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Antibacterial agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343241/in-vitro-activity-of-alpha-mangostin-in-killing-and-eradicating-staphylococcus-epidermidis-rp62a-biofilms
#1
Murugesan Sivaranjani, Manivannan Prakash, Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Janarthanam Rathna, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Arumugam Veera Ravi
Alpha-mangostin (α-MG) has been reported to be an effective antibacterial agent against planktonic cells of many Gram-positive bacteria. However, the antibiofilm potency of α-MG remains unexplored till date. In this study, the antibiofilm and mature biofilm eradication ability of α-MG against Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A (ATCC 35984) biofilms were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of α-MG against S. epidermidis RP62A were found to be 1...
March 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339349/is-triclosan-a-neurotoxic-agent
#2
Joanna A Ruszkiewicz, Shaojun Li, Maliya B Rodriguez, Michael Aschner
Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial agent that has been used in many products since 1960s. Given its broad usage as an antiseptic TCS is present ubiquitously in the environment. Trace levels of TCS continue to be detected in many organisms, and it has been shown to be particularly toxic to aquatic species. The mechanisms underlying TCS-mediated toxicity include hormone dyshomeostasis, induction of oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation. Although TCS has been considered to be non-toxic to mammals, the adverse effects of continuous, long-term and low concentration exposure remain unknown...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339292/thymbra-capitata-essential-oil-as-potential-therapeutic-agent-against-gardnerella-vaginalis-biofilm-related-infections
#3
Daniela Machado, Carlos Gaspar, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Carlos Cavaleiro, Lígia Salgueiro, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Nuno Cerca
AIM: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Thymbra capitata essential oil and its main compound, carvacrol, against Gardnerella vaginalis grown planktonically and as biofilms, and its effect of vaginal lactobacilli. MATERIALS & METHODS: Minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal lethal concentration determination and flow cytometry analysis were used to assess the antibacterial effect against planktonic cells. Antibiofilm activity was measured through quantification of biomass and visualization of biofilm structure by confocal laser scanning microscopy...
March 24, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338319/postmetalated-zirconium-metal-organic-frameworks-as-a-highly-potent-bactericide
#4
Boushra Mortada, Tamara Abou Matar, Aya Sakaya, Hala Atallah, Zeinab Kara Ali, Pierre Karam, Mohamad Hmadeh
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as an important class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials. One of the reasons they have gained remarkable attention is attributed to the possibility of altering them by postsynthetic modification, thereby providing access to new and novel advanced materials. MOFs have been applied in catalysis, gas storage, gas separation, chemical sensing, and drug delivery. However, their bactericidal use has rarely been explored. Herein, we developed a two-step process for the synthesis of zirconium-based MOFs metalated with silver cations as a potent antibacterial agent...
March 24, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337580/bacteriophage-encoded-virion-associated-enzymes-to-overcome-the-carbohydrate-barriers-during-the-infection-process
#5
REVIEW
Agnieszka Latka, Barbara Maciejewska, Grazyna Majkowska-Skrobek, Yves Briers, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that infect the host after successful receptor recognition and adsorption to the cell surface. The irreversible adherence followed by genome material ejection into host cell cytoplasm must be preceded by the passage of diverse carbohydrate barriers such as capsule polysaccharides (CPSs), O-polysaccharide chains of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules, extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) forming biofilm matrix, and peptidoglycan (PG) layers. For that purpose, bacteriophages are equipped with various virion-associated carbohydrate active enzymes, termed polysaccharide depolymerases and lysins, that recognize, bind, and degrade the polysaccharide compounds...
March 23, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336840/spectroscopic-characterization-of-copper-chitosan-nanoantimicrobials-prepared-by-laser-ablation-synthesis-in-aqueous-solutions
#6
Maria Chiara Sportelli, Annalisa Volpe, Rosaria Anna Picca, Adriana Trapani, Claudio Palazzo, Antonio Ancona, Pietro Mario Lugarà, Giuseppe Trapani, Nicola Cioffi
Copper-chitosan (Cu-CS) nanoantimicrobials are a novel class of bioactive agents, providing enhanced and synergistic efficiency in the prevention of biocontamination in several application fields, from food packaging to biomedical. Femtosecond laser pulses were here exploited to disrupt a Cu solid target immersed into aqueous acidic solutions containing different CS concentrations. After preparation, Cu-CS colloids were obtained by tuning both Cu/CS molar ratios and laser operating conditions. As prepared Cu-CS colloids were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), to study copper complexation with the biopolymer...
December 30, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335363/antimicrobial-antioxidant-and-anticancer-activities-of-biosynthesized-silver-nanoparticles-using-marine-algae-ecklonia-cava
#7
Jayachandran Venkatesan, Se-Kwon Kim, Min Suk Shim
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has gained great interest as a simple and eco-friendly alternative to conventional chemical methods. In this study, AgNPs were synthesized by using extracts of marine algae Ecklonia cava as reducing and capping agents. The formation of AgNPs using aqueous extract of Ecklonia cava was confirmed visually by color change and their surface plasmon resonance peak at 418 nm, measured by UV-visible spectroscopy. The size, shape, and morphology of the biosynthesized AgNPs were observed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis...
December 6, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335288/biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-taxus-yunnanensis-callus-and-their-antibacterial-activity-and-cytotoxicity-in-human-cancer-cells
#8
Qian Hua Xia, Yan Jun Ma, Jian Wen Wang
Plant constituents could act as chelating/reducing or capping agents for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The green synthesis of AgNPs has been considered as an environmental friendly and cost-effective alternative to other fabrication methods. The present work described the biosynthesis of AgNPs using callus extracts from Taxus yunnanensis and evaluated their antibacterial activities in vitro and potential cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Callus extracts were able to reduce silver nitrate at 1 mM in 10 min...
September 1, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335265/green-synthesis-of-hierarchically-structured-silver-polymer-nanocomposites-with-antibacterial-activity
#9
María Jesús Hortigüela, Luis Yuste, Fernando Rojo, Inmaculada Aranaz
The in situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) aided by chondroitin sulfate and the preparation of a hierarchically structured silver-polymer nanocomposite with antimicrobial activity is shown. Green synthesis of AgNPs is carried out by thermal treatment (80 and 90 °C) or UV irradiation of a chondroitin sulfate solution containing AgNO₃ without using any further reducing agents or stabilizers. Best control of the AgNPs size and polydispersity was achieved by UV irradiation. The ice-segregation-induced self-assembly (ISISA) process, in which the polymer solution containing the AgNPs is frozen unidirectionally, and successively freeze-drying were employed to produce the chondroitin sulfate 3D scaffolds...
July 25, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335264/antimicrobial-properties-of-biofunctionalized-silver-nanoparticles-on-clinical-isolates-of-streptococcus-mutans-and-its-serotypes
#10
Ángel Manuel Martínez-Robles, Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez, Norma Verónica Zavala-Alonso, Rita Elizabeth Martinez-Martinez, Facundo Ruiz, René Homero Lara-Castro, Alejandro Donohué-Cornejo, Simón Yobanny Reyes-López, León Francisco Espinosa-Cristóbal
(1) Background: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the principal pathogen involved in the formation of dental caries. Other systemic diseases have also been associated with specific S. mutans serotypes (c, e, f, and k). Silver nanoparticles (SNP) have been demonstrated to have good antibacterial effects against S. mutans; therefore, limited studies have evaluated the antimicrobial activity of biofunctionalized SNP on S. mutans serotypes. The purpose of this work was to prepare and characterize coated SNP using two different organic components and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of SNP in clinical isolates of S...
July 22, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335246/quaternized-carboxymethyl-chitosan-based-silver-nanoparticles-hybrid-microwave-assisted-synthesis-characterization-and-antibacterial-activity
#11
Siqi Huang, Jing Wang, Yang Zhang, Zhiming Yu, Chusheng Qi
A facile, efficient, and eco-friendly approach for the preparation of uniform silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was developed. The synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 8 min, using laboratory-prepared, water-soluble quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan (QCMC) as a chemical reducer and stabilizer and silver nitrate as the silver source. The structure of the prepared QCMC was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
June 17, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335201/size-and-shape-dependent-antibacterial-studies-of-silver-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-wet-chemical-routes
#12
Muhammad Akram Raza, Zakia Kanwal, Anum Rauf, Anjum Nasim Sabri, Saira Riaz, Shahzad Naseem
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of different shapes and sizes were prepared by solution-based chemical reduction routes. Silver nitrate was used as a precursor, tri-sodium citrate (TSC) and sodium borohydride as reducing agents, while polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a stabilizing agent. The morphology, size, and structural properties of obtained nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Spherical AgNPs, as depicted by SEM, were found to have diameters in the range of 15 to 90 nm while lengths of the edges of the triangular particles were about 150 nm...
April 15, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335198/gold-nanoparticles-an-efficient-antimicrobial-agent-against-enteric-bacterial-human-pathogen
#13
Shahzadi Shamaila, Noshin Zafar, Saira Riaz, Rehana Sharif, Jawad Nazir, Shahzad Naseem
Enteric bacterial human pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are the major cause of diarrheal infections in children and adults. Their structure badly affects the human immune system. It is important to explore new antibacterial agents instead of antibiotics for treatment. This project is an attempt to explain how gold nanoparticles affect these bacteria. We investigated the important role of the mean particle size, and the inhibition of a bacterium is dose-dependent...
April 14, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335189/synergistic-antibacterial-effects-of-nanoparticles-encapsulated-with-scutellaria-baicalensis-and-pure-chlorhexidine-on-oral-bacterial-biofilms
#14
Ken Cham-Fai Leung, Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne, Xuan Li, Ping Chung Leung, Clara Bik San Lau, Chi-Hin Wong, Ka Yan Pang, Chun Wai Wong, Elaine Wat, Lijian Jin
Scutellariabaicalensis (SB) is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases. Our recent study shows potent antibacterial effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine (Nano-CHX). Herein, we explored the synergistic effects of the nanoparticle-encapsulated SB (Nano-SB) and Nano-CHX on oral bacterial biofilms. Loading efficiency of Nano-SB was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, and its releasing profile was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatographyusing baicalin (a flavonoid compound of SB) as the marker...
April 7, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334702/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-7-substituted-6-fluoroquinolone-and-7-substituted-6-8-difluoroquinolone-derivatives
#15
Socorro Leyva-Ramos, Denisse de Loera, Jaime Cardoso-Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are widely prescribed synthetic antimicrobial agents. Quinolones act by converting their targets, gyrase and topoisomerase IV, into toxic enzymes that fragment the bacterial chromosome; the irreversible DNA damage eventually causes the killing of bacteria. Thorough knowledge of the structure-activity relationship of quinolones is essential for the development of new drugs with improved activity against resistant strains. METHODS: The compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against 4 representing strains using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
March 24, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331913/biological-properties-and-chemical-composition-of-jatropha-neopauciflora-pax
#16
A B Hernández-Hernández, F J Alarcón-Aguilar, M Jiménez-Estrada, L B Hernández-Portilla, C M Flores-Ortiz, M A Rodríguez-Monroy, M Canales-Martínez
BACKGROUND: Ethnopharmacological relevance. Jatropha neopauciflora (Pax) is an endemic species of the Tehuacan- Cuicatlan Valley, Mexico. This species has long been used as a remedy to alleviate illnesses of bacterial, fungal and viral origin. Aim of the study. Experimentally test the traditional use of Jatropha neopauciflora in Mexican traditional medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanol extract (MeOH1), of Jatropha neopauciflora (Euphorbiaceae) was obtained by maceration...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330893/analysis-of-mic-and-disk-diffusion-testing-variables-for-gepotidacin-and-comparator-agents-against-select-bacterial-pathogens
#17
L K Koeth, J M DiFranco-Fisher, N E Scangarella-Oman, L A Miller
This study was conducted to determine the effect of testing parameters on the in vitro activity of gepotidacin, a new triazaacenaphthylene antibacterial agent for the treatment of conventional and biothreat pathogens. CLSI methods, and variations of these methods were used to test 10 Staphylococcus aureus, 10 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 10 Haemophilus influenzae, and 5 Escherichia coli by MIC and 30 S. aureus, 15 S. pneumoniae and 15 S. pyogenes by disk diffusion (DD) methods. Levofloxacin and linezolid were tested as comparator agents for MIC and DD methods, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330268/antimicrobial-activity-of-pvp-coated-silver-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-lysinibacillus-varians
#18
Divya Bhatia, Ashwani Mittal, Deepak Kumar Malik
Emergence of resistant microbes to conventional antibiotics and increased emphasis on health-care costs has raised the concern for the development of new effective antimicrobial reagents. Silver nanoparticles being an excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial agent could be considered as a suitable alternative for existing antibiotic. This study demonstrates the extra-cellular synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles using supernatant of Lysinibacillus varians. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible spectrum analysis, X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and FT-IR analysis...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330162/evaluation-of-silver-nanoparticles-synthetic-potential-of-couroupita-guianensis-aubl-flower-buds-extract-and-their-synergistic-antibacterial-activity
#19
T Venkata Rajesh Kumar, J S R Murthy, Madamsetti Narayana Rao, Y Bhargava
The present investigation demonstrates Couroupita guianensis flower buds extract mediated synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Instant formation of AgNPs was primarily confirmed by the appearance of yellowish brown colour and characteristic silver SPR band in the UV-visible spectrum. Elemental and crystalline natures of the AgNPs were identified from EDX and XRD pattern, respectively. Spherical morphology and the mono-disparity were revealed from TEM and AFM images. The particle size ranged from 5 to 30 nm and average size of 17 nm was consistent in XRD, TEM and AFM measurements...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330154/inhibition-of-a-sulfate-reducing-bacterium-desulfovibrio-marinisediminis-gsr3-by-biosynthesized-copper-oxide-nanoparticles
#20
Kiana Alasvand Zarasvand, V Ravishankar Rai
To control the severe problem of microbiologically influenced corrosion, industries require highly potent antibacterial agent which can inhibit the growth of bacteria on man-made surfaces. This need drove the research towards the synthesis of nanoscale antimicrobial compounds. We, therefore, screened several bacteria for the biosynthesis of copper/copper compound nanoparticles which could inhibit the growth of Desulfovibrio marinisediminis, a sulfate reducing bacterium. Supernatant of thirty bacteria isolated from the biofilm formed on ship hull was mixed with 1 mM CuCl2 solution at room temperature...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
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