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non-invasive screening tests for vascular diseases

Vijay Kunadian, Danny Chan, Hani Ali, Nina Wilkinson, Nicola Howe, Elaine McColl, Jared Thornton, Alexander von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Eva-Maria Holstein, Graham Burns, Andrew Fisher, Deborah Stocken, Anthony De Soyza
INTRODUCTION: The antiplatelet therapy in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (APPLE COPD-ICON2) trial is a prospective 2×2 factorial, double-blinded proof-of-concept randomised controlled trial targeting patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at high risk of cardiovascular disease. The primary goal of this trial is to investigate if treatment with antiplatelet therapy will produce the required response in platelet function measured using the Multiplate test in patients with COPD...
May 26, 2018: BMJ Open
Neelamshobha Nirala, R Periyasamy, Awanish Kumar
BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common circulatory problem in which narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to extremities usually legs. It does not receive enough blood flow to keep up with demand. This causes symptoms, most notably leg pain while walking which is known as claudication. It is a common manifestation of type II Diabetes, but the relationship between other vascular diseases and lower limb (LL)-PAD has been poorly understood and investigated. METHODS: When assessing a patient with clinically LLPAD, two questions are in order to establish a diagnosis: one is non-invasive testing and other is invasive...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
María-Carlota Londoño, Lara Neves Souza, Juan-José Lozano, Rosa Miquel, Juan G Abraldes, Laura-Patricia Llovet, Alberto Quaglia, Antoni Rimola, Miquel Navasa, Alberto Sánchez-Fueyo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Subclinical inflammatory changes are commonly described in long-term transplant recipients undergoing protocol liver biopsies. The pathogenesis of these lesions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the key molecular pathways driving progressive subclinical inflammatory liver allograft damage. METHODS: All liver recipients followed at Hospital Clínic Barcelona who were >10 years post-transplant were screened for participation in the study...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Sandra Albanese, Adelaide Greco, Luigi Auletta, Marcello Mancini
Neurodegenerative diseases represent great challenges for basic science and clinical medicine because of their prevalence, pathologies, lack of mechanism-based treatments, and impacts on individuals. Translational research might contribute to the study of neurodegenerative diseases. The mouse has become a key model for studying disease mechanisms that might recapitulate in part some aspects of the corresponding human diseases. Neurodegenerative disorders are very complicated and multifactorial. This has to be taken in account when testing drugs...
October 26, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Olivier Stivalet, Loukman Omarjee, Segolene Chaudru, Clement Hoffmann, Luc Bressollette, Kevin P Cohoon, Vincent Jaquinandi, Guillaume Mahe
BACKGROUND: Ankle-brachial index (ABI) at rest, postexercise ABI, and toe-brachial index (TBI) are essential diagnostic tools recommended for peripheral artery disease (PAD) diagnosis. Our study investigates the level of knowledge on these 3 tests among vascular medicine residents from 4 French medical schools in France. METHODS: We included 19 vascular medicine residents in a cross-sectional study. During an annual obligatory seminar, all residents accepted to fill 3 questionnaires concerning knowledge about these 3 tests...
February 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Inés Moreno-Jiménez, Janos M Kanczler, Gry Hulsart-Billstrom, Stefanie Inglis, Richard O C Oreffo
The fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering offer significant promise to address the urgent unmet need for therapeutic strategies in a number of debilitating conditions, diseases, and tissue needs of an aging population. Critically, the safety and efficacy of these pioneering strategies need to be assessed before clinical application, often necessitating animal research as a prerequisite. The growing number of newly developed potential treatments, together with the ethical concerns involved in the application of in vivo studies, requires the implementation of alternative models to facilitate such screening of new treatments...
December 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Fei Mao, Siying Liu, Xiaona Qiao, Hangping Zheng, Qian Xiong, Jie Wen, Shuo Zhang, Zhaoyun Zhang, Hongying Ye, Hongli Shi, Bin Lu, Yiming Li
SUDOSCAN is a non-invasive method of measuring peripheral small fiber and autonomic nerve activity by detection of abnormal sweat gland function through electrochemical skin conductance. It has been reported to be an effective screening tool in early detection of microvascular type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) complications including diabetic neuropathy and nephropathy in recent studies. However, previous studies used estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as the golden standard, which has a 90% chance of being within 30% of the measured GFR at best...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Pavel Gurevich, Hannes Stuke, Andreas Kastrup, Heiner Stuke, Helmut Hildebrandt
With promising results in recent treatment trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD), it becomes increasingly important to distinguish AD at early stages from other causes for cognitive impairment. However, existing diagnostic methods are either invasive (lumbar punctures, PET) or inaccurate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This study investigates the potential of neuropsychological testing (NPT) to specifically identify those patients with possible AD among a sample of 158 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or dementia for various causes...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Arpit Bhargava, Naveen Kumar Khare, Neha Bunkar, Koel Chaudhury, Kailash Chand Pandey, Subodh K Jain, Pradyumna K Mishra
The burden of cardio-vascular and other age-related non-communicable diseases are rapidly increasing worldwide. Majority of these chronic ailments are curable, if diagnosed at early stages. Candidate biomarkers of early detection are therefore essential for identification of high-risk individuals, prompt and accurate disease diagnosis, and to monitor therapeutic response. The functional significance of circulating nucleic acids that recapitulate specific disease profiles is now well established. But subtle changes in DNA sequence may not solely reflect the differentiation of gene expression patterns observed in diverse set of diseases as epigenetic phenomena play a larger role in aetiology and patho-physiology...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Peta Ellen Tehan, Derek Santos, Vivienne Helaine Chuter
The toe-brachial index (TBI) is used as an adjunct to the ankle-brachial index (ABI) for non-invasive lower limb vascular screening. With increasing evidence suggesting limitations of the ABI for diagnosis of vascular complications, particularly in specific populations including diabetes cohorts, the TBI is being used more widely. The aim of this review was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the TBI for detecting peripheral artery disease (PAD) in populations at risk of this disease. A database search was conducted to identify current work relating to the sensitivity and specificity of toe-brachial indices up to July 2015...
August 2016: Vascular Medicine
Benjamin B Massenburg, Harvey N Himel, Robert C Blue, Michael L Marin, Peter L Faries, Windsor Ting
BACKGROUND: Proximal venous outflow obstruction (PVOO) in the abdomen and pelvis is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to venous disease of the lower extremity. There are currently no guidelines regarding a noninvasive screening tool for PVOO, although magnetic resonance venography (MRV) is commonly used in many practices. The objective of this study was to determine the value and utility of MRV in diagnosis and screening for PVOO. METHODS: This retrospective study consisted of 46 consecutive patients, all of whom presented with signs and/or symptoms of PVOO and were evaluated with MRV followed by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and venography...
November 2015: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Peta Ellen Tehan, Alan Bray, Vivienne Helaine Chuter
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-invasive lower limb vascular assessment in people at risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) including those with diabetes is crucial. There is evidence that standard assessment techniques such as the ankle-brachial index (ABI) may be less effective in people with diabetes. However there is limited evidence for other frequently used tests including continuous wave Doppler (CWD), and the toe-brachial index (TBI). The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of, ABI, CWD and TBI in a population with, and without diabetes...
January 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Monika Szturmowicz, Aneta Kacprzak, Katarzyna Błasińska-Przerwa, Jan Kuś
Lung diseases are one of the most frequent causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The development of PH influences the course of lung disease, worsening the clinical symptoms and prognosis. According to the most recent publications, PH in the course of lung diseases develops as a result of both "parenchymal" and vascular pathology, in the patients with genetic predisposition. Prolonged infection (especially viral one) may be an additional promoting factor. Right heart catheterization (RHC), which is an invasive procedure, is the only objective method of diagnosing PH...
2015: Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska
Aleš Tomek, Barbora Urbanová, Jakub Hort
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by an increasing incidence. One of the pathologic processes that underlie this disorder is impairment of brain microvasculature. Transcranial ultrasound is a non-invasive examination of cerebral blood flow that can be employed as a simple and useful screening tool for assessing the vascular status of brain circulation in preclinical and clinical stages of AD. The objective of this review is to explore the utility of using a transcranial ultrasound to diagnose AD...
2014: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ashish Kumar Sahani, Jayaraj Joseph, Mohanasankar Sivaprakasam
Arterial compliance (AC) is an indicator of the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and it is generally estimated by B-mode ultrasound investigation. The number of sonologists in low- and middle-income countries is very disproportionate to the extent of CVD. To bridge this gap we are developing an image-free CVD risk screening tool-arterial stiffness evaluation for non-invasive screening (ARTSENS™) which can be operated with minimal training. ARTSENS uses a single element ultrasound transducer to investigate the wall dynamics of the common carotid artery (CCA) and subsequently measure the AC...
July 2014: Physiological Measurement
Giovanna E Carpagnano, Donato Lacedonia, Antonio Spanevello, Domenico Martinelli, Valerio Saliani, Cinzia Ruggieri, Maria P Foschino-Barbaro
The exhaled breath temperature (EBT) has been proven to be the expression of airways inflammation as well as of the increased vascularity. Although both these conditions characterize lung cancer pathogenesis, this is the first study where the EBT has been analysed in patients affected by non-small-cell lung cancer. The aim of this study was to verify whether and how the lung cancer being examined influences the EBT for possible future clinical implications. Eighty-two consecutive subjects with a radiological suspicion of lung cancer were enrolled and underwent standard diagnostic and staging procedures for cancer...
May 2014: Medical Oncology
Eva Prescott, Steen Zabell Abildstrøm, Ahmed Aziz, Noel Bairey Merz, Ida Gustafsson, Julian Halcox, Henrik Steen Hansen, Peter Riis Hansen, Jens Kastrup, Marie Michelsen, Naja Dam Mygind, Peter Ong, Adam Pena, Annika Rosengren, Udo Sechtem, Peter Søgaard
BACKGROUND: The iPOWER study aims at determining whether routine assessment of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in women with angina and no obstructive coronary artery disease is feasible and identifies women at risk. METHODS: All women with angina referred to invasive angiographic assessment in Eastern Denmark are invited to join the study according to in- and exclusion criteria. Assessment includes demographic, clinical and psychosocial data, symptoms, electrocardiogram, blood- and urine samples and transthoracic echocardiography during rest and dipyridamol stress with measurement of coronary flow reserve (CFR) by Doppler of the left anterior descending artery...
April 2014: American Heart Journal
Vida Demarin, Sandra Morovic
Aging is often associated with some cognitive impairment. Greater population life expectancy is one explanation for increased incidence of cognitive impairment cases. Large numbers of people with cognitive impairment and dementia is becoming one of the most important medical and social problems worldwide. Therefore, prevention of cognitive impairment is an imperative. Dementia includes a heterogeneous group of disorders, the most common being Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Most cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, and smoking, are not exclusively risk factors for vascular dementia, but also for Alzheimer's disease...
2014: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Tudor Constantinescu, Stefania Lucia Magda, Rodica Niculescu, Raluca Ileana Mincu, Dragos Zaharia, Claudia Lucia Toma, Mircea Cinteza, Miron Alexandru Bogdan
ABSTRACT: HASH(0x3454db8) BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) represents an emerging pathology in modern medicine. Transthoracic echocardiography is an inexpensive and reproducible method and it is the most commonly used non-invasive diagnostic tool to asses pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and the function of the right ventricle. Although, the right heart catheterization is still considered as the standard for the diagnosis, according to the last guidelines, the new echocardiographic methods may offer an improved value in the PAH evaluation...
June 2013: Mædica
Kira S Sheinerman, Samuil R Umansky
Many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, vascular and frontotemporal dementias, as well as other chronic neurological pathologies, are characterized by slow development with a long asymptomatic period followed by a stage with mild clinical symptoms. As a consequence, these serious pathologies are diagnosed late in the course of a disease, when massive death of neurons has already occurred and effective therapeutic intervention is problematic. Thus, the development of screening tests capable of detecting neurodegenerative diseases during early, preferably asymptomatic, stages is a high unmet need...
2013: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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