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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074051/anti-folates-potentiate-bactericidal-effects-of-other-antimicrobial-agents
#1
Kun Li, Xu-de Wang, Shan-Shan Yang, Jing Gu, Jiao-Yu Deng, Xian-En Zhang
Synergies between sulfonamides and other antimicrobial agents have long been reported, but the reason still remains unclear. Previously, Vilchèze et al. found that, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) could potentiate the bacterialcidal activity of isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To test if this was also the case in other bacteria, the ability to potentiate bactericidal effect of RIF by SMX was evaluated in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Mycobacterium smegmatis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060290/visualization-of-the-charcoal-agar-resazurin-assay-for-semi-quantitative-medium-throughput-enumeration-of-mycobacteria
#2
Ben Gold, Julia Roberts, Yan Ling, Landys Lopez Quezada, Jou Glasheen, Elaine Ballinger, Selin Somersan-Karakaya, Thulasi Warrier, Carl Nathan
There is an urgent need to discover and progress anti-infectives that shorten the duration of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of TB, is refractory to rapid and lasting chemotherapy due to the presence of bacilli exhibiting phenotypic drug resistance. The charcoal agar resazurin assay (CARA) was developed as a tool to characterize active molecules discovered by high-throughput screening campaigns against replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis. Inclusion of activated charcoal in bacteriologic agar medium helps mitigate the impact of compound carry-over, and eliminates the requirement to pre-dilute cells prior to spotting on CARA microplates...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058538/factors-influencing-the-choice-of-first-and-second-line-biologic-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-real-life-data-from-the-italian-lorhen-registry
#3
Sara Monti, Catherine Klersy, Roberto Gorla, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini, Fabiola Atzeni, Raffaele Pellerito, Enrico Fusaro, Giuseppe Paolazzi, Pier Andrea Rocchetta, Ennio Giulio Favalli, Antonio Marchesoni, Roberto Caporali
According to international recommendations, the selection of the biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (bDMARD) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is mainly left to the clinician's preference. We analyzed the real-life factors influencing the first-line choice or the switching strategy, focusing on the prescription of abatacept (ABA) or tocilizumab (TCZ) compared to TNFα inhibitors (TNFi). Patients enrolled in the Lombardy Rheumatology Network (LORHEN) Registry after January 1, 2010, when all considered bDMARD agents were available, were included...
January 5, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058501/-cytokine-neutralization-at-specific-cellular-source-a%C3%A2-new-therapeutic-paradigm-german-version
#4
A A Kruglov, S A Nedospasov
BACKGROUND: Currently, treatment of autoimmune diseases is based on manipulation of general control mechanisms, including those mediated by immunoregulatory cytokines. This approach is non-curative and may cause unwanted side effects due to numerous beneficial and non-redundant functions of a particular cytokine. METHODS: Techniques of reverse genetics, such as conditional gene targeting, were employed to uncover the contributions of two proinflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), in various disease states...
January 5, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043527/overview-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-worldwide
#5
Ali A Velayati, Parissa Farnia, Amir M Farahbod
Even in the 21st century, we are losing the battle against eradication of tuberculosis (TB). In 2015, 9.6 million people were estimated to have fallen ill with TB, of which 1.5 million people died. This is the real situation despite the well-structured treatment programs and availability of effective treatment options since the 1950s. The high mortality rate has been associated with other risk factors, such as the HIV epidemic, underlying diseases, and decline of socioeconomic standards. Furthermore, the problem of drug resistance that was recognized in the early days of the chemotherapeutic era raises serious concerns...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043508/proteome-scale-mdr-tb-antibody-responses-for-identification-of-putative-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
Shamsi Yari, Alireza Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Mostafa Ghanei, Seyed Davar Siadat, Fatemeh Yari, A Bahrmand
OBJECTIVE: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that do not respond to isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most effective first-line anti-TB drugs. Here, we designed and produced antibodies based on biomarkers that exist only in MDR-TB. METHODS: Bacilli were cultured for 4weeks at 37°C, and protein extraction was performed by sequential extraction. Bacterial cells were sonicated, centrifuged at 5000rpm for 45min, and the supernatant was collected and subjected to multiple rounds of treatment to prior to protein isolation...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043500/design-and-development-of-novel-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis
#7
Rudraraju Srilakshmi Reshma, Perumal Yogeeswari, Dharmarajan Sriram
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: "The captain of all these men of death", is the apt sobriquet for the age-old disease tuberculosis (TB). Despite the availability of many drugs, cases of increasing resistance in the forms of multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant TB and persistence [characteristic of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)] make the eradication of TB a nightmare. Approval of bedaquiline by the Food and Drug Administration focused attention on quinoline scaffolds for development of new anti-TB agents...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043491/in-vitro-antimycobacterial-activity-and-toxicity-of-eight-medicinal-plants-against-pathogenic-and-nonpathogenic-mycobacterial-strains
#8
Joseph M Nguta, Regina Appiah-Opong, Alexander K Nyarko, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Phyllis G A Addo, Isaac Darko Otchere, Abena Kissi-Twum
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a serious public health challenge towards which new hits are urgently needed. Medicinal plants remains a major source of new ligands against global infectious illnesses. In our laboratories, we are currently investigating locally used ethnobotanicals for novel compounds against zoonotic tuberculosis. The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used to study the anti-TB activity while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028468/the-tuberculocidal-activity-of-polyaniline-and-functionalised-polyanilines
#9
Julia Robertson, James Dalton, Siouxsie Wiles, Marija Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, Simon Swift
Tuberculosis is considered a leading cause of death worldwide. More than 95% of cases and deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. In resource-limited countries, hospitals often lack adequate facilities to manage and isolate patients with infectious tuberculosis (TB), relying instead on personal protective equipment, such as facemasks, to reduce nosocomial transmission of the disease. Facemasks impregnated with an antimicrobial agent may be a cost-effective way of adding an extra level of protection against the spread of TB by reducing the risk of disease transmission...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018449/congenital-miliary-tuberculosis-in-an-18-day-old-boy
#10
Jue Seong Lee, Chang Hoon Lim, Eunji Kim, Hyunwook Lim, Yoon Lee, Ji Tae Choung, Young Yoo
Congenital tuberculosis (TB) is a rare disease that is associated with high mortality. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent, may be transmitted from the infected mother to the fetus by the transplacental route or by aspiration of infected amniotic fluid. Clinical symptoms and signs are not specific. Miliary patterns are the most common findings in the chest X-rays of many infants with congenital TB. In this case, an 18-day-old boy had jaundice on the fifth day of birth, and fever and respiratory distress appeared on the 18th day...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017531/recent-advancements-in-the-development-of-anti-tuberculosis-drugs
#11
REVIEW
Sarentha Chetty, Muthusamy Ramesh, Ashona Singh-Pillay, Mahmoud E S Soliman
Modern chemotherapy has significantly improved patient outcomes against drug-sensitive tuberculosis. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis, together with the bacterium's ability to persist and remain latent present a major public health challenge. To overcome this problem, research into novel anti-tuberculosis targets and drug candidates is thus of paramount importance. This review article provides an overview of tuberculosis highlighting the recent advances and tools that are employed in the field of anti-tuberculosis drug discovery...
November 29, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012393/modulatory-effect-of-standardised-amentoflavone-isolated-from-juniperus-communis-l-agianst-freund-s-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-in-rats-histopathological-and-x-ray-anaysis
#12
Souravh Bais, Naveena Abrol, Yash Prashar, Renu Kumari
ETHOPHARMACOLOGIC RELEVANCE: Juniperus communis. L. is a shrub or small evergreen tree, native to Europe, South Asia, and North America, and belongs to family Cupressaceae. It has been used traditionally in unani system and in Swedish medicine as a decoction in inflammatory diseases. The main chemical constituents, which were reported in J. communis L. was α-pinene,, apigenin, sabinene, β-sitosterol, campesterol, limonene, Amentoflavone (AF), cupressuflavone, and many others. AIM: The aim of present study was to isolate the amentoflavone from the plant juniperus communis L...
December 21, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002150/screening-and-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-among-patients-receiving-biologic-agents-a-national-and-international-survey-of-rheumatologists
#13
Nhu Quynh Tran, Melinda Garcia-Rosell, Debendra Pattanaik, Syed Hasan Raza, Laura Carbone
OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand the current practice patterns of both US and international members of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) in this regard. METHODS: A set of questionnaires developed by a focus group of faculties and fellows of the Rheumatology Division of University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, was sent electronically using an online survey tool to 4433 rheumatologists who are ACR members in the United States and internationally...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999020/spectinamides-are-effective-partner-agents-for-the-treatment-of-tuberculosis-in-multiple-mouse-infection-models
#14
Gregory T Robertson, Michael S Scherman, David F Bruhn, Jiuyu Liu, Courtney Hastings, Michael R McNeil, Michelle M Butler, Terry L Bowlin, Robin B Lee, Richard E Lee, Anne J Lenaerts
OBJECTIVES: New drug regimens employing combinations of existing and experimental antimicrobial agents are needed to shorten treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in humans. The spectinamides are narrow-spectrum semisynthetic analogues of spectinomycin, modified to avoid intrinsic efflux by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Spectinamides, including lead 1599, have been previously shown to exhibit a promising therapeutic profile in mice as single agents. Here we explore the in vivo activity of lead spectinamides when combined with other agents...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994580/correlation-of-rpob-mutations-with-minimal-inhibitory-concentration-of-rifampin-and-rifabutin-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-an-hiv-aids-endemic-setting-south-africa
#15
Ivy Rukasha, Halima M Said, Shaheed V Omar, Hendrik Koornhof, Andries W Dreyer, Alfred Musekiwa, Harry Moultrie, Anwar A Hoosen, Gilla Kaplan, Dorothy Fallows, Nazir Ismail
Treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV co-infections is often complicated by drug-to-drug interactions between anti-mycobacterial and anti-retroviral agents. Rifabutin (RFB) is an alternative to rifampin (RIF) for TB regimens and is recommended for HIV patients concurrently receiving protease inhibitors because of reduced induction of CYP3A4. This study sought to determine the proportion of RFB susceptible isolates among RIF-resistant strains in a high HIV prevalence setting in South Africa. In addition, the study explored the association between rpoB mutations and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of RIF and RFB...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994440/use-of-bedaquiline-and-delamanid-in-diabetes-patients-clinical-and-pharmacological-considerations
#16
REVIEW
Minhui Hu, Chunlan Zheng, Feng Gao
Antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment may be affected by both diabetes and hypoglycemic agents in patients with these 2 comorbidities. However, data supporting this conclusion relate only to standard anti-TB therapies. Sirturo(®) (bedaquiline) and Deltyba(®) (delamanid), novel drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), are recommended for diabetes patients when another effective treatment regimen cannot be provided. Currently, there are no clinical data related to the use of these agents in diabetes patients...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976597/mycobacterial-cell-wall-biosynthesis-a-multifaceted-antibiotic-target
#17
Katherine A Abrahams, Gurdyal S Besra
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), is recognized as a global health emergency as promoted by the World Health Organization. Over 1 million deaths per year, along with the emergence of multi- and extensively-drug resistant strains of Mtb, have triggered intensive research into the pathogenicity and biochemistry of this microorganism, guiding the development of anti-TB chemotherapeutic agents. The essential mycobacterial cell wall, sharing some common features with all bacteria, represents an apparent 'Achilles heel' that has been targeted by TB chemotherapy since the advent of TB treatment...
December 15, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951471/bioanalysis-of-antitubercular-drugs-using-liquid-chromatography
#18
REVIEW
Kanumuri Siva Rama Raju, Manoj Gundeti, Mohd Yaseen Malik, Naveen Kadian, Mamunur Rashid, Isha Taneja, Sheelendra Pratap Singh, Muhammad Wahajuddin
Tuberculosis is a life threatening disease and second to HIV in terms of deaths due to infectious diseases. Drug resistance development of the first-line drugs is a major concern in the treatment of this disease. There is no comprehensive and critical review in the literature of the bioanalytical methods for the determination of anti-tubercular agents from last two decades. This work offers a detailed account on the liquid chromatographic methods reported in the literature for the estimation of various anti-tubercular drugs...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939596/unb-dpc-identify-mycobacterial-membrane-protein-types-by-incorporating-un-biased-dipeptide-composition-into-chou-s-general-pseaac
#19
Muslim Khan, Maqsood Hayat, Sher Afzal Khan, Nadeem Iqbal
This study investigates an efficient and accurate computational method for predicating mycobacterial membrane protein. Mycobacterium is a pathogenic bacterium which is the causative agent of tuberculosis and leprosy. The existing feature encoding algorithms for protein sequence representation such as composition and translation, and split amino acid composition cannot suitably express the mycobacterium membrane protein and their types due to biasness among different types. Therefore, in this study a novel un-biased dipeptide composition (Unb-DPC) method is proposed...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931688/antimycobacterial-mechanism-of-vanillin-involves-disruption-of-cell-surface-integrity-virulence-attributes-and-iron-homeostasis
#20
Sharda Sharma, Rahul Pal, Saif Hameed, Zeeshan Fatima
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global threat, claiming one-third of the population annually. The ever increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is the major impediment to effective anti-TB therapy. Under such circumstances, deciphering the antimycobacterial potential of natural compounds has gained considerable prominence. This study evaluated the antimycobacterial activity of vanillin (Van), a natural food-flavoring agent and preservative, along with its potential mechanisms of action...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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