokine in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. We here investigated the expression and functional role of IL-34 in CRC. A more pronounced expression of IL-34 was seen in CRC samples as compared to matched normal/benign colonic samples and this occurred at both RNA and protein level...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422898/cyclic-amp-pathway-suppress-autoimmune-neuroinflammation-by-inhibiting-functions-of-encephalitogenic-cd4-t-cells-and-enhancing-m2-macrophage-polarization-at-the-site-of-inflammation
#15
Tatyana Veremeyko, Amanda W Y Yung, Marina Dukhinova, Inna S Kuznetsova, Igor Pomytkin, Alexey Lyundup, Tatyana Strekalova, Natasha S Barteneva, Eugene D Ponomarev
Although it has been demonstrated that cAMP pathway affect both adaptive and innate cell functions, the role of this pathway in the regulation of T-cell-mediated central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune inflammation, such as in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), remains unclear. It is also unclear how cAMP pathway affects the function of CD4 T cells in vivo at the site of inflammation. We found that adenylyl cyclase activator Forskolin besides inhibition of functions autoimmune CD4 T cells also upregulated microRNA (miR)-124 in the CNS during EAE, which is associated with M2 phenotype of microglia/macrophages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422316/histological-and-immunological-description-of-the-leishmanin-skin-test-in-ibizan-hounds
#16
L Ordeix, J E Dos S Silva, J Llull, P Quirola, S Montserrat-Sangrà, P Martínez-Orellana, L Solano-Gallego
The leishmanin skin test (LST), a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to Leishmania infantum, can specifically identify dogs that have made a cell-mediated immune response to L. infantum infection. The Ibizan hound appears to be more resistant to L. infantum infection than other breeds of dog. The aim of this study was to describe the histological and immunohistochemical changes induced by the LST in Ibizan hounds living in an area highly endemic for leishmaniosis. The majority of dogs were apparently healthy, lacked serum antibody to L...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421784/complement-activation-in-capillary-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#17
Ko Matsuo, Akihiro Shindo, Atsushi Niwa, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Yoshio Hashizume, Haruhiko Akiyama, Takashi Ayaki, Takakuni Maki, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Ryosuke Takahashi, Shinji Oikawa, Hidekazu Tomimoto
BACKGROUND: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is classified as type 1 with capillary amyloid β (Aβ) or type 2 without capillary Aβ. While it is known that CAA activates complement, an inflammatory mediator, there is no information on the relationship between capillary Aβ and complement activation. METHODS: We evaluated 34 autopsy brains, including 22 with CAA and 12 with other neurodegenerative diseases. We assessed the vascular density of CAA by analyzing the expression of complement (C1q, C3d, C6, C5b-9), macrophage scavenger receptor (MSR), and apolipoprotein E (ApoE)...
February 8, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420090/lxr%C3%AE-is-expressed-at-higher-levels-in-healthy-people-compared-to-atherosclerosis-patients-and-its-over-expression-polarizes-macrophages-towards-an-anti-inflammatory-m%C3%AE-2-phenotype
#18
Mengyuan Liu, Weijian Yang, Shuling Liu, Duncan Hock, Bohao Zhang, Ruth Ya Huo, Xiaoguang Tong, Hua Yan
OBJECTIVES: (1) To investigate the expression patterns of MΦ1 and MΦ2 phenotype markers of peripheral blood monocyte (PBMC)-derived macrophages in atherosclerosis patients and healthy controls, as well as the expression correlation among these genes. (2) To elucidate whether a high level of liver X receptor α (LXRα) expression is associated with anti-inflammatory MΦ2-type polarization. DESIGN: Peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) were obtained from 28 patients with carotid artery plaques and 10 normal persons, who did not have carotid artery plaques...
February 8, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417766/limiting-glioma-development-by-photodynamic-therapy-generated-macrophage-vaccine-and-allo-stimulation-an-in-vivo-histological-study-in-rats
#19
Steen J Madsen, Catherine Christie, Khoi Huynh, Qian Peng, Francisco A Uzal, Tatiana B Krasieva, Henry Hirschberg
Immunotherapy of brain tumors involves the stimulation of an antitumor immune response. This type of therapy can be targeted specifically to tumor cells thus sparing surrounding normal brain. Due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier, the brain is relatively isolated from the systemic circulation and, as such, the initiation of significant immune responses is more limited than other types of cancers. The purpose of this study was to show that the efficacy of tumor primed antigen presenting macrophage (MaF98) vaccines can be increased by: (1) photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the priming tumor cells and (2) intracranial injection of allogeneic glioma cells directly into the tumor site...
February 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416655/folate-receptor-%C3%AE-targeted-near-infrared-fluorescence-imaging-in-high-risk-endometrial-cancer-patients-a-tissue-microarray-and-clinical-feasibility-study
#20
Leonora S F Boogerd, Charlotte E S Hoogstins, Katja N Gaarenstroom, Cornelis D de Kroon, Jogchum J Beltman, Tjalling Bosse, Ellen Stelloo, Jaap Vuyk, Philip S Low, Jacobus Burggraaf, Alexander L Vahrmeijer
Objective: Detection and resection of all malignant lesions is pivotal in staging and cytoreductive surgery (CRS) of endometrial cancer (EC). Intraoperative EC detection could be enhanced using OTL-38, a fluorescent-labelled folate receptor-α (FRα) targeted imaging agent. The objectives of this study were to investigate which subgroups of high-risk EC patients express FRα and assess feasibility of intraoperative EC detection using OTL-38. Results: FRα expression on TMA was significantly correlated with tumor type (p < 0...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
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