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Broncho alveolar lavage

Feng Zhou, Ying Zhang, Jing Chen, Xuemei Hu, Yancheng Xu
Liraglutide, an effective drug for the treatment of diabetes, has been proven to demonstrate anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Hence, this study explored the effects and mechanism of action of liraglutide on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Male BALB/c mice were pre-conditioned with liraglutide or saline prior to intraperitoneal LPS or saline administration. Histopathological examination of lung, the wet/dry (W/D)weight ratio, protein content, inflammatory cell numbers and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BAL fluid) were conducted...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
H Vroman, I M Bergen, B W S Li, J A C van Hulst, M Lukkes, D van Uden, R W Hendriks, M Kool
BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to environmental triggers, such as house dust mite (HDM), drives T helper 2 (Th2) cell-mediated asthma. Recent evidence has shown that B-T cell interaction, and in particular germinal center reactions and follicular T helper (Tfh) cells are required for the development of eosinophilic airway inflammation in HDM-driven models containing a sensitization and challenge phase. Whether B-T cell interactions are essential for pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation following chronic allergen provocation remains unknown...
October 15, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Na-Rae Shin, Hyung-Won Ryu, Je-Won Ko, Ji-Won Park, Ok-Kyoung Kwon, Sei-Ryang Oh, Jong-Choon Kim, In-Sik Shin, Kyung-Seop Ahn
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A standardized bark extract of Pinus pinaster Aiton (Pycnogenol(®); PYC) used as an herbal medicine to treat various diseases in Europe and North America. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study evaluates the ability of PYC to inhibit chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-stimulated human airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and in a cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Rabih Halwani, Asma Sultana Shaik, Elaref Ratemi, Sibtain Afzal, Rosan Kenana, Saleh Al-Muhsen, Achraf Al Faraj
Drug resistance and the harmful side effects accompanying the prolonged corticosteroid treatment of chronic pulmonary diseases prompted the development of more specific anti-inflammatory approaches. Several strategies aiming to block IL4Rα, the receptor for a key pro-inflammatory pathway, were investigated. However, their efficiency was limited, mostly due to the systemic or subcutaneous route of administrations. In this paper, we examined the ability of an intranasal treatment with biocompatible nanoparticles targeting IL4Rα to control lung inflammation in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice...
October 7, 2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Hana Čipčić Paljetak, Linda Tomašković, Mario Matijašić, Mirjana Bukvić, Andrea Fajdetić, Donatella Verbanac, Mihaela Perića
5-LOX - 5-lipoxygenase; ACT - artemisinin-based combination therapies; ADME - absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion; BAL - broncho alveolar lavage; CABP - community acquired bacterial pneumonia; cAMP - cyclic adenosine monophosphate; CAP - community-acquired pneumonia; CF - cystic fibrosis, BOS bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome; cGMP - cyclic guanosine monophosphate; COPD - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COX - cyclooxygenase; DPB - diffuse panbronchiolitis; HDACs - histone deacetylases; IBD - inflammatory bowel disease; IL-1p - interleukin 1p; IL-6 - interleukin 6; MIC - minimal inhibitory concentrations; MLSB - macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin B; NSAIDs - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; OVA - ovalbumin; PDE4 - phosphodiesterase 4; PMA - phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; RA - rheumatoid arthritis; RTI - respiratory tract infections; SAHA - suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid; SAR - structure-activity-relationship; Th1 - type 1 helper T-cell; TNBS - trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid; TNF-α - tumour necrosis factor α; UN - United Nations, WHO - World Health Organisation...
September 27, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Martin A Bewley, Kylie B R Belchamber, Kirandeep K Chana, Richard C Budd, Gavin Donaldson, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Christopher E Brightling, Iain Kilty, Louise E Donnelly, Peter J Barnes, Dave Singh, Moira K B Whyte, David H Dockrell
Pulmonary inflammation and bacterial colonization are central to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Defects in macrophage phagocytosis of both bacteria and apoptotic cells contribute to the COPD phenotype. Small molecule inhibitors with anti-inflammatory activity against p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and Rho kinase (ROCK) are being investigated as novel therapeutics in COPD. Concerns exist, however, about off-target effects...
2016: PloS One
K Thiam, E H M Ndiaye, N O Touré, Y Dia Kane, F B R Mbaye, M F Cissé
INTRODUCTION: Bronchoscopy is recommended into the exploration of chronic lung diseases. This one is expensive and invasive. We conducted this study in order to assess the benefit of the bronchoscopy in the etiologic diagnosis of chronic lung diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was retrospective, descriptive and analytical, using medical records of outpatients and in patients who has done the bronchoscopy in Pneumology Clinic, Fann hospital, Dakar from January 2010 to December 2014...
October 2016: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
Hongman Wang, Jiping Zhao, Guansheng Xue, Junfei Wang, Jinxiang Wu, Donghui Wang, Liang Dong
In the present study, the regulatory effect of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) and epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA-78) on pulmonary neutrophil (PMN) accumulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mice, and the therapeutic effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), was investigated. BALB/c mice were divided into control, LPS and PDTC + LPS groups using a random number table. The phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was detected using a western blot, and the mRNA expression levels of CINC were evaluated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Tiny Motlatso Hlokwe, David Sutton, Patrick Page, Anita Luise Michel
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is very uncommon in horses worldwide. CASE PRESENTATION: In the current study, an eight-year-old male Thoroughbred in good body condition was admitted to the Equine Clinic at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital in 2005 due to bilateral epistaxis accompanied by coughing. Routine examinations were conducted to determine the cause of the condition. Endoscopic examination revealed the major source of the epistaxis as the trachea, whereas thoracic radiography indicated the presence of a primary pulmonary mass...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Elly Vandermeulen, Stijn E Verleden, Hannelore Bellon, David Ruttens, Elise Lammertyn, Sandra Claes, Jennifer Vandooren, Estafania Ugarte-Berzal, Dominique Schols, Marie-Paule Emonds, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Ghislain Opdenakker, Geert M Verleden, Robin Vos, Bart M Vanaudenaerde
BACKGROUND: Recently, antibody mediated rejection (AMR) has been associated with a higher incidence of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and mortality after lung transplantation (LTx). We investigated markers related to AMR and matrix remodeling in CLAD, with special attention for its two phenotypes being bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and restrictive CLAD (rCLAD). METHODS: Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgE, IgG1-IgG4, total IgG and IgM) and complement (C4d and C1q) were quantified in lung lavage samples at the moment of BOS (n=15) or RAS (n=16) diagnosis; and were compared to stable transplant patients who served as control (n=14)...
September 2016: Transplant Immunology
Michela Terlizzi, Chiara Colarusso, Ada Popolo, Aldo Pinto, Rosalinda Sorrentino
Macrophages highly populate tumour microenvironment and are referred to as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). The inflammasome is a multiprotein complex responsible of IL-1 like cytokines release, which biology has been widely studied by using bone-marrow-derived macrophages to mimic a physiological and/or host defense condition. To understand the role of this complex in lung tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), we isolated and cultured broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL)-derived cells of lung tumor-bearing mice...
August 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Fatemeh Faraji, Mohammadreza Mahzounieh, Azizollah Ebrahimi, Fatemeh Fallah, Omid Teymournejad, Behnaz Lajevardi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses various virulence factors which contribute to the bacterial invasion and toxicity. Moreover, children suffered from Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and burn wounds are at a high risk of various bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of virulent genes in P. aeruginosa isolated from children with CF and burn wounds and comparing their virulence genes to figure out the role of every virulent factor in the infections. P. aeruginosa were isolated from sputum, oropharyngeal swabs, and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from CF and burn wounds between June 2013 and June 2014 in Tehran's hospitals...
October 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Chathuranga Lakmal Fonseka, Sampath Rukshani Galappaththi, Anuradha Illagatilaka, Dulani Dasanayake, Nirmali Tissera
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is an emerging infectious disease in Sri Lanka. This disease usually develops in a host with an immunocompromised state. Acute pulmonary melioidosis commonly presents as a lobar consolidation with or without pulmonary nodules or abscesses involving the upper lobes of the lungs. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a young healthy female who does not have known risk factors or immunocompromised state, presented with bilateral multiple cavitary lesions involving all three zones of the lungs...
2016: BMC Research Notes
M P Sutunkova, B A Katsnelson, L I Privalova, V B Gurvich, L K Konysheva, V Ya Shur, E V Shishkina, I A Minigalieva, S N Solovjeva, S V Grebenkina, I V Zubarev
The aim of our study was to test a hypothesis according to which the pulmonary clearance vs. retention of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is controlled not only by physiological mechanisms but also by their solubilization which in some cases may even prevail. Airborne Fe2O3 NPs with the mean diameter of 14±4nm produced by sparking from 99.99% pure iron rods were fed into a nose-only exposure tower. Rats were exposed to these NPs for 4h a day, 5days a week during 3, 6 or 10 months at the mean concentration of 1...
July 1, 2016: Toxicology
Q Han, Y Shi, H X Li, W W Tang, H X Liu, D Y Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical-radiologic-pathologic features of bronchitis obliterans that complicated with bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP). METHOD: The clinical manifestations, characteristic imaging and pathology of a case with pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) complicated with bronchitis obliterans and BOOP were summarized and relative articles were reviewed. RESULT: A 10-year-old girl complained of recurrent paroxysmal cough and episodes of wheezing with exercise, productive of yellowish sputum, irregular fever for 1 month presented with lower breath sounds of left lower lobe and localized tubular breath sounds...
July 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Jasmin Schnerch, Antje Prasse, Dimitrios Vlachakis, Katrin L Schuchardt, Dmitri V Pechkovsky, Torsten Goldmann, Karoline I Gaede, Joachim Müller-Quernheim, Gernot Zissel
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease characterized by a Th1-cell dominated alveolitis. As a role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis has been discussed, toll-like receptors (TLR) may be involved in the initiation of a first immune reaction. OBJECTIVES: We analysed expression and functional relevance of several TLRs in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) cells from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. In parallel, we determined the release of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 by BAL cells from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis...
July 8, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Thomas Hofmann, Lan Ma-Hock, Volker Strauss, Silke Treumann, Maria Rey Moreno, Nicole Neubauer, Wendel Wohlleben, Sibylle Gröters, Karin Wiench, Ulrich Veith, Wera Teubner, Bennard van Ravenzwaay, Robert Landsiedel
Diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPP) are a relatively new class of organic high-performance pigments. The present inhalation and particle characterization studies were performed to compare the effects of five DPP-based pigments (coarse and fine Pigment Red 254, coarse and fine meta-chloro DPP isomer and one form of mixed chlorinated DPP isomers) and compare it to coarse and fine inorganic Pigment Red 101. Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 h/day on 5 consecutive days...
August 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
D Jorge, C Strady, B Guy, G Deslée, F Lebargy, S Dury
INTRODUCTION: Toxocariasis is a parasitosis which complicates the accidental infestation of the humans by larvae of a roundworms belonging of the genus Toxocara. In adults, the discovery is often incidental during a hypereosinophilia check-up. Clinical signs are not specific and depend on affected organs. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 53-year-old-woman who has consulted for a recent cough, after spontaneous resolution of abdominal pain. The laboratory examination isolated an hypereosinophilia and the liver sonography showed two hypoechogenic nodules...
August 2016: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
Ashton Barnett-Vanes, Anna Sharrock, Theofano Eftaxiopoulou, Hari Arora, Warren Macdonald, Anthony M J Bull, Sara M Rankin
BACKGROUND: Understanding of the cellular immune response to primary blast lung injury (PBLI) is limited, with only the neutrophil response well documented. Moreover, its impact on the immune response in distal organs remains poorly understood. In this study, a rodent model of isolated primary blast injury was used to investigate the acute cellular immune response to isolated PBLI in the circulation and lung, including the monocyte response, and investigate distal subacute immune effects in the spleen and liver 6 hours after injury...
September 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Pedro Ayala, Manuel Meneses, Pablo Olmos, Rebeca Montalva, Karla Droguett, Mariana Ríos, Gisella Borzone
BACKGROUND: Gastric contents aspiration in humans is a risk factor for severe respiratory failure with elevated mortality. Although aspiration-induced local lung inflammation has been studied in animal models, little is known about extrapulmonary effects of aspiration. We investigated whether a single orotracheal instillation of whole gastric fluid elicits a liver acute phase response and if this response contributes to enrich the alveolar spaces with proteins having antiprotease activity...
2016: Respiratory Research
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