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Broncho alveolar lavage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615167/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-evaluation-of-pathogen-burden-and-drug-resistance-trends-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#1
Muhammad Saeed, Farhan Rasheed, Raja Kamran Afzal, Shahida Hussain, Saba Riaz, Adeel Ahmad
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathogen burden and antibiotic-resistance trends of Pseudomonas aeruginosa among hospitalised patients at a tertiary care hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, hospital record-based, cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Microbiology Laboratory, Allama Iqbal Medical College/Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from January 2014 to December 2016. METHODOLOGY: A total of 5,960 samples were collected from clinically suspected cases of bacterial infections, admitted to the hospital...
April 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599327/detection-of-egfr-gene-mutation-by-mutation-oriented-lamp-method
#2
Naoyuki Matsumoto, Akira Kumasaka, Tomohiro Ando, Kazuo Komiyama
BACKGROUND/AIM: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a target of molecular therapeutics for non-small cell lung cancer. EGFR gene mutations at codons 746-753 promote constitutive EGFR activation and result in worst prognosis. However, these mutations augment the therapeutic effect of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Therefore, the detection of EGFR gene mutations is important for determining treatment planning. The aim of the study was to establish a method to detect EGFR gene mutations at codons 746-753...
April 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595092/comparative-safety-evaluation-of-riot-control-agents-of-synthetic-and-natural-origin
#3
Ravindra M Satpute, Pramod K Kushwaha, D P Nagar, P V L Rao
Riot control agents (RCA) are lachrymatory, irritating compounds which temporarily incapacitate the uncontainable crowd. Ortho-Chlorobenzylidene-malononitrile (CS), 2-chloroacetophenone (CN), dibenz[b,f]1:4-oxazepine (CR), and nonivamide (PAVA) are synthetic RCAs, while oleoresin extract of chili known as oleoresin capsicum (OC) a natural irritant has been in use by various law enforcement agencies. Though efficacy of these agents is beyond doubt, they suffer from certain drawbacks including toxicity, production cost, and ecological compatibility...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578347/a-novel-orally-available-asthma-drug-candidate-that-reduces-smooth-muscle-constriction-and-inflammation-by-targeting-gaba-a-receptors-in-the-lung
#4
Gloria S Forkuo, Amanda N Nieman, Revathi Kodali, Nicolas M Zahn, Guanguan Li, Shadiqur Rashid Roni, Michael Rajesh Stephen, Ted William Harris, Rajwana Jahan, Margaret L Guthrie, Olivia B Yu, Janet L Fisher, Gene T Yocum, Charles W Emala, Douglas A Steeber, Douglas C Stafford, James M Cook, Leggy A Arnold
We describe lead compound MIDD0301 for the oral treatment of asthma based on previously developed positive allosteric α5β3γ2 selective GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) modulators. MIDD0301 relaxed airway smooth muscle at single micromolar concentrations as demonstrated with ex vivo guinea pig tracheal rings. MIDD0301 also attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in an ovalbumin murine model of asthma by oral administration. Reduced numbers of eosinophils and macrophages were observed in mouse broncho-alveolar lavage fluid without changing mucous metaplasia...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562615/distinct-properties-of-human-m-csf-and-gm-csf-monocyte-derived-macrophages-to-simulate-pathological-lung-conditions-in-vitro-application-to-systemic-and-inflammatory-disorders-with-pulmonary-involvement
#5
Alain Lescoat, Alice Ballerie, Yu Augagneur, Claudie Morzadec, Laurent Vernhet, Olivier Fardel, Patrick Jégo, Stéphane Jouneau, Valérie Lecureur
Macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases. However, alveolar macrophages (AM) are poorly available in humans to perform in vitro studies due to a limited access to broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL). In this study, to identify the best alternative in vitro model for human AM, we compared the phenotype of AM obtained from BAL of patients suffering from three lung diseases (lung cancers, sarcoidosis and Systemic Sclerosis (SSc)-associated interstitial lung disease) to human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) differentiated with M-CSF or GM-CSF...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550861/respiratory-hazard-of-li-ion-battery-components-elective-toxicity-of-lithium-cobalt-oxide-licoo-2-particles-in-a-mouse-bioassay
#6
Violaine Sironval, Laurence Reylandt, Perrine Chaurand, Saloua Ibouraadaten, Mihaly Palmai-Pallag, Yousof Yakoub, Bernard Ucakar, Jérôme Rose, Claude Poleunis, Rita Vanbever, Etienne Marbaix, Dominique Lison, Sybille van den Brule
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LIB) are increasingly produced and used worldwide. LIB electrodes are made of micrometric and low solubility particles, consisting of toxicologically relevant elements. The health hazard of these materials is not known. Here, we investigated the respiratory hazard of three leading LIB components (LiFePO4 or LFP, Li4 Ti5 O12 or LTO, and LiCoO2 or LCO) and their mechanisms of action. Particles were characterized physico-chemically and elemental bioaccessibility was documented. Lung inflammation and fibrotic responses, as well as particle persistence and ion bioavailability, were assessed in mice after aspiration of LIB particles (0...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496577/effects-of-indole-alkaloids-from-leaf-of-alstonia-scholaris-on-post-infectious-cough-in-mice
#7
Yun-Li Zhao, Zi-Feng Yang, Jian-Hua Shang, Wan-Yi Huang, Bei Wang, Xin Wei, Afsar Khan, Zhi-Wei Yuan, Ya-Ping Liu, Yi-Fen Wang, Xin-Hua Wang, Xiao-Dong Luo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaf of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. (Apocynaceae), a wide used ethic-medicine in many Asia and Africa counties, has also been recorded as the common traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of illnesses in respiratory system by Dai people. AIM OF THE STUDY: To provide experimental data of clinical adaption of total indole alkaloids (TA) from leaf of A. scholaris for treating post-infectious cough in phase II clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To model post-infectious cough, all animals except control group were instilled intra-tracheal with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (80μg/50μL/mouse), followed by subsequent exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) for 30min per day for a total of 30 days...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471299/the-effect-of-allium-cepa-extract-on-lung-oxidant-antioxidant-and-immunological-biomarkers-in-ovalbumin-sensitized-rats
#8
Narges Marefati, Naeima Eftekhar, Mahsa Kaveh, Javad Boskabadi, Farimah Beheshti, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of Allium cepa (A. cepa) on levels of oxidants, antioxidants and immunological markers in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluids in sensitized rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oxidant-antioxidant markers and cytokines in BALF of control rats treated with saline (group C), ovalbumin-sensitized rats (group S), rats treated with 1.25 μg/ mL dexamethasone and three doses (35, 70 and 140 mg/kg/day) of A. cepa extract (S+AC) were investigated...
February 22, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471112/evaluation-of-two-commercial-real-time-pcr-kits-a-fumigatus-%C3%A2-bio-evolution-and-mycogenie-%C3%A2-a-fumigatus-for-aspergillus-dna-detection-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-in-patients-with-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#9
Julie Denis, Faezeh Forouzanfar, Raoul Herbrecht, Elise Toussaint, Romain Kessler, Marcela Sabou, Ermanno Candolfi, Valérie Letsher-Bru
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a common complication of immunosuppression. Rapid diagnosis using molecular techniques is essential to improve patient survival. PCR techniques are promising in enhancing Aspergillus detection in blood and respiratory samples. Here, we evaluate for the first time the performances of two commercial Real-Time PCR kits, the A. fumigatus® Bio-Evolution and the MycoGENIE® A. fumigatus for the detection of A. fumigatus DNA in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) from patients with and without IPA...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449421/increased-t-helper-17-1-cells-in-sarcoidosis-mediastinal-lymph-nodes
#10
Caroline E Broos, Laura L Koth, Menno van Nimwegen, Johannes C C M In't Veen, Sandra M J Paulissen, Jan Piet van Hamburg, Jouke T Annema, Roxane Heller-Baan, Alex Kleinjan, Henk C Hoogsteden, Marlies S Wijsenbeek, Rudi W Hendriks, Bernt van den Blink, Mirjam Kool
Objective: The lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) are currently widely used to diagnose sarcoidosis. We previously reported that T helper 17.1 (Th17.1) cells are responsible for the exaggerated IFN-γ production in sarcoidosis lungs. In this study, we aimed to investigate (i) whether Th17.1 cells are also increased in the MLN of sarcoidosis patients, and (ii) whether frequencies of the Th17.1 cells at diagnosis may correlate with disease progression. Methods: MLN cells from treatment-naive pulmonary sarcoidosis patients (n=17) and healthy controls (n=22) and peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells (n=34) and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (n=36) from sarcoidosis patients were examined for CD4 + T cell subset proportions, using flow cytometry...
February 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405435/immediate-post-operative-broncho-alveolar-lavage-il-6-and-il-8-are-associated-with-early-outcomes-after-lung-transplantation
#11
Stijn E Verleden, An Martens, Sofie Ordies, Arne P Neyrinck, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Geert M Verleden, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Robin Vos
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies demonstrated that increased cytokine and chemokine levels, either shortly before or after lung transplantation, were associated with post-transplant outcome. However, small patient cohorts were mostly used, focusing on 1 molecule and 1 outcome. In a large single-center cohort, we investigated the predictive value of immediate post-operative broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) expression of IL-6 and IL-8 on multiple key outcomes, including PGD, CLAD, graft survival, as well as several secondary outcomes...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395568/-pulmonary-granuloma-in-an-immunodepressed-patient
#12
F Gadby, L Quaesaet, C Eveilleau, A Payet-Charneau, F Couturaud, C Tromeur
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary alveolar echinococcosis is a rare but potentially severe condition. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 50-year-old woman suffering from pulmonary alveolar echinococcosis who had had a renal transplant for polycystic liver and kidney disease. A lung opacity was identified radiologically in May 2013. Both broncho-alveolar lavage and bronchial biopsy were uninformative. In January 2014, a follow up CT-scan showed the opacity to be enlarging...
January 27, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379004/pneumomediastinum-and-pneumothorax-associated-with-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-pneumonia
#13
Fermín López-Rivera, Xavier Colón Rivera, Hernán A González Monroig, Juan Garcia Puebla
BACKGROUND Pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death from infectious disease in the United States (US). Although most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are secondary to bacterial infection, up to one-third of cases are secondary to viral infection, most commonly due to rhinovirus and influenza virus. Pneumonia due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is rare, and there is limited knowledge of the pathogenesis and clinical complications. This report is of a fatal case of HSV pneumonia associated with bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368146/irritant-induced-asthma-to-hypochlorite-in-mice-due-to-impairment-of-the-airway-barrier
#14
Sofie Van Den Broucke, Lore Pollaris, Greetje Vande Velde, Erik Verbeken, Benoit Nemery, Jeroen Vanoirbeek, Peter Hoet
Inhalation of commonly present irritants, such as chlorine and chlorine derivatives, can cause adverse respiratory effects, including irritant-induced asthma (IIA). We hypothesize that due to airway barrier impairment, exposure to hypochlorite (ClO-) can result in airway hypersensitivity. C57Bl/6 mice received an intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of the airway damaging agent naphthalene (NA, 200 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle (mineral oil, MO). In vivo micro-computed tomography (CT) images of the lungs were acquired before and at regular time points after the i...
January 24, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350567/pretreatment-of-ferulic-acid-attenuates-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-rat-model-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#15
Sheng Zhang, Pengyu Wang, Pengxin Zhao, Dong Wang, Yanwei Zhang, Junhui Wang, Lixia Chen, Wenping Guo, Hui Gao, Yalou Jiao
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a fatal clinical condition that can be caused by pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases. Oxidative stress and inflammation play key roles in the development of ARDS. In this study, we investigated whether ferulic acid (FA), an anti-oxidant, was beneficial for prophylaxis of ARDS. We established an ARDS rat model using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Lung injury was assessed by lung wet/dry ratio and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to evaluate the histological changes of the lungs...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318623/subcutaneous-immunotherapy-with-purified-der-p1-and-2-suppresses-type-2-immunity-in-a-murine-asthma-model
#16
L Hesse, N van Ieperen, C Habraken, A H Petersen, S Korn, T Smilda, B Goedewaagen, M H Ruiters, A C van der Graaf, M C Nawijn
BACKGROUND: Allergen-specific immunotherapy can induce long-term suppression of allergic symptoms, reduce medication use, and prevent exacerbations of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Current treatment is based on crude allergen extracts, which contain immunostimulatory components such as β-glucans, chitins, and endotoxin. Use of purified or recombinant allergens might therefore increase efficacy of treatment. AIMS: Here, we test application of purified natural group 1 and 2 allergens from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) for subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) treatment in a house dust mite (HDM)-driven mouse model of allergic asthma...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311084/intrapulmonary-pharmacokinetics-of-relebactam-a-novel-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-dosed-in-combination-with-imipenem-cilastatin-in-healthy-subjects
#17
Matthew L Rizk, Elizabeth G Rhee, Patricia A Jumes, Mark H Gotfried, Tian Zhao, Eric Mangin, Sheng Bi, Cynthia M Chavez-Eng, Zufei Zhang, Joan R Butterton
This phase I study assessed the intrapulmonary pharmacokinetic profiles of relebactam (MK-7655), a novel β-lactamase inhibitor, and imipenem. Sixteen healthy subjects received 250 mg relebactam with 500 mg imipenem-cilastatin, given intravenously every 6 h for 5 doses, and were randomized to bronchoscopy/bronchoalveolar lavage at 0.5, 1, 1.5, or 3 h after the last dose (4 subjects per time point). Both drugs penetrated the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) to a similar degree, with the profiles being similar in shape to the corresponding plasma profiles and with the apparent terminal half-lives in plasma and ELF being 1...
March 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286940/sustained-lung-inflation-at-birth-for-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-respiratory-distress-syndrome-the-proper-pressure-and-duration
#18
N Abd El-Fattah, N Nasef, M F Al-Harrass, Mohammed Khashaba
BACKGROUND: Variations exist among the administered pressure and duration of sustained lung inflation (SLI) in the delivery room (DR). We aimed to evaluate the appropriate pressure and duration needed for SLI in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: We prospectively randomized 100 preterm (<32 weeks) infants to receive either conventional therapy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at 5 cm H2O, or four groups of CPAP plus a single maneuver of SLI at four regimens based on administered pressures and durations; P20D20 (Pressure of 20 cm H2O for a duration of 20 seconds), P20D10 (20 cm H2O for 10 seconds), P15D20 (15 cm H2O for 20 seconds), and P15D10 (15 cm H2O for 10 seconds) using a T-piece ventilator...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284419/serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-17-chinese-cities-from-2011-to-2016
#19
Chunjiang Zhao, Zongbo Li, Feifei Zhang, Xiaobing Zhang, Ping Ji, Ji Zeng, Bijie Hu, Zhidong Hu, Kang Liao, Hongli Sun, Rong Zhang, Bin Cao, Chao Zhuo, Wei Jia, Yaning Mei, Yunzhuo Chu, Xuesong Xu, Qing Yang, Yan Jin, Quan Fu, Xiuli Xu, Hongling Li, Lijun Wang, Yuxing Ni, Hongjie Liang, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading pathogen of bacterial infections in infants and the elderly, is responsible for pneumococcal diseases with severe morbidity and mortality. Emergence of drug-resistant strains presented new challenges for treatment and prevention. Vaccination has proven to be an effective means of preventing pneumococcal infection worldwide. Detailed epidemiological information of antibiotic susceptibilities and serotype distribution will be of great help to the management of pneumococcal infections...
December 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281663/circulating-and-broncho-alveolar-interleukin-6-in-relation-to-body-temperature-in-an-experimental-model-of-bovine-chlamydia-psittaci-infection
#20
Annette Prohl, Carola H Ostermann, Christoph D Rummel, Joachim Roth, Petra Reinhold
In rodent models of experimentally induced fever, the important role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a circulating endogenous pyrogen is well established. Studies employing larger animal species and real infections are scarce. Therefore, we assessed bioactive IL-6 in peripheral blood and in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of calves after intra-bronchial inoculation with vital Chlamydia psittaci (Cp), with inactivated Cp, or with BGM cells. Only calves inoculated with vital Cp developed fever (peak at 2-3 days after challenge) and significantly increased IL-6 activity...
2017: PloS One
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