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Broncho alveolar lavage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955044/cell-penetrating-peptide-derived-from-human-eosinophil-cationic-protein-decreases-airway-allergic-inflammation
#1
Lin-Shien Fu, Yu-Rou Wu, Shun-Lung Fang, Jaw-Ji Tsai, Heng-Kuei Lin, Yee-Jun Chen, Ting-Yu Chen, Margaret Dah-Tsyr Chang
Cell penetrating peptide derived from human eosinophil cationic protein (CPPecp) is a 10-amino-acid peptide containing a core heparan sulfate (HS)-binding motif of human eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). It binds and penetrates bronchial epithelial cells without cytotoxic effects. Here we investigated airway-protective effects of CPPecp in BEAS-2B cell line and mite-induced airway allergic inflammation in BALB/c mice. In BEAS-2B cell, CPPecp decreases ECP-induced eotaxin mRNA expression. CPPecp also decreases eotaxin secretion and p-STAT6 activation induced by ECP, as well as by IL-4...
September 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930150/detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-from-broncho-alveolar-lavage-by-next-generation-sequencing
#2
Stefano Leo, Nadia Gaïa, Etienne Ruppé, Stephane Emonet, Myriam Girard, Vladimir Lazarevic, Jacques Schrenzel
The applications of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing (WMGS) in routine clinical analysis are still limited. A combination of a DNA extraction procedure, sequencing, and bioinformatics tools is essential for the removal of human DNA and for improving bacterial species identification in a timely manner. We tackled these issues with a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) sample from an immunocompromised patient who had developed severe chronic pneumonia. We extracted DNA from the BAL sample with protocols based either on sequential lysis of human and bacterial cells or on the mechanical disruption of all cells...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925985/differential-effects-of-surface-functionalized-zirconium-oxide-nanoparticles-on-alveolar-macrophages-rat-lung-and-a-mouse-allergy-model
#3
Antje Vennemann, Francesca Alessandrini, Martin Wiemann
Nanoparticles (NPs) may affect the lung via their chemical composition on the surface. Here, we compared the bioactivity of zirconium oxide (ZrO₂) NPs coated with either aminopropilsilane (APTS), tetraoxidecanoic acid (TODS), polyethyleneglycol (PGA), or acrylic acid (Acryl). Supernatants from NPs-treated cultured alveolar macrophages (NR8383) tested for lactate dehydrogenase, glucuronidase, tumor necrosis factor α, and H₂O₂ formation revealed dose-dependent effects, with only gradual differences among particles whose gravitational settling and cellular uptake were similar...
September 19, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882955/differential-expression-of-aquaporins-in-experimental-models-of-acute-lung-injury
#4
Alice G Vassiliou, Nikolaos Manitsopoulos, Matina Kardara, Nikolaos A Maniatis, Stylianos E Orfanos, Anastasia Kotanidou
AIM: The mammalian lung expresses at least three aquaporin (AQP) water channels whose precise role in lung injury or inflammation is still controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three murine models of lung inflammation and corresponding controls were used to evaluate the expression of Aqp1, Aqp4, Aqp5 and Aqp9: lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury; HCl-induced lung injury; and ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI). RESULTS: All models yielded increased lung vascular permeability, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid; VILI additionally produced altered lung mechanics...
September 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879093/refractory-acute-respiratory-failure-due-to-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pcp-and-cytomegalovirus-cmv-pneumonitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#5
Kairav Shah, Kartikeya Cherabuddi, Stacy G Beal, Gautam Kalyatanda
BACKGROUND: Opportunistic infections with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) are common in patients with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and are encountered once the CD4 count decreases below 200 cells/mm3. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) tends to cause disease once the CD4 count drops below 50 cells/mm3. CMV pneumonitis is not common in this population. However, detecting its presence in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The role of antiviral therapy against CMV remains unclear...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871508/a-novel-role-of-a-chemotherapeutic-agent-in-a-rat-model-of-endotoxemia-modulation-of-the-stat-3-signaling-pathway
#6
Omnia S Zaki, Marwa M Safar, Afaf A Ain-Shoka, Laila A Rashed
Sepsis caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a life-threatening disease accompanied by multiple organ failure. This study investigated the curative effects of imatinib (IMA) against hepatic, renal, and pulmonary responses caused by a single administration of LPS (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Treatment with IMA (15 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min after LPS antagonized the LPS-induced boost of liver enzymes (ALT, AST), kidney functions (BUN, sCr) as well as the elevated pulmonary vascular permeability and edema. IMA declined tissue contents of NF-κB, STAT-3, P38-MAPK, TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS...
September 4, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732529/exiguobacterium-sp-a1b-gx59-isolated-from-a-patient-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-bacteremia-genomic-characterization-and-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Xingchun Chen, Lijun Wang, Jiali Zhou, Honglong Wu, Dong Li, Yanchao Cui, Binghuai Lu
BACKGROUND: Bacterial species belonging to the genus Exiguobacterium are facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive bacilli, and rarely associated with human infections. Herein, we reported the first case of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and bacteremia due to Exiguobacterium spp. in China. CASE PRESENTATION: An adult male with severe CAP was hospitalized. The pathogen was isolated from his bloodstream and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. The correct identification of the micro-organism was achieved using 16S rRNA sequencing, and its antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by microdilution method...
July 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724562/the-role-of-macrophages-in-interstitial-lung-diseases-number-3-in-the-series-pathology-for-the-clinician-edited-by-peter-dorfm%C3%A3-ller-and-alberto-cavazza
#8
Giulio Rossi, Alberto Cavazza, Paolo Spagnolo, Salvatore Bellafiore, Elisabetta Kuhn, Pierpaolo Carassai, Laura Caramanico, Gloria Montanari, Gaia Cappiello, Alessandro Andreani, Francesca Bono, Nazarena Nannini
The finding of collections of macrophages/histiocytes in lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage is relatively common in routine practice. This morphological feature in itself is pathological, but the exact clinical significance and underlying disease should be evaluated together with clinical data, functional respiratory and laboratory tests and imaging studies.Morphological characteristics of macrophages and their distribution along the different pulmonary structures should be examined carefully by pathologists...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716387/respiratory-virus-prior-to-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-is-associated-with-allo-immune-mediated-lung-syndromes
#9
Birgitta Versluys, Marc Bierings, Jean Luc Murk, Tom Wolfs, Caroline Lindemans, Kors Vd Ent, Jaap Jan Boelens
BACKGROUND: Allo-immune mediated lung syndromes (allo-LS) are life-threatening complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Respiratory virus (RV) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We studied the relation between RV-DNA/RNA detection in upper/lower airway before HCT and the occurrence of allo-LS. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all HCT recipients between 2004 and 2014, in whom Real-Time PCR for RV was done from Nasal-Pharyngeal-Aspirates (NPA) and Broncho-Alveolar- Lavage (BAL) before HCT...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715731/metabolomics-analysis-reveals-that-benzo-a-pyrene-a-component-of-pm2-5-promotes-pulmonary-injury-by-modifying-lipid-metabolism-in-a-phospholipase-a2-dependent-manner-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#10
Song-Yang Zhang, Danqing Shao, Huiying Liu, Juan Feng, Baihuan Feng, Xiaoming Song, Qian Zhao, Ming Chu, Changtao Jiang, Wei Huang, Xian Wang
Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5μM (PM2.5) is one of the major environmental pollutants in China. In this study, we carried out a metabolomics profile study on PM2.5-induced inflammation. PM2.5 from Beijing, China, was collected and given to rats through intra-tracheal instillation in vivo. Acute pulmonary injury were observed by pulmonary function assessment and H.E. staining. The lipid metabolic profile was also altered with increased phospholipid and sphingolipid metabolites in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after PM2...
July 4, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711528/comparison-of-five-methods-for-isolation-of-dna-from-mycoplasma-cynos
#11
Aslı Sakmanoglu, Zafer Sayin, Uckun Sait Ucan, Yasemin Pinarkara, Ali Uslu, Osman Erganis
Extraction of DNA from Mycoplasma cultured on agar medium is difficult because the plasticity of these microorganisms enables agar penetration. This eventually causes cell loss during harvesting of colonies from the agar surface. Here, we used the GenElute™ gel extraction kit, which is usually used to purify polymerase chain reaction products, for extracting DNA from Mycoplasma. We compared the DNA extraction efficiency of the GenElute™ gel extraction kit from Mycoplasma cynos cultured in agar medium with four other DNA extraction methods...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683724/first-report-of-cavitary-pneumonia-due-to-community-acquired-acinetobacter-pittii-study-of-virulence-and-overview-of-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#12
Romaric Larcher, Alix Pantel, Erik Arnaud, Albert Sotto, Jean-Philippe Lavigne
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter pittii is a nosocomial pathogen rarely involved in community-acquired infections. We report for the first time that A. pittii can be responsible for cavitary community-acquired pneumonia and study its virulence, and discuss its pathogenesis and treatment options. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old woman with a history of smoking and systemic lupus was admitted to Nimes University Hospital (France) with coughing and sputum lasting for three weeks...
July 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586022/small-protein-a-and-phospholipase-d-immunization-serves-a-protective-role-in-a-mouse-pneumonia-model-of-acinetobacter%C3%A2-baumannii-infection
#13
Haitao Li, Hongyi Tan, Yongbin Hu, Pinhua Pan, Xiaoli Su, Chengpin Hu
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important pathogen that primarily causes hospital-acquired pneumonia. The present study sought to investigate whether small protein A (SmpA) and phospholipase D (PLD) are potential candidates for protective immunity against infection with A. baumannii. Mice immunized with the fusion proteins histidine (His)‑SmpA and His‑PLD exhibited a specific immunoglobulin G response. In a pneumonia model, active and passive immunization against SmpA and PLD protected mice from A. baumannii infection...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575809/lutein-mitigates-cyclophosphamide-induced-lung-and-liver-injury-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mapk-dependent-mechanism
#14
Amal A El-Kholy, Mohamed A Elkablawy, Dina S El-Agamy
This study targeted to test the potential protective role of lutein against lung and liver damage associated with cyclophosphamide (CP) administration. Lutein was given orally for 5days at two different doses both before and after CP injection. Results have shown that CP administration caused marked pulmonary and hepatic injurious effects in mice. Lung damage was evident through increased lung wet/dry ratio, elevated inflammatory cells infiltration into the pulmonary tissues, increased total protein content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562365/role-of-the-inflammasome-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#15
Chiara Colarusso, Michela Terlizzi, Antonio Molino, Aldo Pinto, Rosalinda Sorrentino
Inflammation is central to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a pulmonary disorder characterized by chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, emphysema, associated to progressive and irreversible decline of lung function. Emerging genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that IL-1-like cytokines are highly detected in the sputum and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) of COPD patients, implying the involvement of the multiprotein complex inflammasome. So far, scientific evidence has focused on nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a specialized inflammatory signaling platform that governs the maturation and secretion of IL-1-like cytokines through the regulation of caspase-1-dependent proteolytic processing...
May 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523329/respiratory-bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial-lung-disease-an-unexpected-form-of-idiopathic-interstitial-pneumonia-in-a-young-male
#16
Claudia Lucia Toma, Elena Danteş, Diana Gabriela Leonte, Ariadna Petronela Fildan
Cigarette smoking is the most frequently encountered risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. The latest American Thoracic Society÷European Respiratory Society classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia includes two entities related to smoking habits: respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease and desquamative interstitial pneumonia. The new approach to diagnosis is to combine pathological pattern with clinical and radiological data. Lung biopsy is no longer considered the "gold standard" for diagnosis, but as a part of the diagnosis, which shall be set only after the pulmonologist, radiologist and pathologist reviewed all clinical, imaging and pathological aspects...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504568/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-crl1505-nasal-administration-improves-recovery-of-t-cell-mediated-immunity-against-pneumococcal-infection-in-malnourished-mice
#17
N Barbieri, M Herrera, S Salva, J Villena, S Alvarez
Immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria have become an interesting alternative for the prevention of respiratory infections. Previously, we demonstrated that the nasal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505, during repletion of malnourished mice, resulted in diminished susceptibility to the challenge with the respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Considering the known alterations induced by malnutrition on T lymphocytes and the importance of this cell population on the protection against respiratory pathogens, we aimed to study the effect of L...
May 15, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498407/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-accelerates-lung-fibrosis-through-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-a-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-animal-model
#18
Lina Wang, Wei Cheng, Zhimin Zhang
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER) is involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Viral infection often triggers a hyperinflammatory response by an expansion of the ER. The present study was designed to observe the role of respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSV)‑induced ER stress on lung fibrosis. In order to determine the role of ER stress on the onset and progression of pulmonary fibrosis, mice received an intratracheal combined injection of RSV and bleomycin on day 0...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484089/xenogeneic-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reduce-mortality-in-rats-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-complicated-by-sepsis
#19
Fan-Yen Lee, Kuan-Hung Chen, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Pei-Hsun Sung, Jiunn-Jye Sheu, Sheng-Ying Chung, Yung-Lung Chen, Hung-I Lu, Sheung-Fat Ko, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
This study tested the hypothesis that xenogeneic human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (HUCDMSC) therapy would improve survival rates in rats with acute respiratory distress-syndrome (ARDS, induction by 48 h inhalation of 100% oxygen) and sepsis-syndrome (SS, induction by cecal-ligation and puncture) (ARDS-SS). Adult-male Sprague-Dawley rats were categorized into group 1 (sham-controls), group 2 (ARDS-SS), group 3 [ARDS-SS+HUCDMSC (1.2 ×106 cells administered 1 h after SS-induction)], and group 4 [ARDS-SS+HUCDMSC (1...
July 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476111/single-use-and-conventional-bronchoscopes-for-broncho-alveolar-lavage-bal-in-research-a-comparative-study-nct-02515591
#20
Seher Raza Zaidi, Andrea M Collins, Elena Mitsi, Jesús Reiné, Kayleigh Davies, Angela D Wright, Jessica Owugha, Richard Fitzgerald, Amitava Ganguli, Stephen B Gordon, Daniela Mulari Ferreira, Jamie Rylance
BACKGROUND: Broncho alveolar lavage (BAL) is widely used for investigative research to study innate, cellular and humoral immune responses, and in early phase drug trials. Conventional (multiple use) flexible bronchoscopes have time and monetary costs associated with cleaning, and carries a small risk of cross infection. Single use bronchoscopes may provide an alternative, but have not been evaluated in this context. METHODS: Healthy volunteers underwent bronchoscopy at a day-case clinical research unit using the Ambu® aScope(TM) single-use flexible intubation bronchoscope...
May 5, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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