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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671563/rheumatoid-arthritis-common-questions-about-diagnosis-and-management
#1
Amy Wasserman
Rheumatoid arthritis is the most commonly diagnosed systemic inflammatory arthritis, with a lifetime prevalence of up to 1% worldwide. Women, smokers, and those with a family history of the disease are most often affected. Rheumatoid arthritis should be considered if there is at least one joint with definite swelling that is not better explained by another disease. In a patient with inflammatory arthritis, the presence of a rheumatoid factor and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibody, elevated C-reactive protein level, or elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate is consistent with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis...
April 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665950/conducting-efficacy-trials-in-children-with-mdr-tb-what-is-the-rationale-and-how-should-they-be-done
#2
J A Seddon, E D Weld, H S Schaaf, A J Garcia-Prats, S Kim, A C Hesseling
Paediatric anti-tuberculosis treatment trials have traditionally been limited to Phase I/II studies evaluating the drug pharmacokinetics and safety in children, with assumptions about efficacy made by extrapolating data from adults. However, it is increasingly being recognised that, in some circumstances, efficacy trials are required in children. The current treatment for children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is long and toxic; shorter, safer regimens, using novel agents, require urgent evaluation...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665438/enhancement-of-anti-tubercular-activity-and-biomass-of-fermented-food-associated-staphylococcus-hominis-strain-manf2-using-taguchi-orthogonal-array-and-box-behnken-design
#3
Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Azger Dusthackeer, Paul Agastian
The prime focus of the present investigation was to optimize statistically the anti-tubercular activity and biomass of fermented food associated Staphylococcus hominis strain MANF2 using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) and Box-Behnken design (BBD). The anti-tubercular activity of strain MANF2 was determined against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using luciferase reporter phase assay. Among varied media examined, the isolate exhibited impressive anti-tubercular activity with paramount relative light unit reduction of >90% in de Man Rogose Sharpe (MRS) broth...
April 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661467/paradoxical-reaction-of-tuberculosis-in-a-heart-transplant-recipient-during-antituberculosis-therapy-a-case-report
#4
A Wakamiya, O Seguchi, A Shionoiri, Y Kumai, K Kuroda, S Nakajima, M Yanase, S Matsuda, K Wada, Y Matsumoto, S Fukushima, T Fujita, J Kobayashi, N Fukushima
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous paradoxical reactions (PRs) are excessive immune reactions occurring after antituberculosis (TB) treatment and are commonly observed in immunocompromised hosts such as patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. CASE REPORT: We recently encountered a 63-year-old male heart transplant recipient who developed tuberculous PR after treatment for miliary TB. The patient had been receiving immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil for over 15 years...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658082/effect-of-oxidized-dextran-on-cytokine-production-and-activation-of-irf3-transcription-factor-in-macrophages-from-mice-of-opposite-strains-with-different-sensitivity-to-tuberculosis-infection
#5
A V Chechushkov, P M Kozhin, N S Zaitseva, P I Gainutdinov, E B Men'shchikova, A V Troitskii, V A Shkurupy
We studied differences in the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and IRF3 transcription factor by peritoneal macrophages from mice of opposite strains CBA/J and C57Bl/6 and the effect of 60-kDa oxidized dextran on these parameters. Macrophages from C57Bl/6 mice were mainly characterized by the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-12, and MCP-1 (markers of M1 polarization). By contrast, CBA/J mice exhibited a relatively high level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and lower expression of proinflammatory cytokines (M2 phenotype)...
April 16, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611626/quinoxaline-and-quinoxaline-1-4-di-n-oxides-an-emerging-class-of-antimycobacterials
#6
REVIEW
Rangappa S Keri, Sudam S Pandule, Srinivasa Budagumpi, Bhari M Nagaraja
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly dreaded, infectious, chronic, airborne disease affecting more than two million people all around the world, with more than eight million cases every calendar year. TB is the second leading infectious cause of death after HIV/AIDS. Over the past few decades, numerous efforts have been undertaken to develop new anti-TB agents. The current frontline therapy for TB consists of administering three or more different drugs (usually isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol) over an extended period of time...
April 3, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601990/design-synthesis-and-antitubercular-evaluation-of-benzothiazinones-containing-a-piperidine-moiety
#7
Kai Lv, Zeyu Tao, Qian Liu, Lu Yang, Bin Wang, Shuo Wu, Apeng Wang, Menghao Huang, Mingliang Liu, Yu Lu
We herein report the design and synthesis of benzothiazinones containing a piperidine moiety as new antitubercular agents based on the structure feature of IMB-ZR-1 discovered in our lab. Some of them were found to have good in vitro activity (MIC < 1 μg/mL) against drug-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RV strain. After two set of modifications, compound 2i were found to display comparable in vitro anti-TB activity (MIC < 0.016 μg/mL) to PBTZ169 against drug-sensitive and resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis strains...
March 23, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597169/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-novel-coumarin-oxime-ethers-as-potential-anti-tubercular-agents-their-dna-cleavage-ability-and-bsa-interaction-study
#8
Dinesh S Reddy, Manasa Kongot, Sandeep P Netalkar, Mahantesh M Kurjogi, Rakesh Kumar, Fernando Avecilla, Amit Kumar
As a contribution to the development of novel coumarin-oxime ether conjugates with therapeutically interesting properties, a series of coumarin-oxime ether (1a-1j) was synthesised using SN 2 reaction of bromomethyl coumarins with butane-2,3-dione monoxime. Invitro anti-tuberculosis activityagainstMTBH37 Rv strain was established for the coumarin-oxime ether (1a-1j). Most of the compounds exhibited significant activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)in the range of 0.04-3.12 μg mL-1 . Compound (1h) was identified as a hit candidate exhibiting MIC of 0...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579424/a-selective-and-sensitive-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-assay-for-the-determination-of-cycloserine-in-human-plasma
#9
A K Hemanth Kumar, Arun Kumar Polisetty, V Sudha, A Vijayakumar, Geetha Ramachandran
BACKGROUND: Cycloserine (CYC) is a second line antitubercular drug that is used for the treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) along with other antitubercular agents and is often used in developing countries. Monitoring CYC levels in plasma could be useful in the clinical management of patients with MDR-TB. A high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of CYC in human plasma was developed. METHODS: The method involved extraction of the sample using solid phase extraction cartridges and analysis of the extracted sample using a reverse phase T3 column (150mm) and detection at 240nm with Photo Diode Array (PDA) detector...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549838/drug-discovery-in-tuberculosis-new-drug-targets-and-antimycobacterial-agents
#10
REVIEW
André Campaniço, Rui Moreira, Francisca Lopes
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem worldwide. The infectious agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has a unique ability to survive within the host, alternating between active and latent disease states, and escaping the immune system defences. The extended duration of anti-TB regimens and the increasing prevalence of multidrug- (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis strains have created an urgent need for new antibiotics active against drug-resistant organisms and that can shorten standard therapy...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544148/recent-advances-of-imidazole-containing-derivatives-as-anti-tubercular-agents
#11
Yi-Lei Fan, Xiao-Hong Jin, Zhong-Ping Huang, Hai-Feng Yu, Zhi-Gang Zeng, Tao Gao, Lian-Shun Feng
Tuberculosis still remains one of the most common, communicable, and leading deadliest diseases known to mankind throughout the world. Drug-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which threatens to worsen the global tuberculosis epidemic has caused great concern in recent years. To overcome the resistance, the development of new drugs with novel mechanisms of actions is of great importance. Imidazole-containing derivatives endow with various biological properties, and some of them demonstrated excellent anti-tubercular activity...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544082/isolation-and-characterization-of-bacteriophages-from-india-with-lytic-activity-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
Urmi Bajpai, Abhishek Kumar Mehta, Kandasamy Eniyan, Avni Sinha, Ankita Ray, Simran Virdi, Shazeb Ahmad, Aridni Shah, Deepanksha Arora, Devyani Marwaha, Gunjan Chauhan, Prarthna Saraswat, Punita Bathla, Ruchi Singh
Bacteriophages are being considered as a promising natural resource for the development of alternative strategies against mycobacterial diseases, especially in the context of the wide spread occurrence of drug-resistance amongst the clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. However, there isn't much information documented on mycobacteriophages from India. Here, we report the isolation of 17 mycobacteriophages using M. smegmatis as the bacterial host where 9 phages also lyse M. tuberculosis H37Rv. We present detailed analysis of one of these mycobacteriophage (PDRPv)...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540054/the-effect-of-metformin-on-culture-conversion-in-tuberculosis-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Ye-Jin Lee, Sung Koo Han, Ju Hee Park, Jung Kyu Lee, Deog Keom Kim, Hee Soon Chung, Eun Young Heo
Background/Aims: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) have increased morbidity and a high risk of treatment failure or recurrence. It is important to manage both diseases simultaneously. Among anti-diabetic drugs, metformin inhibits intracellular growth of mycobacteria. Therefore, we examined the effects of metformin on TB treatment, especially in patients with DM. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with culture-positive pulmonary TB diagnosed between 2011 and 2012...
March 16, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527837/patterns-of-rpoc-mutations-in-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolated-from-patients-in-south-korea
#14
Yeo Jun Yun, Jong Seok Lee, Je Chul Yoo, Eunjin Cho, Dahee Park, Yoon Hoh Kook, Keun Hwa Lee
BACKGROUND: Rifampicin (RFP) is one of the principal first-line drugs used in combination chemotherapies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and its use has greatly shortened the duration of chemotherapy for the successful treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Compensatory mutations have been identified in rpoC that restore the fitness of RFP-resistant M. tuberculosis strains with mutations in rpoB. To investigate rpoC mutation patterns, we analyzed 93 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates from patients in South Korea...
March 7, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523327/investigating-the-inhibitory-potential-of-2-aminopurine-metal-complexes-against-serine-threonine-protein-kinases-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Vaibhav Singh Bais, Balaram Mohapatra, Nadim Ahamad, Sanjana Boggaram, Sandeep Verma, Balaji Prakash
Tuberculosis - a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is one of the most devastating disease. The discovery of Ser/Thr protein kinases (STPKs) in Mtb opened a new avenue for developing anti-tubercular inhibitors. The in-vivo inhibitory effects of many metal ions have been demonstrated in literature. But, one of the limitations of metal ions as inhibitors is their inability to traverse the hydrophobic membrane due to polar nature and their propensity for non-specific interactions. To overcome this, we attached a metal ion to 2-A9P - an analog derived from a cell permeable scaffold, 2-Aminopurine (2-AP) which is a known kinase inhibitor...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514936/multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-south-africa-a-molecular-analysis-of-historical-isolates
#16
Nontuthuko E Maningi, Luke T Daum, John D Rodriguez, Halima M Said, Remco P H Peters, John Osei Sekyere, Gerald W Fischer, James P Chambers, P Bernard Fourie
Modern advances in genomics provide an opportunity to re-interpret historical bacterial culture collections. In this study, genotypic antibiotic resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from an historical 20-year-old multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) culture collection in South Africa are described. DNA samples extracted from the phenotypically MDR-TB isolates (n=240) were assayed by Hain line probe assay (LPA) for the confirmation of MDR-TB and by Illumina Miseq whole genome sequencing (WGS) for the characterization of mutations in eight genes ( rpo B, kat G, inh A, rps L, pnc A, emb B, gyr A and rrs ) that are known to code for resistance to commonly used anti-TB agents...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510037/structure-guided-lead-generation-towards-non-chiral-m-tuberculosis-thymidylate-kinase-inhibitors
#17
Lijun Song, Romain Merceron, Begoña Gracia, Ainhoa Lucia Quintana, Martijn D P Risseeuw, Fabian Hulpia, Paul Cos, Jose A Ainsa, Hélène Munier-Lehmann, Savvas N Savvides, Serge Van Calenbergh
In recent years thymidylate kinase (TMPK), an enzyme indispensable for bacterial DNA biosynthesis, has been pursued for the development of new antibacterial agents including against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent for the widespread infectious disease tuberculosis (TB). In response to a growing need for more effective anti-TB drugs we have built upon our previous efforts towards the exploration of novel and potent Mycobacterium tuberculosis TMPK (MtTMPK) inhibitors, and report here the design of a novel series of non-nucleoside inhibitors of MtTMPK that exhibit nanomolar potency...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506608/long-acting-formulations-for-the-treatment-of-latent-tuberculous-infection-opportunities-and-challenges
#18
S Swindells, M Siccardi, S E Barrett, D B Olsen, J A Grobler, A T Podany, E Nuermberger, P Kim, C E Barry, A Owen, D Hazuda, C Flexner
Long-acting/extended-release drug formulations have proved very successful in diverse areas of medicine, including contraception, psychiatry and, most recently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Though challenging, application of this technology to anti-tuberculosis treatment could have substantial impact. The duration of treatment required for all forms of tuberculosis (TB) put existing regimens at risk of failure because of early discontinuations and treatment loss to follow-up. Long-acting injections, for example, administered every month, could improve patient adherence and treatment outcomes...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505119/exposure-of-nursed-infants-to-maternal-treatment-with-ethambutol-and-rifampicin
#19
Partosch Falko, Mielke Hans, Stahlmann Ralf, Gundert-Remy Ursula
Mycobacterial diseases remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Rifampicin and ethambutol are among the drugs recommended by WHO as first line treatment. In this work, we addressed the question whether doses of the two anti-tuberculosis agents ethambutol and rifampicin transferred to a nursed infant could be of health concerns when the mother is under treatment. We used the approach of pharmacokinetic modelling using a structural model with two interconnected organisms, the first one being the organism of the nursing mother, the second one being the organism of the nursed child...
March 5, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503964/choroidal-neovascularization-secondary-to-tuberculosis-presentation-and-management
#20
Esther Lee Kim, Damien C Rodger, Narsing A Rao
Purpose: While there are many known etiologies of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), tuberculosis is not a well-known causative agent. In this case series, we highlight CNV occurring secondary to tuberculous chorioretinitis, its presentation, and its management. Observations: We retrospectively reviewed the charts and imaging of four patients who presented with presumed tuberculous chorioretinitis and CNV. Three of these patients had signs of intraocular inflammation and were also found to have active macular CNV...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
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