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Broncho alveolar lavage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877714/culture-independent-analysis-of-pediatric-broncho-alveolar-lavage-bal-specimens
#1
Philip Zachariah, Chanelle Ryan, Sruti Nadimpalli, Gina Coscia, Michelle Kolb, Hannah Smith, Marc Foca, Lisa Saiman, Paul J Planet
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of culture-independent testing of pediatric bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens is unknown. Additionally, the variability of the pediatric pulmonary microbiome with patient characteristics is not well understood. METHODS: Study subjects were ≤22 years old and underwent BAL from May 2013 - July 2015 as part of clinical care. DNA extracted from BAL specimens was used for 16S rRNA gene-based (16S-based) microbiome analysis, and results compared to routine cultures from the same samples...
June 7, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863671/bronchoalveolar-lavage-exosomes-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-septic-lung-injury
#2
Zhihong Yuan, Brahmchetna Bedi, Ruxana T Sadikot
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represent a heterogeneous group of lung diseases which continues to have a high morbidity and mortality. The molecular pathogenesis of ALI is being better defined; however, because of the complex nature of the disease molecular therapies have yet to be developed. Here we use a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced mouse model of acute septic lung injury to delineate the role of exosomes in the inflammatory response. Using this model, we were able to show that mice that are exposed to intraperitoneal LPS secrete exosomes in Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from the lungs that are packaged with miRNA and cytokines which regulate inflammatory response...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808974/inflammation-and-primary-graft-dysfunction-after-lung-transplantation-ct-pet-findings
#3
Miriam Gotti, Davide Chiumello, Massimo Cressoni, Mariateresa Guanziroli, Matteo Brioni, Bijan Safaee Fakhr, Chiara Chiurazzi, Andrea Colombo, Dario Massari, Ilaria Algieri, Caterina Lonati, Paolo Cadringher, Paolo Taccone, Marta Pizzocri, Jacopo Fumagalli, Lorenzo Rosso, Alessandro Palleschi, Riccardo Benti, Felicia Zito, Franco Valenza, Luciano Gattinoni
BACKGROUND: The leading cause of early mortality after lung transplantation is Primary Graft Dysfunction (PGD). We assessed the lung inflammation, inflation status and inhomogeneities after lung transplantation. Our purpose was to investigate the possible differences between patients who did or did not develop PGD. METHODS: We designed a prospective observational study enrolling patients who underwent a (CT-PET) study within 1 week after lung transplantation. Twenty-four patients (10 after double- and 14 after single-lung) were enrolled...
May 28, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801490/sequential-broncho-alveolar-lavages-reflect-distinct-pulmonary-compartments-clinical-and-research-implications-in-lung-transplantation
#4
Liran Levy, Stephen C Juvet, Kristen Boonstra, Lianne G Singer, Sassan Azad, Betty Joe, Marcelo Cypel, Shaf Keshavjee, Tereza Martinu
BACKGROUND: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has proven to be very useful to monitor the lung allograft after transplantation. In addition to allowing detection of infections, multiple BAL analytes have been proposed as potential biomarkers of lung allograft rejection or dysfunction. However, BAL collection is not well standardized and differences in BAL collection represent an important source of variation. We hypothesized that there are systematic differences between sequential BALs that are relevant to BAL analysis...
May 25, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789133/eosinophilic-pneumonia-induced-by-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-an-underestimated-risk
#5
François Krabansky, Brahim Azzouz, Josette Biya, Malak Abou Taam, Aurore Morel, Thierry Trenque
INTRODUCTION: Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a rare but serious adverse drug reaction (ADR) induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). METHODS: We describe the second published case of EP induced by oral diclofenac. We also reviewed the literature as well as French pharmacovigilance database. Case presentation A 63 year-old woman with polyarthralgia had taken diclofenac for three days for analgesic purposes. Progressively, the patient presented weakness, dyspnea and fever...
April 28, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785214/etiological-trends-and-patterns-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-respiratory-infections
#6
Salma M Al-Zain Ahmed, Sara S Abdelrahman, Doua M Saad, Isra S Osman, Modasir G Osman, Eltahir A G Khalil
Background: Respiratory infections are one of the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases worldwide. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a major global health problem which is well established in developing countries. Good clinical suspicion and correct laboratory identification of respiratory infection causing organisms followed by the appropriate management are needed to compact both community-acquired and nosocomial infection respiratory infections...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782549/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-2-facilitates-pulmonary-fibrosis-through-potentiating-il-13-pathway-in-macrophages
#7
Juanjuan Zhao, Yasuo Okamoto, Yuya Asano, Kazuhiro Ishimaru, Sho Aki, Kazuaki Yoshioka, Noriko Takuwa, Takashi Wada, Yutaka Inagaki, Chiaki Takahashi, Takumi Nishiuchi, Yoh Takuwa
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating disease with poor prognosis. The pathogenic role of the lysophospholipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate and its receptor S1PR2 in lung fibrosis is unknown. We show here that genetic deletion of S1pr2 strikingly attenuated lung fibrosis induced by repeated injections of bleomycin in mice. We observed by using S1pr2LacZ/+ mice that S1PR2 was expressed in alveolar macrophages, vascular endothelial cells and alveolar epithelial cells in the lung and that S1PR2-expressing cells accumulated in the fibrotic legions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777877/multi-walled-carbon-nanotubeinduced-inhalation-toxicity-recognizing-nano-bis-demethoxy-curcumin-analog-as-an-ameliorating-candidate
#8
Arul Prakash Francis, Thiyagarajan Devasena, Selvam Ganapathy, Venkata Rajsekhar Palla, Prakhya Balakrishna Murthy, Sundara Ramaprabhu
Human beings and ecosystems are being possibly exposed to CNTs, as there is a rise in global production rate of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This may affect the health of humans and increases the environmental risk. We have already reported the pulmonary toxicity due to the inhalation of MWCNTs. We claim that a compound with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity may ameliorate the CNT-induced toxic effect. With this view, we have investigated the ameliorative effect of intravenously-administered nano bis-demethoxy curcumin analog (NBDMCA) against MWCNTs-induced inhalation toxicity by examining the lung histopathology for inflammatory cell dynamics, pulmonary remodeling and estimating the inflammatory biomarkers in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid...
May 16, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762870/t-cells-and-ilc2s-are-major-effector-cells-in-influenza-induced-exacerbation-of-allergic-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#9
Bobby W S Li, Marjolein J W de Bruijn, Melanie Lukkes, Menno van Nimwegen, Ingrid M Bergen, Alex KleinJan, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel, Arno Andeweg, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Rudi W Hendriks
Influenza virus infection is an important cause of severe asthma exacerbations, but it remains unclear how a Th1-mediated antiviral response triggers a prototypical Th2 disease. We investigated CD4+ T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in influenza virus-infected mice. We found that ILC2s accumulated in the lung rapidly after influenza virus infection, but the induction of IL-5 and IL-13 secretion was delayed and concomitant with T cell activation. In an influenza-induced exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation model we noticed an initial reduction of ILC2 numbers and cytokine production in broncho-alveolar lavage compared to chronic house dust mite (HDM)-mediated airway inflammation alone...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752757/subcutaneous-immunotherapy-suppresses-th2-inflammation-and-induces-neutralizing-antibodies-but-sublingual-immunotherapy-suppresses-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-grass-pollen-mouse-models-for-allergic-asthma
#10
Laura Hesse, Uilke Brouwer, Arjen H Petersen, Renée Gras, Lisette Bosman, Jens Brimnes, Joanne N G Oude Elberink, Antoon J M van Oosterhout, Martijn C Nawijn
BACKGROUND: Both subcutaneous and sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SCIT and SLIT) have been shown to effectively suppress allergic manifestations upon allergen exposure, providing long term relief from symptoms in allergic disorders including allergic asthma. Clinical studies directly comparing SCIT and SLIT report a different kinetics and magnitude of immunological changes induced during treatment. Comparative studies into the mechanisms underlying immune suppression in SCIT and SLIT are lacking...
May 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740451/therapeutic-administration-of-broadly-neutralizing-fi6-antibody-reveals-lack-of-interaction-between-human-igg1-and-pig-fc-receptors
#11
Sophie B Morgan, Barbara Holzer, Johanneke D Hemmink, Francisco J Salguero, John C Schwartz, Gloria Agatic, Elisabetta Cameroni, Barbara Guarino, Emily Porter, Pramila Rijal, Alain Townsend, Bryan Charleston, Davide Corti, Elma Tchilian
Influenza virus infection is a significant global health threat. Because of the lack of cross-protective universal vaccines, short time window during which antivirals are effective and drug resistance, new therapeutic anti-influenza strategies are required. Broadly, cross-protective antibodies that target conserved sites in the hemagglutinin (HA) stem region have been proposed as therapeutic agents. FI6 is the first proven such monoclonal antibody to bind to H1-H16 and is protective in mice and ferrets. Multiple studies have shown that Fc-dependent mechanisms are essential for FI6 in vivo efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669956/nosocomial-pneumonia-search-for-an-empiric-and-effective-antibiotic-regimen-in-high-burden-tertiary-care-centre
#12
Nitin Gupta, Manish Soneja, Yogiraj Ray, Monalisa Sahu, Kutty Sharada Vinod, Arti Kapil, Ashutosh Biswas, Naveet Wig, Rita Sood
The clinical practice guidelines on nosocomial pneumonia recommends an empirical regimen that would work in 95% of the patients based on the local antibiogram. The aim of the study was development of an antibiogram for guiding empiric therapy in settings with high prevalence of multi-drug resistant organisms. A retrospective review of electronic health records (e-hospital portal) was done to analyze all respiratory isolates from patients admitted in medical wards and intensive care unit between May 2016 and May 2017...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615167/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-evaluation-of-pathogen-burden-and-drug-resistance-trends-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#13
Muhammad Saeed, Farhan Rasheed, Raja Kamran Afzal, Shahida Hussain, Saba Riaz, Adeel Ahmad
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathogen burden and antibiotic-resistance trends of Pseudomonas aeruginosa among hospitalised patients at a tertiary care hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, hospital record-based, cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Microbiology Laboratory, Allama Iqbal Medical College/Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from January 2014 to December 2016. METHODOLOGY: A total of 5,960 samples were collected from clinically suspected cases of bacterial infections, admitted to the hospital...
April 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599327/detection-of-egfr-gene-mutation-by-mutation-oriented-lamp-method
#14
Naoyuki Matsumoto, Akira Kumasaka, Tomohiro Ando, Kazuo Komiyama
BACKGROUND/AIM: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a target of molecular therapeutics for non-small cell lung cancer. EGFR gene mutations at codons 746-753 promote constitutive EGFR activation and result in worst prognosis. However, these mutations augment the therapeutic effect of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Therefore, the detection of EGFR gene mutations is important for determining treatment planning. The aim of the study was to establish a method to detect EGFR gene mutations at codons 746-753...
April 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595092/comparative-safety-evaluation-of-riot-control-agents-of-synthetic-and-natural-origin
#15
Ravindra M Satpute, Pramod K Kushwaha, D P Nagar, P V L Rao
Riot control agents (RCA) are lachrymatory, irritating compounds which temporarily incapacitate the uncontainable crowd. Ortho-Chlorobenzylidene-malononitrile (CS), 2-chloroacetophenone (CN), dibenz[b,f]1:4-oxazepine (CR), and nonivamide (PAVA) are synthetic RCAs, while oleoresin extract of chili known as oleoresin capsicum (OC) a natural irritant has been in use by various law enforcement agencies. Though efficacy of these agents is beyond doubt, they suffer from certain drawbacks including toxicity, production cost, and ecological compatibility...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578347/a-novel-orally-available-asthma-drug-candidate-that-reduces-smooth-muscle-constriction-and-inflammation-by-targeting-gaba-a-receptors-in-the-lung
#16
Gloria S Forkuo, Amanda N Nieman, Revathi Kodali, Nicolas M Zahn, Guanguan Li, M S Rashid Roni, Michael Rajesh Stephen, Ted W Harris, Rajwana Jahan, Margaret L Guthrie, Olivia B Yu, Janet L Fisher, Gene T Yocum, Charles W Emala, Douglas A Steeber, Douglas C Stafford, James M Cook, Leggy A Arnold
We describe lead compound MIDD0301 for the oral treatment of asthma based on previously developed positive allosteric α5 β3 γ2 selective GABAA receptor (GABAA R) ligands. MIDD0301 relaxed airway smooth muscle at single micromolar concentrations as demonstrated with ex vivo guinea pig tracheal rings. MIDD0301 also attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in an ovalbumin murine model of asthma by oral administration. Reduced numbers of eosinophils and macrophages were observed in mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid without changing mucous metaplasia...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562615/distinct-properties-of-human-m-csf-and-gm-csf-monocyte-derived-macrophages-to-simulate-pathological-lung-conditions-in-vitro-application-to-systemic-and-inflammatory-disorders-with-pulmonary-involvement
#17
Alain Lescoat, Alice Ballerie, Yu Augagneur, Claudie Morzadec, Laurent Vernhet, Olivier Fardel, Patrick Jégo, Stéphane Jouneau, Valérie Lecureur
Macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases. However, alveolar macrophages (AM) are poorly available in humans to perform in vitro studies due to a limited access to broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL). In this study, to identify the best alternative in vitro model for human AM, we compared the phenotype of AM obtained from BAL of patients suffering from three lung diseases (lung cancers, sarcoidosis and Systemic Sclerosis (SSc)-associated interstitial lung disease) to human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) differentiated with M-CSF or GM-CSF...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550861/respiratory-hazard-of-li-ion-battery-components-elective-toxicity-of-lithium-cobalt-oxide-licoo-2-particles-in-a-mouse-bioassay
#18
Violaine Sironval, Laurence Reylandt, Perrine Chaurand, Saloua Ibouraadaten, Mihaly Palmai-Pallag, Yousof Yakoub, Bernard Ucakar, Jérôme Rose, Claude Poleunis, Rita Vanbever, Etienne Marbaix, Dominique Lison, Sybille van den Brule
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LIB) are increasingly produced and used worldwide. LIB electrodes are made of micrometric and low solubility particles, consisting of toxicologically relevant elements. The health hazard of these materials is not known. Here, we investigated the respiratory hazard of three leading LIB components (LiFePO4 or LFP, Li4 Ti5 O12 or LTO, and LiCoO2 or LCO) and their mechanisms of action. Particles were characterized physico-chemically and elemental bioaccessibility was documented. Lung inflammation and fibrotic responses, as well as particle persistence and ion bioavailability, were assessed in mice after aspiration of LIB particles (0...
May 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496577/effects-of-indole-alkaloids-from-leaf-of-alstonia-scholaris-on-post-infectious-cough-in-mice
#19
Yun-Li Zhao, Zi-Feng Yang, Jian-Hua Shang, Wan-Yi Huang, Bei Wang, Xin Wei, Afsar Khan, Zhi-Wei Yuan, Ya-Ping Liu, Yi-Fen Wang, Xin-Hua Wang, Xiao-Dong Luo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaf of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. (Apocynaceae), a wide used ethic-medicine in many Asia and Africa counties, has also been recorded as the common traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of illnesses in respiratory system by Dai people. AIM OF THE STUDY: To provide experimental data of clinical adaption of total indole alkaloids (TA) from leaf of A. scholaris for treating post-infectious cough in phase II clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To model post-infectious cough, all animals except control group were instilled intra-tracheal with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (80 μg/50 µL/mouse), followed by subsequent exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) for 30 min per day for a total of 30 days...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471299/the-effect-of-allium-cepa-extract-on-lung-oxidant-antioxidant-and-immunological-biomarkers-in-ovalbumin-sensitized-rats
#20
N Marefati, N Eftekhar, M Kaveh, J Boskabadi, F Beheshti, M H Boskabady
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of Allium cepa (A. cepa) on levels of oxidants, antioxidants, and immunological markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) of sensitized rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oxidant/antioxidant markers and cytokines in BALF of control rats treated with saline (group C), ovalbumin-sensitized rats (group S), rats treated with 1.25 μg/mL dexamethasone and 3 doses of A. cepa extract (35, 70, and 140 mg/kg body weight [BW]/day) (S + AC) were investigated...
2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
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