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Tumor microenvironent

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149434/enhancement-of-therapeutic-dna-vaccine-potency-by-melatonin-through-inhibiting-vegf-expression-and-induction-of-antitumor-immunity-mediated-by-cd8-t-cells
#1
Sanaz Baghban Rahimi, Alireza Mohebbi, Gelareh Vakilzadeh, Peyvand Biglari, Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi, Seyed Reza Mohebi, Sadegh Shirian, Ali Gorji, Amir Ghaemi
To be effective, therapeutic cancer vaccines should stimulate both an effective cell-mediated and a robust cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell response against human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells to treat the pre-existing tumors and prevent potential future tumors. In this study, the therapeutic experiments were designed in order to evaluate antitumor effect against the syngeneic TC-1 tumor model. The anti-tumor efficacy of a HPV-16 E7 DNA vaccine adjuvanted with melatonin (MLT) was evaluated in a C57BL/6 mouse tumor model by measuring tumor growth post vaccination and the survival rate of tumor-bearing mice, analyzing the specific lymphocyte proliferation responses in control and vaccinated mice by MTT assay...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148694/ambient-aqueous-synthesis-of-ultrasmall-ni0-85se-nanoparticles-for-non-invasive-photoacoustic-imaging-and-combined-photothermal-chemo-therapy-of-cancer
#2
Xianwen Wang, Fei Li, Xu Yan, Yan Ma, Zhaohua Miao, Liang Dong, Huajian Chen, Yang Lu, Zhengbao Zha
Big size induced long-term retention in the body has hampered the translational applications of many reported nanomedicine. Herein, we reported a multifunctional theranostic agent composed of ultrasmall polyacrylic acid functionalized Ni0.85Se nanoparticles (PAA-Ni0.85Se NPs), which were successfully obtained through a facile ambient aqueous precipitation strategy. Without exhibiting any noticeable toxicity, the as-prepared PAA-Ni0.85Se NPs (average diameter of 6.40 ± 1.89 nm) showed a considerable absorption in near-infrared (NIR) region and high photothermal conversion efficiency (PTCE) of 54...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148603/mcp2-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-promoting-the-migration-and-invasion-of-escc-cells
#3
Jian Zhou, Shutao Zheng, Tao Liu, Qing Liu, Yumei Chen, Doudou Tan, Rong Ma, Xiaomei Lu
MCP2, aliased CCL8, has been suggested to be implicated in the metastasis of cancer cells; however no direct evidence has been established in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In our present study, to investigate the role MCP2 played in the metastasis of ESCC cells; in vitro cell co-culture system was established. Wound-healing and Transwell assays were used to evaluate the migratory and invasive variation of ESCC cells before and after treatment with recombinant human MCP2. It was shown that MCP2 was able to activate the NF-κB signaling pathway inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promoting the migration and invasion of ESCC cells in vitro...
November 17, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147628/trial-watch-adoptively-transferred-cells-for-anticancer-immunotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Carole Fournier, François Martin, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Lionel Apetoh
Immunotherapies aimed at strengthening immune effector responses against malignant cells are growing at exponential rates. Alongside, the impressive benefits obtained by patients with advanced melanoma who received adoptively transferred tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have encouraged the scientific community to pursue adoptive cell transfer (ACT)-based immunotherapy. ACT involves autologous or allogenic effector lymphocytes that are generally obtained from the peripheral blood or resected tumors, expanded and activated ex vivo, and administered to lymphodepleted patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147625/a-transcriptomic-insight-into-the-impacts-of-mast-cells-in-lung-breast-and-colon-cancers
#5
Eun-A Ko, Kenton M Sanders, Tong Zhou
To date, the exact impact of mast cells in tumor microenvironment is still controversial because of inconsistency in observations regarding the relationship between mast cell infiltrates and cancer development and prognosis. The discrepancies in previous studies have motivated us to examine the roles of mast cells in cancer pathology from different perspectives. Here, we investigated the impact of mast cells on transcriptomic profiles in the tissue microenvironment. Mice carrying the W-sh mutation in c-kit (Kit(W-sh) ) are deficient in mast cell production and were used to assess the influence of mast cells on gene expression...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147622/factors-released-by-the-tumor-far-microenvironment-are-decisive-for-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-development-and-progression
#6
REVIEW
Juan L Iovanna, Daniel Closa
The REG3β protein was identified more than 2 decades ago, but its role in PDAC development was only recently reported. In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC), REG3β protein is expressed and released by the far microenvironment, which is situated out of the tumor, at the periphery of the tumor mass, and is part of the healthy peri-tumoral region. This compartment is completely unrelated to the classical microenvironment that corresponds to the intra-tumoral stoma. Clinically relevant, the far microenvironment, and the factors released by it, could be novel and original therapeutic targets for treating patients with a PDAC...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147615/tumor-associated-neutrophils-induce-apoptosis-of-non-activated-cd8-t-cells-in-a-tnf%C3%AE-and-no-dependent-mechanism-promoting-a-tumor-supportive-environment
#7
Janna Michaeli, Merav E Shaul, Inbal Mishalian, Avi-Hai Hovav, Liran Levy, Lidia Zolotriov, Zvi Granot, Zvi G Fridlender
The role of neutrophils in tumor progression has become in recent years a subject of growing interest. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs), which constitute an important portion of the tumor microenvironment, promote immunosuppression in advanced tumors by modulating the proliferation, activation and recruitment of a variety of immune cell types. Studies which investigated the consequences of manipulating TAN polarization suggest that the impact of these neutrophils on tumor progression is considerably mediated by and dependent on the presence of CD8 T-cells...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147611/chloroquine-supplementation-increases-the-cytotoxic-effect-of-curcumin-against-her2-neu-overexpressing-breast-cancer-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-in-nude-mice-while-counteracts-it-in-immune-competent-mice
#8
L Masuelli, M Granato, M Benvenuto, R Mattera, R Bernardini, M Mattei, G d'Amati, G D'Orazi, A Faggioni, R Bei, M Cirone
Autophagy is usually a pro-survival mechanism in cancer cells, especially in the course of chemotherapy, thus autophagy inhibition may enhance the chemotherapy-mediated anti-cancer effect. However, since autophagy is strongly involved in the immunogenicity of cell death by promoting ATP release, its inhibition may reduce the immune response against tumors, negatively influencing the overall outcome of chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effect of curcumin (CUR) against Her2/neu overexpressing breast cancer cells (TUBO) in the presence or in the absence of the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147610/host-immune-response-index-in-gastric-cancer-identified-by-comprehensive-analyses-of-tumor-immunity
#9
Charny Park, Junhun Cho, Jeeyun Lee, So Young Kang, Ji Yeong An, Min Gew Choi, Jun Ho Lee, Tae Sung Sohn, Jae Moon Bae, Sung Kim, Seung Tae Kim, Se Hoon Park, Joon Oh Park, Won Ki Kang, Insuk Sohn, Sin Ho Jung, Myung-Soo Kang, Kyoung-Mee Kim
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated/microsatellite-unstable (MSI) gastric carcinomas (GC) constitute immune-active principal cellular components of tumor microenvironment and contribute to better prognosis. With the remarkable success of cancer immunotherapies, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive understanding of tumor-immune interactions in patients with GC in the context of host immune response. To identify GC subtype-specific immune response gene set, we tested differentially expressed genes for MSI and EBV+ GC subtypes in randomly selected test set (n = 278) in merged ACRG-SMC microarray and TCGA RNA sequencing data set...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147608/the-prognostic-role-of-tumor-infiltrating-t-lymphocytes-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Emma J de Ruiter, Marc L Ooft, Lot A Devriese, Stefan M Willems
Background - The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the tumor microenvironment is associated with an improved prognosis and a better response to therapy in different types of cancer. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated the prognostic value of T cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods - In a systematic review, Pubmed and Embase were searched for publications that investigated the prognostic value of T cells in HNSCC. A meta-analysis was performed including all studies assessing the association between CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and FoxP3+ TILs and overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), or locoregional control (LRC)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147607/immune-signature-profiling-identified-predictive-and-prognostic-factors-for-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#11
Yuan Li, Zhiliang Lu, Yun Che, Jingnan Wang, Shouguo Sun, Jianbing Huang, Shuangshuang Mao, Yuanyuan Lei, Zhaoli Chen, Jie He
Understanding interactions between tumor and the host immune system holds great promise to uncover biomarkers for targeted therapies and clinical outcomes. However, systematical analysis of immune signatures in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains largely unstudied. In this study, immune signatures containing 708 immune related genes were curated from mRNA microarray data with tumor and paired normal tissues from 119 ESCC patients. Differential expression and survival analysis were performed with validations from Human Protein Atlas and an independent cohort of 110 ESCC patients by immunohistochemistry staining...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147605/egfr-mutation-correlates-with-uninflamed-phenotype-and-weak-immunogenicity-causing-impaired-response-to-pd-1-blockade-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
Zhong-Yi Dong, Jia-Tao Zhang, Si-Yang Liu, Jian Su, Chao Zhang, Zhi Xie, Qing Zhou, Hai-Yan Tu, Chong-Rui Xu, Li-Xu Yan, Yu-Fa Li, Wen-Zhao Zhong, Yi-Long Wu
Patients with EGFR mutations showed unfavorable response to programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Yet the underlying association between EGFR mutation and immune resistance remains largely unclear. We performed an integrated analysis of PD-ligand 1(PD-L1)/CD8 expression and mutation profile based on the repository database and resected early-stage NSCLC in Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute (GLCI). Meanwhile, 2 pool-analyses were set to clarify the correlation between EGFR mutation and PD-L1 expression, and the association of EGFR status with response to anti-PD-1/L1 therapy...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147603/age-estrogen-and-immune-response-in-breast-adenocarcinoma-and-adjacent-normal-tissue
#13
David A Quigley, Andliena Tahiri, Torben Lüders, Margit H Riis, Allan Balmain, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Ida Bukholm, Vessela Kristensen
Chronic inflammation promotes breast tumor growth and invasion by accelerating angiogenesis and tissue remodeling in the tumor microenvironment. There is a complex relationship between inflammation and estrogen, which drives the growth of 70 percent of breast tumors. While low levels of estrogen exposure stimulate macrophages and other inflammatory cell populations, very high levels are immune suppressive. Breast tumor incidence is increased by obesity and age, which interact to influence inflammatory cell populations in normal breast tissue...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147602/gdnf-secreted-by-nerves-enhances-pd-l1-expression-via-jak2-stat1-signaling-activation-in-hnscc
#14
Chengzhong Lin, Wei Cao, Zhenhu Ren, Yu Tang, Chunye Zhang, Rong Yang, Yiming Chen, Zheqi Liu, Canbang Peng, Lizhen Wang, Xu Wang, Tong Ji
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) functions as a key immune inhibitory factor by binding with its receptor, programmed death 1 (PD-1), to induce immune cell dysfunction and escape of the immune system. However, the mechanisms of PD-L1 expression under growth factor stimulation are not well characterized. Here, we demonstrate a novel role for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in upregulating PD-L1 expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The expression and correlation of PD-L1, GDNF and perineural invasion (PNI) status were evaluated by bioinformatics analysis of TCGA database and IHC assays from 145 HNSCC patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147073/metformin-suppressed-cxcl8-expression-and-cell-migration-in-hek293-tlr4-cell-line
#15
Zhihui Xiao, Wenjun Wu, Vladimir Poltoratsky
Chronic inflammation is associated with cancer. CXCL8 promotes tumor microenvironment construction through recruiting leukocytes and endothelial progenitor cells that are involved in angiogenesis. It also enhances tumor cell proliferation and migration. Metformin, type II diabetes medication, demonstrates anticancer properties via suppressing inflammation, tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This study intended to address the role of metformin in regulation of CXCL8 expression and cell proliferation and migration...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146617/cure-in-advanced-renal-cell-cancer-is-it-an-achievable-goal
#16
Dhanusha Sabanathan, John J Park, Manuel Marquez, Louise Francisco, Natalie Byrne, Howard Gurney
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has historically been of interest in the management of metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) because of its relative chemoresistance and the reproducible but low incidence of spontaneous remission in metastatic disease. Recently, targeted immunotherapies in the form of checkpoint inhibitors have shown durable responses in approximately 20%-30% of patients with solid tumors, with a much more acceptable side-effect profile. Anti-programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1)/programmed death receptor ligand 1 antibodies rely on the presence of host T cells in the tumor microenvironment to be stimulated in order to activate an antitumor response...
November 16, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145974/immunotherapy-for-triple-negative-breast-cancer-existing-challenges-and-exciting-prospects
#17
Hongyan Jia, Cristina I Truica, Bin Wang, Yanhong Wang, Xingcong Ren, Harold A Harvey, Jianxun Song, Jin-Ming Yang
Patients with breast tumors that do not express the estrogen receptor, the progesterone receptor, nor Her-2/neu are hence termed "triple negatives", and generally have a poor prognosis, with high rates of systemic recurrence and refractoriness to conventional therapy regardless of the choice of adjuvant treatment. Thus, more effective therapeutic options are sorely needed for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which occurs in approximately 20% of diagnosed breast cancers. In recent years, exploiting intrinsic mechanisms of the host immune system to eradicate cancer cells has achieved impressive success, and the advances in immunotherapy have yielded potential new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this devastating subtype of breast cancer...
May 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145972/cancer-immunotherapy-getting-brainy-visualizing-the-distinctive-cns-metastatic-niche-to-illuminate-therapeutic-resistance
#18
Mark Owyong, Niloufar Hosseini-Nassab, Gizem Efe, Alexander Honkala, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Vicki Plaks, Bryan Ronain Smith
The advent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) and its success in treating primary and metastatic cancer may offer substantially improved outcomes for patients. Despite recent advancements, many malignancies remain resistant to CIT, among which are brain metastases, a particularly virulent disease with no apparent cure. The immunologically unique niche of the brain has prompted compelling new questions in immuno-oncology such as the effects of tissue-specific differences in immune response, heterogeneity between primary tumors and distant metastases, and the role of spatiotemporal dynamics in shaping an effective anti-tumor immune response...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145888/tgf-%C3%AE-2-initiates-autophagy-via-smad-and-non-smad-pathway-to-promote-glioma-cells-invasion
#19
Chao Zhang, Xin Zhang, Ran Xu, Bin Huang, An-Jing Chen, Chao Li, Jian Wang, Xin-Gang Li
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by lethal aggressiveness and patients with GBM are in urgent need for new therapeutic avenues to improve quality of life. Current studies on tumor invasion focused on roles of cytokines in tumor microenvironment and numerous evidence suggests that TGF-β2 is abundant in glioma microenvironment and vital for glioma invasion. Autopagy is also emerging as a critical factor in aggressive behaviors of cancer cells; however, the relationship between TGF-β2 and autophagy in glioma has been poorly understood...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145885/future-perspectives-in-melanoma-research-melanoma-bridge-napoli-november-30th-3rd-december-2016
#20
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv S Agarwala, Gennaro Ciliberto, Sandra Demaria, Reinhard Dummer, Connie P M Duong, Soldano Ferrone, Silvia C Formenti, Claus Garbe, Ruth Halaban, Samir Khleif, Jason J Luke, Lluis M Mir, Willem W Overwijk, Michael Postow, Igor Puzanov, Paul Sondel, Janis M Taube, Per Thor Straten, David F Stroncek, Jennifer A Wargo, Hassane Zarour, Magdalena Thurin
Major advances have been made in the treatment of cancer with targeted therapy and immunotherapy; several FDA-approved agents with associated improvement of 1-year survival rates became available for stage IV melanoma patients. Before 2010, the 1-year survival were quite low, at 30%; in 2011, the rise to nearly 50% in the setting of treatment with Ipilimumab, and rise to 70% with BRAF inhibitor monotherapy in 2013 was observed. Even more impressive are 1-year survival rates considering combination strategies with both targeted therapy and immunotherapy, now exceeding 80%...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
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