keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Type 2 macrophage

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087885/absence-of-intestinal-microbiota-increases-%C3%A3-cyclodextrin-stimulated-reverse-cholesterol-transport
#1
Rima H Mistry, Henkjan J Verkade, Uwe J F Tietge
SCOPE: Non-digestible oligosaccharides are used as prebiotics for perceived health benefits, among these modulating lipid metabolism. However, the mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. The present study characterized the impact of dietary ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD, 10%, w/w), a cyclic oligosaccharide, on sterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in conventional and also germ-free mice to establish dependency on metabolism by intestinal bacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: In conventional ßCD-fed C57BL/6J wild-type mice plasma cholesterol decreased significantly (-40%, p<0...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087417/culture-media-based-selection-of-endothelial-cells-pericytes-and-perivascular-resident-macrophage-like-melanocytes-from-the-young-mouse-vestibular-system
#2
Jinhui Zhang, Songlin Chen, Jing Cai, Zhiqiang Hou, Xiaohan Wang, Allan Kachelmeier, Xiaorui Shi
The vestibular blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) is comprised of perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) and pericytes (PCs), in addition to endothelial cells (ECs) and basement membrane (BM), and bears strong resemblance to the cochlear BLB in the stria vascularis. Over the past few decades, in vitro cell-based models have been widely used in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barrier (BRB) research, and have proved to be powerful tools for studying cell-cell interactions in their respective organs...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078083/over-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-2-up-regulates-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-and-decreases-oxidative-injury-in-dairy-goats
#3
Shoulong Deng, Kun Yu, Wuqi Jiang, Yan Li, Shuotian Wang, Zhuo Deng, Yuchang Yao, Baolu Zhang, Guoshi Liu, Yixun Liu, Zhengxing Lian
BACKGROUND: Mastitis, an infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria, produces udder inflammation and oxidative injury in milk-producing mammals. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is important for host recognition of invading Gram-positive microbes. Over-expression of TLR2 in transgenic dairy goats is a useful model for studying various aspects of infection with Gram-positive bacteria, in vivo. METHODS: We over-expressed TLR2 in transgenic dairy goats. Pam3CSK4, a component of Gram-positive bacteria, triggered the TLR2 signal pathway by stimulating the monocytes-macrophages from the TLR2-positive transgenic goats, and induced over-expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and inflammation factors downstream of the signal pathway...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069821/characterization-of-engineered-preq1-riboswitches-for-inducible-gene-regulation-in-mycobacteria
#4
Erik R Van Vlack, Shana Topp, Jessica C Seeliger
: We report here the behavior of naturally occurring and rationally engineered preQ1 riboswitches and their application to inducible gene regulation in mycobacteria. Because mycobacteria lack preQ1 biosynthetic genes, we hypothesized that preQ1 could be used as an exogenous non-metabolite ligand to control riboswitches in mycobacteria. Selected naturally occurring preQ1 riboswitches were assayed and successfully drove preQ1-dependent repression of a GFP reporter in Mycobacterium smegmatis Using structure-based design, we engineered three preQ1 riboswitches from Thermoanaerobacter tencongensis, Bacillus subtilis, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus towards achieving higher response ratios and increased repression...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069818/ssek1-and-ssek3-t3ss-effectors-inhibit-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-and-necroptotic-cell-death-in-salmonella-infected-macrophages
#5
Regina A Günster, Sophie A Matthews, David W Holden, Teresa L M Thurston
Within host cells such as macrophages, Salmonella enterica translocates virulence (effector) proteins across its vacuolar membrane using the SPI-2 type III secretion system. Previously it has been shown that when expressed ectopically the effectors SseK1 and SseK3 inhibit TNFα-induced NF-κB activation. In this study we show that ectopically expressed SseK1, SseK2 and SseK3 suppressed TNFα-, but not TLR4-, or interleukin-induced NF-κB activation. Inhibition required a DXD motif, which in SseK1 and SseK3 is essential for protein Arginine-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-ylation...
January 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067799/excavatolide-b-attenuates-rheumatoid-arthritis-through-the-inhibition-of-osteoclastogenesis
#6
Yen-You Lin, Yen-Hsuan Jean, Hsin-Pai Lee, Sung-Chun Lin, Chieh-Yu Pan, Wu-Fu Chen, Shu-Fen Wu, Jui-Hsin Su, Kuan-Hao Tsui, Jyh-Horng Sheu, Ping-Jyun Sung, Zhi-Hong Wen
Osteoclasts are multinucleated giant cells of macrophage/monocyte lineage, and cell differentiation with the upregulation of osteoclast-related proteins is believed to play a major role in the destruction of the joints in the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), can be overexpressed in RA and lead to osteoclastogenesis. In a previous study, we found that cultured-type soft coral-derived excavatolide B (Exc-B) exhibited anti-inflammatory properties...
January 6, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066953/diabetic-and-idiopathic-gastroparesis-is-associated-with-loss-of-cd206-positive-macrophages-in-the-gastric-antrum
#7
M Grover, C E Bernard, P J Pasricha, H P Parkman, S J Gibbons, J Tonascia, K L Koch, R W McCallum, I Sarosiek, W L Hasler, L A B Nguyen, T L Abell, W J Snape, M L Kendrick, T A Kellogg, T J McKenzie, F A Hamilton, G Farrugia
BACKGROUND: Animal studies have increasingly highlighted the role of macrophages in the development of delayed gastric emptying. However, their role in the pathophysiology of human gastroparesis is unclear. Our aim was to determine changes in macrophages and other cell types in the gastric antrum muscularis propria of patients with diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. METHODS: Full thickness gastric antrum biopsies were obtained from patients enrolled in the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium (11 diabetic, 6 idiopathic) and 5 controls...
January 9, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066914/cortical-hemorrhage-associated-neurological-deficits-and-tissue-damage-in-mice-are-ameliorated-by-therapeutic-treatment-with-nicotine
#8
Junpei Anan, Masanori Hijioka, Yuki Kurauchi, Akinori Hisatsune, Takahiro Seki, Hiroshi Katsuki
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with diverse sets of neurological symptoms and prognosis, depending on the site of bleeding. Relative rate of hemorrhage occurring in the cerebral cortex (lobar hemorrhage) has been increasing, but there is no report on effective pharmacotherapeutic approaches for cortical hemorrhage either in preclinical or clinical studies. The present study aimed to establish an experimental model of cortical hemorrhage in mice for evaluation of effects of therapeutic drug candidates...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066896/parasite-excretory-secretory-products-and-their-effects-on-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Jenny Crowe, Felicity E Lumb, Margaret M Harnett, William Harnett
Obesity, one of the main causes of metabolic syndrome (MetS), is an increasingly common health and economic problem worldwide, and one of the major risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Chronic, low-grade inflammation is associated with MetS and obesity. A dominant type 2/anti-inflammatory response is required for metabolic homeostasis within adipose tissue: during obesity, this response is replaced by infiltrating, inflammatory macrophages and T cells. Helminths and certain protozoan parasites are able to manipulate the host immune response towards a TH2 immune phenotype that is beneficial for their survival and there is emerging data that there is an inverse correlation between the incidence of MetS and helminth infections, suggesting that, as with autoimmune and allergic diseases, helminths may play a protective role against MetS disease...
January 9, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063173/identification-of-highly-connected-hub-genes-in-the-protective-response-program-of-human-macrophages-and-microglia-activated-by-alpha-b-crystallin
#10
Inge R Holtman, Malika Bsibsi, Wouter H Gerritsen, Hendrikus W G M Boddeke, Bart J L Eggen, Paul van der Valk, Markus Kipp, Johannes M van Noort, Sandra Amor
The glial stress protein alpha B-crystallin (HSPB5) is an endogenous agonist for Toll-like receptor 2 in CD14(+) cells. Following systemic administration, HSPB5 acts as a potent inhibitor of neuroinflammation in animal models and reduces lesion development in multiple sclerosis patients. Here, we show that systemically administered HSPB5 rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier, implicating microglia as additional targets for HSPB5 along with peripheral monocytes and macrophages. To compare key players in the HSPB5-induced protective response of human macrophages and microglia, we applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis on transcript expression data obtained 1 and 4 h after activation...
January 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062694/effective-combination-of-innate-and-adaptive-immunotherapeutic-approaches-in-a-mouse-melanoma-model
#11
Alexander L Rakhmilevich, Mildred Felder, Lauren Lever, Jacob Slowinski, Kayla Rasmussen, Anna Hoefges, Tyler J Van De Voort, Hans Loibner, Alan J Korman, Stephen D Gillies, Paul M Sondel
Most cancer immunotherapies include activation of either innate or adaptive immune responses. We hypothesized that the combined activation of both innate and adaptive immunity will result in better antitumor efficacy. We have previously shown the synergy of an agonistic anti-CD40 mAb (anti-CD40) and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides in activating macrophages to induce tumor cell killing in mice. Separately, we have shown that a direct intratumoral injection of immunocytokine (IC), an anti-GD2 Ab linked to IL-2, can activate T and NK cells resulting in antitumor effects...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062667/smn-deficiency-negatively-impacts-red-pulp-macrophages-and-spleen-development-in-mouse-models-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#12
Marie-Therese Khairallah, Jacob Astroski, Sarah K Custer, Elliot J Androphy, Craig L Franklin, Christian L Lorson
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is the leading genetic cause of infantile death. It is caused by severe deficiency of the ubiquitously expressed Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein. SMA is characterized by α-lower motor neuron loss and muscle atrophy, however, there is a growing list of tissues impacted by SMN deficiency beyond motor neurons. The non-neuronal defects are observed in the most severe Type I SMA patients and most of the widely used SMA mouse models, however, as effective therapeutics are developed, it is unclear whether additional symptoms will be uncovered in longer lived patients...
January 5, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062509/adam17-deficiency-promotes-atherosclerosis-by-enhanced-tnfr2-signaling-in-mice
#13
Alexandros Nicolaou, Zhen Zhao, Bernd H Northoff, Kristina Sass, Andreas Herbst, Alexander Kohlmaier, Athena Chalaris, Christian Wolfrum, Christian Weber, Sabine Steffens, Stefan Rose-John, Daniel Teupser, Lesca M Holdt
OBJECTIVE: ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17) is a sheddase releasing different types of membrane-bound proteins, including adhesion molecules, cytokines, and their receptors as well as inflammatory mediators. Because these substrates modulate important mechanisms of atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that ADAM17 might be involved in the pathogenesis of this frequent disease. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Because Adam17-knockout mice are not viable, we studied the effect of Adam17 deficiency on atherosclerosis in Adam17 hypomorphic mice (Adam17(ex/ex)), which have low residual Adam17 expression...
December 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062309/a-local-inflammatory-renin-angiotensin-system-drives-sensory-axon-sprouting-in-provoked-vestibulodynia
#14
Zhaohui Liao, Anuradha Chakrabarty, Ying Mu, Aritra Bhattacherjee, Martha Goestch, Catherine M Leclair, Peter G Smith
: Vestibulodynia is a form of provoked vulvodynia characterized by profound tenderness, hyperinnervation, and frequently inflammation within well-defined areas of the human vestibule. Prior experiments in animal models show that inflammatory hypersensitivity and hyperinnervation occur in concert with establishment of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Moreover, mechanical hypersensitivity and sensory axon sprouting are prevented by blocking effects of angiotensin II on AT2 receptors...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061952/anti-mycobacterial-function-of-macrophages-is-impaired-in-a-diet-induced-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#15
Md Abdul Alim, Suchandan Sikder, Tahnee L Bridson, Catherine M Rush, Brenda L Govan, Natkunam Ketheesan
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the major risk factors for tuberculosis (TB). In this study, a diet induced murine model of T2D (DIMT2D) was developed and characterized in the context of metabolic, biochemical and histopathological features following diet intervention. Mycobacterial susceptibility was investigated using Mycobacterium fortuitum as a surrogate. Phagocytic capability of alveolar macrophages and resident peritoneal macrophages were determined by in vitro assays using mycolic acid coated beads and M...
January 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061020/a-p4-atpase-subunit-of-the-cdc50-family-plays-a-role-in-iron-acquisition-and-virulence-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#16
Guanggan Hu, Mélissa Caza, Erik Bakkeren, Matthias Kretschmer, Gaurav Bairwa, Ethan Reiner, James Kronstad
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans delivers virulence factors such as capsule polysaccharide to the cell surface to cause disease in vertebrate hosts. In this study, we screened for mutants sensitive to the secretion inhibitor brefeldin A to identify secretory pathway components that contribute to virulence. We identified an ortholog of the Cdc50 family of the non-catalytic subunit of type IV P-type ATPases (flippases) that establish phospholipid asymmetry in membranes and function in vesicle-mediated trafficking...
January 6, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060857/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-induces-lung-injury-through-tnf-%C3%AE-c-jun-nh2-terminal-kinase-pathways
#17
Ying-Wei Yang, Yu-Zhen Jiang, Ching-Mei Hsu, Lee-Wei Chen
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the most common multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogen and VAP caused by PA carries a high rate of morbidity and mortality. This study examined the molecular mechanism of PA VAP-induced lung injury. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and JNK1 knockout (JNK1-/-) mice received mechanical ventilation (MV) for 3 h at 2 days after receiving nasal instillation of PA. The WT and JNK1-/- mice also received MV after the induction of lung injury by instillation of supernatants from PA-stimulated alveolar macrophages (AMs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057904/a-serine-threonine-phosphatase-1-of-streptococcus-suis-type-2-is-an-important-virulence-factor
#18
Lihua Fang, Pengcheng Fan, Yunkai Yang, Jingjing Zhou, Hongxia Shen, Weihuan Fang
Streptococcus suis is regarded as one of the major pathogens of pigs while S. suis type 2 (SS2) is considered to be a zoonotic bacterium for its ability to cause meningitis and streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in humans. Many bacterial species contain genes encoding serine/threonine protein phosphatases (STP) responsible for dephosphorylation of their substrates in a single reaction step. This study was aimed to investigate the role of stp1 in pathogenesis of SS2. An isogenic stp1 mutant (Δstp1) was constructed from the SS2 strain ZJ081101...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057547/intracellular-signaling-modifications-involved-in-the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-4-alkoxy-6-9-dichloro-1-2-4-triazolo-4-3-a-quinoxalines-on-macrophages
#19
Antonio J Ruiz-Alcaraz, María Tristán-Manzano, Antonio Guirado, Jesús Gálvez, María Martínez-Esparza, Pilar García-Peñarrubia
Inflammation is part of a complex biological response directed by the immune system to fight pathogens and maintain homeostasis. Dysregulation of the inflammatory process leads to development of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. Several cell types, such as macrophages, and cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are involved in the regulation of inflammation. The important role played by these cytokines as mediators of the inflammatory process and the side effects of current therapies have promoted the search of new therapeutic alternatives...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055016/inhibition-of-stat3-signaling-pathway-by-nifuroxazide-improves-antitumor-immunity-and-impairs-colorectal-carcinoma-metastasis
#20
Ting-Hong Ye, Fang-Fang Yang, Yong-Xia Zhu, Ya-Li Li, Qian Lei, Xue-Jiao Song, Yong Xia, Ying Xiong, Li-Dan Zhang, Ning-Yu Wang, Li-Feng Zhao, Hong-Feng Gou, Yong-Mei Xie, Sheng-Yong Yang, Luo-Ting Yu, Li Yang, Yu-Quan Wei
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the one of the most common cancers with considerable metastatic potential, explaining the need for new drug candidates that inhibit tumor metastasis. The signal transducers and activators of the transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling pathway has an important role in CRC and has been validated as a promising anticancer target for CRC therapy. In the present study, we report our findings on nifuroxazide, an antidiarrheal agent identified as an inhibitor of Stat3. Our studies showed that nifuroxazide decreased the viability of three CRC cell lines and induced apoptosis of cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner...
January 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
keyword
keyword
54987
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"