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Ariel Finkielsztein, Lorraine Mascarenhas, Veronika Butin-Israeli, Ronen Sumagin
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil-derived microparticles (PMN)-MPs) are lipid bilayer, spherical microvesicles with sizes ranging from 50-1,000 nm in diameter. MPs are a newly evolving, important part of cell-to-cell communication and signaling machinery. Because of their size and the nature of their release, until recently MP existence was overlooked. However, with improved technology and analytical methods their function in health and disease is now emerging. The protocols presented here are aimed at isolating and characterizing PMN-MPs by flow cytometry and immunoblotting...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jiexian Ma, Yingwei Hu, Min Wu, Xiaoqin Wang, Yanhui Xie
Patients who receive a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) exhibit an immune defect after recovering from neutropenia. The current guidelines do not recommend fungal prophylaxis in these patients, except for grades III to IV GVHD in HSCT. Thus, the timing for the initiation and cessation of IFI prophylaxis in immune-compromised patients remains a challenging endeavor. We retrospectively analyzed patients who received auto or allo-HSCT and monitored their immune function after recovering from neutropenia by measuring the levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, as well as the number of T, B, NK cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Wei Chen, Suhong Pan, Hao Cheng, Andrew J Sweetman, Hao Zhang, Kevin C Jones
A passive water sampler based on the diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) technique was developed and tested for 3 groups of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs, including oestrogens, alkyl-phenols and bisphenols). Three different resins (hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced (HLB), XAD18 and Strata-XL-A (SXLA)) were investigated for their suitability as the binding phase for DGT devices. Laboratory tests across a range of pH (3.5-9.5), ionic strength (0.001-0.5 M) and dissolved organic matter concentration (0-20 mg L-1 ) showed HLB and XAD18-DGT devices were more stable compared to SXLA-DGT...
March 12, 2018: Water Research
Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Abdelfattah Z M Salem, German Buendía-Rodríguez, Raymundo Rene Rivas-Cáceres
The desideratum aim of the present context was to isolate a promising antagonist probiotic bacterium from fermented food item as biocontrol agent against uropathogens. Among diversified isolates evaluated for antagonistic trait, Staphylococcus succinus strain AAS2 was found to be an auspicious candidate against urinary tract infection (UTI) causing bacterial pathogens, being the most active against Staphylococcus aureus with substantial activity of 352.5 ± 5.4 AU/mL. Further, the in vitro probiotic attributes of strain AAS2 was assessed using systematic methodology...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Laura E Downie, Cecilia Naranjo Golborne, Merry Chen, Ngoc Ho, Cam Hoac, Dasun Liyanapathirana, Carol Luo, Ruo Bing Wu, Holly R Chinnery
Our aim was to compare regeneration of the sub-basal nerve plexus (SBNP) and superficial nerve terminals (SNT) following corneal epithelial injury. We also sought to compare agreement when quantifying nerve parameters using different image-analysis techniques. Anesthetized, female C57BL/6 mice received central 1-mm corneal epithelial abrasions. Four-weeks post-injury, eyes were enucleated and processed for PGP9.5 to visualize the corneal nerves using wholemount immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy...
March 14, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Marko Barjaktarović, Milica M Janković, Marija Jeremić, Milovan Matović
Radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is used in clinical practice for the ablation of thyroid residues and/or destruction of tumour tissue. Whole-body scintigraphy for visualization of the spatial 131I distribution performed by a gamma camera (GC) is a standard procedure in DTC patients after application of radioiodine therapy. A common problem is the precise topographic localization of regions where radioiodine is accumulated even in SPECT imaging. SPECT/CT can provide precise topographic localization of regions where radioiodine is accumulated, but it is often unavailable, especially in developing countries because of the high price of the equipment...
March 9, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Cheng Jin, Jianjiang Feng, Lei Wang, Heng Yu, Jiang Liu, Jiwen Lu, Jie Zhou
In this paper, we present an approach for left atrial appendage (LAA) multi-phase fast segmentation and quantitative assisted diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) based on 4D-CT data. We take full advantage of the temporal dimension information to segment the living, flailed LAA based on a parametric max-flow method and graph-cut approach to build 3-D model of each phase. To assist the diagnosis of AF, we calculate the volumes of 3-D models, and then generate a "volume-phase" curve to calculate the important dynamic metrics: ejection fraction, filling flux, and emptying flux of the LAA's blood by volume...
March 9, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Erica J Brodie, Simona Infantino, Michael S Y Low, David M Tarlinton
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a progressive autoimmune disease characterized by increased sensitivity to self-antigens, auto-antibody production, and systemic inflammation. B cells have been implicated in disease progression and as such represent an attractive therapeutic target. Lyn is a Src family tyrosine kinase that plays a major role in regulating signaling pathways within B cells as well as other hematopoietic cells. Its role in initiating negative signaling cascades is especially critical as exemplified by Lyn-/- mice developing an SLE-like disease with plasma cell hyperplasia, underscoring the importance of tightly regulating signaling within B cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Francesco Consolato, Francesca Maltecca, Susanna Tulli, Irene Sambri, Giorgio Casari
The proteolytic processing of dynamin like GTPase OPA1, mediated by the activity of both YME1L1 ( i- AAA protease complex) and OMA1, is a crucial step in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. OMA1 is a zinc metallopeptidase of the inner mitochondrial membrane that undergoes pre-activating proteolytic and auto-proteolytic cleavage after mitochondrial import. Here, we identify AFG3L2 ( m- AAA complex) as the major protease mediating this event by maturing the pre-pro-OMA1 of 60 kDa to the pro-OMA1 form of 40 kDa by severing the amino-terminal part without recognizing specific consensus sequence...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Fanny Cortes, Celina Maria Turchi Martelli, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, João Bosco Siqueira Junior, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Neal Alexander, Wayner Vieira de Souza
The aim of the study was to evaluate the temporal patterns of dengue incidence from 2001 to 2014 and forecast for 2015 in two Brazilian cities. We analysed dengue surveillance data (SINAN) from Recife, 1.6 million population, and Goiania, 1.4 million population. We used Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) modelling of monthly notified dengue incidence (2001 to 2014). Forecasting models (95% prediction interval) were developed to predict numbers of dengue cases for 2015. During the study period, 73,479 dengue cases were reported in Recife varying from 11 cases/100,000 inhab (2004) to 2,418 cases/100,000 inhab (2002)...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Iram Iqbal Hejazi, Rashmin Khanam, Syed Hassan Mehdi, Abdul Roouf Bhat, M Moshahid Alam Rizvi, Sonu Chand Thakur, Fareeda Athar
Plant phytoconstituents have been a valuable source of clinically important anticancer agents. Antioxidant and anticancerous activity of plant Curculigo orchioides Gaertn were explored In vitro antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity of oxidatively stressed tissue, and cell culture studies on human cancer cell lines HepG2, HeLa and MCF-7 were carried out. Active plant fractions were subjected to GC-MS analysis and compounds selected on the basis of their abundance were screened in silico with the help of Auto Dock 4...
March 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
António M Galvão, Dariusz Skarzynski, Graça Ferreira-Dias
Successful pregnancy establishment demands optimal luteal function in mammals. Nonetheless, regression of the corpus luteum (CL) is absolutely necessary for normal female cyclicity. This dichotomy relies on intricate molecular signals and rapidly activated biological responses, such as angiogenesis, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, or programmed cell death. The CL establishment and growth after ovulation depend not only on the luteinizing hormone-mediated endocrine signal but also on a number of auto-, paracrine interactions promoted by cytokines and growth factors like fibroblast growth factor 2, vascular endothelial growth factor A, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF), which coordinate vascularigenesis and ECM reorganization as well as steroidogenesis...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Hythem Sidky, Jonathan K Whitmer
Existing adaptive bias techniques, which seek to estimate free energies and physical properties from molecular simulations, are limited by their reliance on fixed kernels or basis sets which hinder their ability to efficiently conform to varied free energy landscapes. Further, user-specified parameters are in general non-intuitive yet significantly affect the convergence rate and accuracy of the free energy estimate. Here we propose a novel method, wherein artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to develop an adaptive biasing potential which learns free energy landscapes...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Per Jonsson, Lorentz Lindmark, Jan Axelsson, Lars Karlsson, Lennart Lundberg, Bernd Stegmayr
We were encouraged to investigate the reasons for large amounts of foam observed in bloodlines during hemodialysis (HD). Foam was visible in the venous air trap within the Artis Gambro dialysis device. Estimates of the extent of foam were graded (0-no foam, 10-extensive foam) by two persons that were blind to the type of dialyzer used. Thirty-seven patients were involved in the dialysis procedures. Consecutive dialyses were graded using dialyzers from Fresenius Medical Care (CorDiax dialyzers that were used for high flux HD-FX80 and FX100, and for hemodiafiltration-FX1000)...
March 15, 2018: Artificial Organs
Bruna Maria Salotti de Souza, Taís Fernanda Borgonovi, Sabrina Neves Casarotti, Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov, Ana Lúcia Barretto Penna
The objective of this study was to evaluate the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum strains, as well as to select novel and safe strains for future development of functional fermented products. The in vitro auto-aggregation, co-aggregation, hydrophobicity, β-galactosidase production, survival to gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and antibiotic susceptibility were evaluated. The selected strains were additionally tested by the presence of genes encoding adhesion, aggregation and colonization, virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and biogenic amine production, followed by the evaluation of acidifying kinetic parameters in milk, and survival of the strains under simulated GIT conditions during refrigerated storage of fermented milk...
March 14, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Shulian Wu, Yudian Huang, Qinggong Tang, Zhifang Li, Hannah Horng, Jiatian Li, Zaihua Wu, Yu Chen, Hui Li
Preoperative neoadjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer is recognized as an effective adjuvant therapy, as it improves treatment outcomes. However, the potential complications remain a threat, so there is an urgent clinical need to assess both the tumor response and changes in its microenvironment using non-invasive and precise identification techniques. Here, two-photon microscopy was employed to detect morphological alterations in breast cancer progression and recession throughout chemotherapy...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Wei Liu, Yufeng Sun, Zhenping Cheng, Yong Guo, Peiming Liu, Ying Wen
CONTEXT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic auto-immune disease, which is characterized by chronic and symmetry synovial inflammation. Crocin has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in animal models. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of crocin on type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CIA rat model was established and randomly divided into five groups with or without crocin treatment (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg), which was started on day 21 after arthritis induction and persisted for 36 days...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Panagiotis S Athanasopoulos, Rolf Heumann, Arjan Kortholt
Mutations in human leucine-rich-repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been found to be the most frequent cause of late-onset Parkinson's Disease (PD). LRRK2 is a large protein with two enzymatic domains, a GTPase and a kinase domain. A cluster of (auto)-phosphorylation sites within the N-terminus of LRRK2 have been shown to be crucial for the localization of LRRK2 and is important for PD pathogenesis. In addition, phosphorylation of sites within the G-domain of the protein affect GTPase activity. Here we discuss the role of these (auto)-phosphorylation sites of LRRK2 and their regulation by phosphatases and upstream kinases...
March 12, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Zhuo Wang, Ya-Hong Zhang, Chuang Guo, Hui-Ling Gao, Man-Li Zhong, Ting-Ting Huang, Na-Na Liu, Rui-Fang Guo, Tian Lan, Wei Zhang, Zhan-You Wang, Pu Zhao
Although the positive relationship between copper and Alzheimer's disease (AD) was reported by a lot of epidemiological data, the mechanism is not completely known. Copper is a redox metal and serves as a mediator of inflammation. Because the homeostasis of copper is altered in Aβ precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice, the using of copper chelators is a potential therapeutic strategy for AD. Here we report that a copper chelator, tetrathiomolybdate (TM), is a potential therapeutic drug of AD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Simone Kühn, Dimitrij Tycho Kugler, Katharina Schmalen, Markus Weichenberger, Charlotte Witt, Jürgen Gallinat
It is a widespread concern that violent video games promote aggression, reduce pro-social behaviour, increase impulsivity and interfere with cognition as well as mood in its players. Previous experimental studies have focussed on short-term effects of violent video gameplay on aggression, yet there are reasons to believe that these effects are mostly the result of priming. In contrast, the present study is the first to investigate the effects of long-term violent video gameplay using a large battery of tests spanning questionnaires, behavioural measures of aggression, sexist attitudes, empathy and interpersonal competencies, impulsivity-related constructs (such as sensation seeking, boredom proneness, risk taking, delay discounting), mental health (depressivity, anxiety) as well as executive control functions, before and after 2 months of gameplay...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
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