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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155878/irhom2-is-essential-for-innate-immunity-to-rna-virus-by-antagonizing-er-and-mitochondria-associated-degradation-of-visa
#1
Wei-Wei Luo, Shu Li, Chen Li, Zhou-Qin Zheng, Pan Cao, Zhen Tong, Huan Lian, Su-Yun Wang, Hong-Bing Shu, Yan-Yi Wang
VISA (also known as MAVS, IPS-1 and Cardif) is an essential adaptor protein in innate immune response to RNA virus. The protein level of VISA is delicately regulated before and after viral infection to ensure the optimal activation and timely termination of innate antiviral response. It has been reported that several E3 ubiquitin ligases can mediate the degradation of VISA, but how the stability of VISA is maintained before and after viral infection remains enigmatic. In this study, we found that the ER-associated inactive rhomboid protein 2 (iRhom2) plays an essential role in mounting an efficient innate immune response to RNA virus by maintaining the stability of VISA through distinct mechanisms...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155588/determination-of-equilibrium-constant-and-relative-brightness-in-fret-fcs-by-including-the-third-order-correlations
#2
Lingyi Meng, Shanshan He, Xin Sheng Zhao
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) encodes the information of the equilibrium constant (K), the relative fluorescence brightness of fluorophore (Q), and the forward and backward reaction rate constants (k+ and k-) on a physical or chemical relaxation. However, it has been a long-standing problem to completely resolve the FCS data to get the thermodynamic and kinetic information. Recently, we have solved the problem for fluorescence auto-correlation spectroscopy (FACS). Here, we extend the method to fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS), which appears when FCS is coupled with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155233/autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-systemic-sclerosis-a-reset-to-tolerance
#3
REVIEW
Femke C C van Rhijn-Brouwer, Julia Spierings, Jacob M van Laar
Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is an effective therapy for refractory autoimmune disease, in particular diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc). ASCT is the only treatment that can induce long term remission in dcSSc. However, the mechanism of action of ASCT has not yet been fully elucidated. The current hypothesis is that ASCT induces a long term 'reset' of the immune system, but there is no clear definition yet of such an immunological 'reset to tolerance', nor has it been established how to distinguish a 'reset' from long term immunosuppression...
November 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154908/auto-correlated-directional-swimming-can-enhance-settlement-success-and-connectivity-in-fish-larvae
#4
Igal Berenshtein, Claire B Paris, Hezi Gildor, Erick Fredj, Yael Amitai, Omri Lapidot, Moshe Kiflawi
Larvae of coastal-marine fishes have been shown repeatedly to swim directionally in the pelagic environment. Yet, biophysical models of larval dispersal typically impose a Simple Random Walk (SRW) algorithm to simulate non-directional movement in the open ocean. Here we investigate the use of a Correlated Random Walk (CRW) algorithm; imposing auto-correlated directional swimming onto simulated larvae within a high-resolution 3D biophysical model of the Gulf of Aqaba, the Red Sea. Our findings demonstrate that implementation of auto-correlated directional swimming can result in an increase of up to × 2...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150681/the-structure-function-relationship-measured-with-optical-coherence-tomography-and-a-microperimeter-with-auto-tracking-the-mp-3-in-patients-with-retinitis-pigmentosa
#5
Yuichi Asahina, Marie Kitano, Yohei Hashimoto, Mieko Yanagisawa, Hiroshi Murata, Tatsuya Inoue, Ryo Obata, Ryo Asaoka
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the structure-function relationship in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) using optical coherence tomography and the MP-3 microperimeter. Visual field (VF) measurements were carried out using MP-3 microperimetry and the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA, Carl-Zeiss, CA), 22 eyes of 11 patients with a clinical diagnosis of RP, both with the 10-2 test grid pattern. Optical coherence tomography (OCT, Spectralis, Heidelberg, Germany) was also performed and the ellipsoid zone (EZ) was identified in the OCT image...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150488/membrane-binding-of-and-a-self-inhibitory-interaction-within-nup155-are-required-for-nuclear-pore-complex-formation
#6
Paola De Magistris, Marianna Tatarek-Nossol, Manfred Dewor, Wolfram Antonin
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are the gateways through the nuclear envelope. How they form into a structure containing three rings and integrate into the nuclear envelope remains a challenging paradigm for coordinated assembly of macro-complexes. In vertebrates, the cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic rings of NPCs are mostly formed by multiple copies of the Nup107-Nup160 complex, whereas the central, or inner ring is composed of Nup53, Nup93, Nup155 and the two paralogues Nup188 and Nup205. Inner ring assembly is only partially understood...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147890/food-allergy-in-children-an-overview
#7
REVIEW
Jaidev M Devdas, Christopher Mckie, Adam T Fox, Vinod H Ratageri
The estimated prevalence of food allergy amongst children in the west is around 6-8% but there is paucity of data in the Indian population. There is a complex interplay of environmental influences and genetic factors in the immuno-pathogenesis and manifestations of food allergy. A reliable thorough clinical history, combined with positive skin prick tests or food-specific IgE, is essential for a more precise diagnosis of food allergy. Currently there is no cure for food allergy. The management of food allergy usually includes strict avoidance, patient education and provision of emergency medication (adrenaline-autoinjectors)...
November 17, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147767/mechanism-of-accommodation-assessed-by-change-in-precisely-registered-ocular-images-associated-with-concurrent-change-in-auto-refraction
#8
Andrzej Grzybowski, Ronald A Schachar, Magdalena Gaca-Wysocka, Ira H Schachar, Farhad Kamangar, Barbara K Pierscionek
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to determine the changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD) and central lens thickness (CLT) during pharmacologically induced accommodation. METHODS: Following pupillary dilation with phenylephrine 10%, baseline auto-refractions and swept-source optical coherence tomographic biometric images (Zeiss IOLMaster 700) were obtained from the right eyes of 25 subjects aged 19 to 24 years. Pilocarpine 4% and phenylephrine 10% were then instilled into these right eyes...
November 16, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147635/global-and-targeted-pathway-impact-of-gliomas-on-white-matter-integrity-based-on-lobar-localization
#9
David R Ormond, Shawn D'Souza, John A Thompson
Primary brain tumors comprise 28% of all tumors and 80% of malignant tumors. Pathophysiology of high-grade gliomas includes significant distortion of white matter architecture, necrosis, the breakdown of the blood brain barrier, and increased intracranial pressure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a diffusion weighted imaging technique, can be used to assess white matter architecture. Use of DTI as a non-invasive pathophysiological tool to analyze glioma impact on white matter microstructure has yet to be fully explored...
September 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147012/piperidylmethyloxychalcone-improves-immune-mediated-acute-liver-failure-via-inhibiting-tak1-activity
#10
Sun Hong Park, Jeong-Ah Kwak, Sang-Hun Jung, Byeongwoo Ahn, Won-Jea Cho, Cheong-Yong Yun, Chang Seon Na, Bang Yeon Hwang, Jin Tae Hong, Sang-Bae Han, Youngsoo Kim
Mice deficient in the toll-like receptor (TLR) or the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) are resistant to acute liver failure (ALF) with sudden death of hepatocytes. Chalcone derivatives from medicinal plants protect from hepatic damages including ALF, but their mechanisms remain to be clarified. Here, we focused on molecular basis of piperidylmethyloxychalcone (PMOC) in the treatment of TLR/MyD88-associated ALF. C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with D-galactosamine (GalN) and challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, TLR4 agonist) or oligodeoxynucleotide containing unmethylated CpG motif (CpG ODN, TLR9 agonist) for induction of ALF...
November 17, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146926/correlations-and-forecast-of-death-tolls-in-the-syrian-conflict
#11
Kazuki Fujita, Shigeru Shinomoto, Luis E C Rocha
The Syrian armed conflict has been ongoing since 2011 and has already caused thousands of deaths. The analysis of death tolls helps to understand the dynamics of the conflict and to better allocate resources and aid to the affected areas. In this article, we use information on the daily number of deaths to study temporal and spatial correlations in the data, and exploit this information to forecast events of deaths. We found that the number of violent deaths per day in Syria varies more widely than that in England in which non-violent deaths dominate...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146903/wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-protein-regulates-autophagy-and-inflammasome-activity-in-innate-immune-cells
#12
Pamela P Lee, Damián Lobato-Márquez, Nayani Pramanik, Andrea Sirianni, Vanessa Daza-Cajigal, Elizabeth Rivers, Alessia Cavazza, Gerben Bouma, Dale Moulding, Kjell Hultenby, Lisa S Westerberg, Michael Hollinshead, Yu-Lung Lau, Siobhan O Burns, Serge Mostowy, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Adrian J Thrasher
Dysregulation of autophagy and inflammasome activity contributes to the development of auto-inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence highlights the importance of the actin cytoskeleton in modulating inflammatory responses. Here we show that deficiency of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp), which signals to the actin cytoskeleton, modulates autophagy and inflammasome function. In a model of sterile inflammation utilizing TLR4 ligation followed by ATP or nigericin treatment, inflammasome activation is enhanced in monocytes from WAS patients and in WAS-knockout mouse dendritic cells...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146360/behaviour-of-trolox-with-macromolecule-bound-antioxidants-in-aqueous-medium-inhibition-of-auto-regeneration-mechanism
#13
Ecem Evrim Çelik, Jose Manuel Amigo Rubio, Vural Gökmen
This work aimed at investigating the behaviour of Trolox, vitamin E analogue, in presence of macromolecule-bound antioxidants in aqueous radical medium. Three main groups of macromolecule-bound antioxidants were assayed: dietary fiber (DF), protein and lipid-bound antioxidants, represented by whole wheat, soybean and olive oil products, respectively. Experimental studies were carried out in aqueous ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical medium. Trolox and macromolecule-bound antioxidants were added to radical separately and together in different concentrations...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145876/standing-on-slopes-how-current-microprocessor-controlled-prosthetic-feet-support-transtibial-and-transfemoral-amputees-in-an-everyday-task
#14
Michael Ernst, Björn Altenburg, Malte Bellmann, Thomas Schmalz
BACKGROUND: Conventional prosthetic feet like energy storage and return feet provide only a limited range of ankle motion compared to human ones. In order to overcome the poor rotational adaptability, prosthetic manufacturers developed different prosthetic feet with an additional rotational joint and implemented active control in different states. It was the aim of the study to investigate to what extent these commercially available microprocessor-controlled prosthetic feet support a natural posture while standing on inclines and which concept is most beneficial for lower limb amputees...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144817/seasonal-variation-of-vitamin-d-and-serum-thyrotropin-levels-and-its-relationship-in-a-euthyroid-caucasian-population
#15
Gautam Das, Peter N Taylor, Heather Javaid, Brian P Tennant, John Geen, Andrew Aldridge, Onyebuchi Okosieme
OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether seasonal variations in vitamin D concentrations affect the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. We investigated the seasonal variability of vitamin D and serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels and their inter-relationship. METHODS: Analysis of 401 patients referred with non-specific symptoms of tiredness who had simultaneous measurements of 25(OH)D3 and thyroid function. Patients were categorised according to the season of blood sampling and their vitamin D status...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144298/flood-forecasting-within-urban-drainage-systems-using-narx-neural-network
#16
Yves Abou Rjeily, Oras Abbas, Marwan Sadek, Isam Shahrour, Fadi Hage Chehade
Urbanization activity and climate change increase the runoff volumes, and consequently the surcharge of the urban drainage systems (UDS). In addition, age and structural failures of these utilities limit their capacities, and thus generate hydraulic operation shortages, leading to flooding events. The large increase in floods within urban areas requires rapid actions from the UDS operators. The proactivity in taking the appropriate actions is a key element in applying efficient management and flood mitigation...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143932/forecasting-carbon-dioxide-emissions-based-on-a-hybrid-of-mixed-data-sampling-regression-model-and-back-propagation-neural-network-in-the-usa
#17
Xin Zhao, Meng Han, Lili Ding, Adrian Cantemir Calin
The accurate forecast of carbon dioxide emissions is critical for policy makers to take proper measures to establish a low carbon society. This paper discusses a hybrid of the mixed data sampling (MIDAS) regression model and BP (back propagation) neural network (MIDAS-BP model) to forecast carbon dioxide emissions. Such analysis uses mixed frequency data to study the effects of quarterly economic growth on annual carbon dioxide emissions. The forecasting ability of MIDAS-BP is remarkably better than MIDAS, ordinary least square (OLS), polynomial distributed lags (PDL), autoregressive distributed lags (ADL), and auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) models...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142807/silver-nanoparticle-human-hemoglobin-interface-time-evolution-of-the-corona-formation-and-interaction-phenomenon
#18
A K Bhunia, T Kamilya, S Saha
In this paper, we have used spectroscopic and electron microscopic analysis to monitor the time evolution of the silver nanoparticles (Ag NP)-human hemoglobin (Hb) corona formation and to characterize the interaction of the Ag NPs with Hb. The time constants for surface plasmon resonance binding and reorganization are found to be 9.51 and 118.48 min, respectively. The drop of surface charge and the increase of the hydrodynamic diameter indicated the corona of Hb on the Ag NP surface. The auto correlation function is found to broaden with the increasing time of the corona formation...
2017: Nano Convergence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142193/pten-is-a-protein-phosphatase-that-targets-active-ptk6-and-inhibits-ptk6-oncogenic-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#19
Darren J Wozniak, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Virgilia Macias, Susan Ball-Kell, Morgan L Zenner, Wenjun Bie, Angela L Tyner
PTEN activity is often lost in prostate cancer. We show that the tyrosine kinase PTK6 (BRK) is a PTEN substrate. Phosphorylation of PTK6 tyrosine 342 (PY342) promotes activation, while phosphorylation of tyrosine 447 (PY447) regulates auto-inhibition. Introduction of PTEN into a PTEN null prostate cancer cell line leads to dephosphorylation of PY342 but not PY447 and PTK6 inhibition. Conversely, PTEN knockdown promotes PTK6 activation in PTEN positive cells. Using a variety of PTEN mutant constructs, we show that protein phosphatase activity of PTEN targets PTK6, with efficiency similar to PTP1B, a phosphatase that directly dephosphorylates PTK6 Y342...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141920/parathyroid-hormone-related-protein-modulates-mice-mesangial-cells-inflammation-and-blunts-apoptosis-by-enhancing-cox-2-expression
#20
Mazène Hochane, Denis Raison, Catherine Coquard, Claire Béraud, Audrey Bethry, Sabrina Danilin, Thierry Massfelder, Mariette Barthelmebs
Mesangial cell (MC) injury is a prominent feature of glomerulonephritis. Activated MC secretes inflammatory mediators which induce cell apoptosis. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is a locally active cytokine that enhances cell survival and is upregulated by pro-inflammatory factors in many cell types. The aim of this study was to analyze the regulation of PTHrP expression by inflammatory cytokines, and to evaluate whether PTHrP itself acts as a pro-inflammatory and/or survival factor on male murine MC in primary culture...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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