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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923151/a-novel-role-for-the-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-14-on-macrophage-inflammatory-response-and-atherosclerosis-development
#1
Xiao Wei, Ruomei Yang, Chengpan Wang, Xun Jian, Ling Li, Hua Liu, Gangyi Yang, Zhiyong Li
Genome-wide association studies have shown that Krüppel-like factor 14 (KLF14) is associated with both Type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipid metabolism. However, its role in chronic inflammatory responses and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate both in vivo and in vitro the impact of KLF14 on chronic inflammatory responses and atherosclerosis. ApoE KO mice, a well-established animal model of atherosclerosis, had higher expressions of KLF14 in aorta tissues than that in C57BL/6 J mice when fed the high-fat diet (HFD) or standard chow diet...
November 14, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922978/significance-of-monocyte-counts-at-recurrence-on-survival-outcome-of-women-with-endometrial-cancer
#2
Hiroko Machida, Madushka Yohan De Zoysa, Tsuyoshi Takiuchi, Marianne S Hom, Katherine E Tierney, Koji Matsuo
OBJECTIVE: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are known to have adverse effects on the survival of women with endometrial cancer. Because monocytes function as progenitors of macrophages, this study examined the association between monocyte count at the first recurrence/progression of endometrial cancer and survival time after recurrence/progression (SAR). METHODS: This is a retrospective study evaluating 141 consecutive cases of recurrent endometrial cancer after surgical staging (n = 114) and progression after nonsurgical management (n = 27)...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921425/-oxldl-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-i-complex-as-a-pro-atherogenic-autoantigen-is-atherosclerosis-an-autoimmune-disease
#3
Pavel Kraml
Oxidation of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Oxidation stress and inflammation are closely interrelated and they can potentiate one another. In the subendothelial space of the arterial intima, monocytes/macrophages become activated and phagocyte oxidized LDL (oxLDL) via scavenger receptors. It has been demonstrated that oxLDL forms complex with plasma β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and becomes autoantigenic triggering synthesis of specific antiphosholipid antibodies...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919753/advax-a-delta-inulin-microparticle-potentiates-in-built-adjuvant-property-of-co-administered-vaccines
#4
Masayuki Hayashi, Taiki Aoshi, Yasunari Haseda, Kouji Kobiyama, Edward Wijaya, Noriyuki Nakatsu, Yoshinobu Igarashi, Daron M Standley, Hiroshi Yamada, Yoshikazu Honda-Okubo, Hiromitsu Hara, Takashi Saito, Toshiyuki Takai, Cevayir Coban, Nikolai Petrovsky, Ken J Ishii
Advax, a delta inulin-derived microparticle, has been developed as an adjuvant for several vaccines. However, its immunological characteristics and potential mechanism of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that Advax behaves as a type-2 adjuvant when combined with influenza split vaccine, a T helper (Th)2-type antigen, but behaves as a type-1 adjuvant when combined with influenza inactivated whole virion (WV), a Th1-type antigen. In addition, an adjuvant effect was not observed when Advax-adjuvanted WV vaccine was used to immunize toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 knockout mice which are unable to respond to RNA contained in WV antigen...
December 1, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919626/targeted-delivery-of-glucocorticoids-to-macrophages-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis-using-inorganic-organic-hybrid-nanoparticles
#5
Elena Montes-Cobos, Sarah Ring, Henrike J Fischer, Joachim Heck, Judith Strauß, Markus Schwaninger, Sybille D Reichardt, Claus Feldmann, Fred Lühder, Holger M Reichardt
Glucocorticoids (GC) are widely used to treat acute relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but their application is accompanied by side effects due to their broad spectrum of action. Here, we report on the therapeutic option to apply GC via inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles (IOH-NP) with the composition [ZrO](2+)[(BMP)0.9(FMN)0.1](2-) (designated BMP-NP with BMP: betamethasone phosphate; FMN: flavinmononucleotide). We found that these BMP-NP have an increased cell type-specificity compared to free GC while retaining full therapeutic efficacy in a mouse model of MS...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918207/gemigliptin-ameliorates-western-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#6
Seung Hee Choi, Jaechan Leem, Sungmi Park, Chong-Kee Lee, Keun-Gyu Park, In-Kyu Lee
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the pleiotropic actions of DPP-4 inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether gemigliptin, a recently developed DPP-4 inhibitor, could ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome. Mice were fed a Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks and were subsequently divided into 2 groups: mice fed a WD diet alone or mice fed a WD diet supplemented with gemigliptin for an additional 4 weeks...
September 4, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917627/enhanced-immune-responses-against-hiv-1-with-adenovector-gag-and-tat-prime-protein-boost-regimen-and-gm-csf-injection
#7
Negin Hosseini Rouzbahani, Saeed Bayanolhagh, Mohammad Gholami, Ali Esmaeilzadeh, Zahra Bayat Jozani, Minoo Mohraz, Ali Akbar Pourfathollah
Vaccines against the HIV-1 virus offers the best hope for eliminating HIV-associated mortality. Recombinant adenovector type 5 (rAd5) vaccine is a potential candidate for preventive vaccine strategies. In this study, we evaluated the rAd5 prime/protein boost strategy in a murine model. We used rAd5 harboring single HIV-1 genes. These genes, including gag (p24) and exon1 of tat, were amplified from HIV-1 (clade A) RNA using nested PCR. Recombinant vectors were constructed, purified and then injected at 1012 viral particles into four groups, each comprising five mice...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915019/the-impact-of-cell-surface-pegylation-and-short-course-immunotherapy-on-islet-graft-survival-in-an-allogeneic-murine-model
#8
Jaime A Giraldo, R Damaris Molano, Hernán R Rengifo, Carmen Fotino, Kerim M Gattás-Asfura, Antonello Pileggi, Cherie L Stabler
: Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for Type 1 diabetes mellitus; however, host inflammatory and immune responses lead to islet dysfunction and destruction, despite potent systemic immunosuppression. Grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to the periphery of cells or tissues can mitigate inflammation and immune recognition via generation of a steric barrier. Herein, we sought to evaluate the complementary impact of islet PEGylation with a short-course immunotherapy on the survival of fully-MHC mismatched islet allografts (DBA/2 islets into diabetic C57BL/6J recipients)...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914709/podocyte-specific-chemokine-c-c-motif-receptor-2%C3%A2-overexpression-mediates-diabetic-renal-injury-in%C3%A2-mice
#9
Hanning You, Ting Gao, Wesley M Raup-Konsavage, Timothy K Cooper, Sarah K Bronson, W Brian Reeves, Alaa S Awad
Inflammation is a central pathophysiologic mechanism that contributes to diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we showed that macrophages directly contribute to diabetic renal injury and that pharmacological blockade or genetic deficiency of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) confers kidney protection in diabetic nephropathy. However, the direct role of CCR2 in kidney-derived cells such as podocytes in diabetic nephropathy remains unclear. To study this, we developed a transgenic mouse model expressing CCR2 specifically in podocytes (Tg[NPHS2-Ccr2]) on a nephropathy-prone (DBA/2J) and CCR2-deficient (Ccr2(-/-)) background with heterozygous Ccr2(+/-) littermate controls...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913954/the-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-two-major-withanolides-from-physalis-minima-via-acting-on-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-stat3-and-ho-1-in-lps-stimulated-raw264-7-cells
#10
Rui-Jun Li, Cai-Yun Gao, Chao Guo, Miao-Miao Zhou, Jun Luo, Ling-Yi Kong
Physalis minima has been traditionally used as a folk herbal medicine in China for the treatment of many inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about its anti-inflammatory constituents and associated molecular mechanisms. In our study, withaphysalin A (WA) and 2, 3-dihydro-withaphysalin C (WC), two major withanolide-type compounds, were obtained from the anti-inflammatory fraction of P. minima. Both WA and WC significantly inhibited the production of nitrite oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and several pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264...
December 2, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913426/depletion-of-circulating-monocytes-suppresses-il-17-and-hmgb1-expression-in-mice-with-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury
#11
Zhilong Jiang, Qianlin Zhou, Chenlin Gu, Dandan Li, Lei Zhu
Acute lung injury/Acute Respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is an important cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS. To investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of circulating monocytes and resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) in ALI/ARDS, we depleted circulating monocytes and AMs by clodronate-loaded liposome (CL) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI/ARDS mouse model. Our results indicated that depletion of circulating monocytes by intravenous (i...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911388/high-throughput-real-time-dual-readout-testing-of-intracellular-antimicrobial-activity-and-eukaryotic-cell-cytotoxicity
#12
Lucius Chiaraviglio, Yoon-Suk Kang, James E Kirby
Traditional measures of intracellular antimicrobial activity and eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity rely on endpoint assays. Such endpoint assays require several additional experimental steps prior to readout, such as cell lysis, colony forming unit determination, or reagent addition. When performing thousands of assays, for example, during high-throughput screening, the downstream effort required for these types of assays is considerable. Therefore, to facilitate high-throughput antimicrobial discovery, we developed a real-time assay to simultaneously identify inhibitors of intracellular bacterial growth and assess eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910859/t-cell-programming-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Y D Seo, V G Pillarisetty
Despite recent advancements in multimodal therapy, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) continues to have a dismal prognosis. In the era of burgeoning immune therapies against previously difficult-to-treat malignancies, there has been growing interest in activating the immune system against PDA; however, unlike in other cancers such as melanoma and lymphoma, immunotherapy has not yielded many clinically significant results. To harness these mechanisms for therapeutic use, an in-depth understanding of T-cell programming in the immune microenvironment of PDA must be achieved...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909985/il-25-blockade-inhibits-metastasis-in-breast-cancer
#14
Zhujun Jiang, Jingtao Chen, Xuemei Du, Hang Cheng, Xiaohu Wang, Chen Dong
Metastasis is the leading cause of death in breast cancer patients. However, the mechanisms underlying metastasis are not well understood and there is no effective treatment in the clinic. Here, we demonstrate that in MMTV-PyMT, a highly malignant spontaneous breast tumor model, IL-25 (also called IL-17E) was expressed by tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells and macrophages. An IL-25 neutralization antibody, while not affecting primary tumor growth, substantially reduced lung metastasis. Inhibition of IL-25 resulted in decreased type 2 T cells and macrophages in the primary tumor microenvironments, both reported to enhance breast tumor invasion and subsequent metastasis to the lung...
December 1, 2016: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908890/pathology-of-human-coronary-and-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Kazuyuki Yahagi, Frank D Kolodgie, Christoph Lutter, Hiroyoshi Mori, Maria E Romero, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906184/1-methyl-tryptophan-attenuates-regulatory-t-cells-differentiation-due-to-the-inhibition-of-estrogen-ido1-mrc2-axis-in-endometriosis
#16
Chunyan Wei, Jie Mei, Lingli Tang, Yukai Liu, Dajin Li, Mingqing Li, Xiaoyong Zhu
Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells contribute to the local dysfunctional immune environment in endometriosis, an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease, which affects the function of ectopic endometrial tissue clearance by the immune system. The reason for the high percentage of peritoneal Treg in endometriosis patients is unknown. Here, we show that the proportion of peritoneal Treg cells increases as endometriosis progresses. To determine the probable mechanism, we established a naive T cell-macrophage-endometrial stromal cell (ESC) co-culture system to mimic the peritoneal cavity microenvironment...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905985/tlr7-8-agonist-induces-a-post-entry-samhd1-independent-block-to-hiv-1-infection-of-monocytes
#17
Henning Hofmann, Bénédicte Vanwalscappel, Nicolin Bloch, Nathaniel R Landau
BACKGROUND: Monocytes, the primary myeloid cell-type in peripheral blood, are resistant to HIV-1 infection as a result of the lentiviral restriction factor SAMHD1. Toll-like receptors recognize microbial pathogen components, inducing the expression of antiviral host proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. TLR agonists that mimic microbial ligands have been found to have activity against HIV-1 in macrophages. The induction of restriction factors in monocytes by TLR agonist activation has not been well studied...
December 1, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901270/adipose-tissue-inflammation-by-intermittent-hypoxia-mechanistic-link-between-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-metabolic-dysfunction
#18
Silke Ryan
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a highly prevalent condition and recognized as a major public health burden conveying a significant risk of cardiometabolic diseases and mortality. Type 2 diabetes (T2D), insulin resistance (IR) and glucose tolerance are common in subjects with OSA and this association is at least in part independent of the effects of obesity. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for the majority of patients with OSA but the benefit of CPAP on glycaemic health is uncertain...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899210/comparative-analysis-of-the-internalization-of-the-macrophage-receptor-sialoadhesin-in-human-and-mouse-primary-macrophages-and-cell-lines
#19
Marjorie De Schryver, Annelies Leemans, Isabel Pintelon, Davie Cappoen, Louis Maes, Guy Caljon, Paul Cos, Peter L Delputte
Sialoadhesin (Sn) is a surface receptor expressed on resident macrophages with the ability to bind with sialic acids. During inflammation, an upregulation of Sn is observed. Upon binding of monoclonal antibodies to Sn, the receptor becomes internalized and this has been observed in multiple species. The latter characteristic, combined with the strong upregulation of Sn on inflammatory macrophages and the fact that Sn-positive macrophages contribute to certain inflammatory diseases, makes Sn an interesting entry portal for phenotype-modulating or cytotoxic drugs...
November 21, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898335/genetically-edited-pigs-lacking-cd163-show-no-resistance-following-infection-with-the-african-swine-fever-virus-isolate-georgia-2007-1
#20
Luca Popescu, Natasha N Gaudreault, Kristen M Whitworth, Maria V Murgia, Jerome C Nietfeld, Alan Mileham, Melissa Samuel, Kevin D Wells, Randall S Prather, Raymond R R Rowland
African swine fever is a highly contagious, often fatal disease of swine for which there is no vaccine or other curative treatment. The macrophage marker, CD163, is a putative receptor for African swine fever virus (ASFV). Pigs possessing a complete knockout of CD163 on macrophages were inoculated with Georgia 2007/1, a genotype 2 isolate. Knockout and wild type pen mates became infected and showed no differences in clinical signs, mortality, pathology or viremia. There was also no difference following in vitro infection of macrophages...
November 26, 2016: Virology
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