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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626255/underlying-cause-of-death-recorded-during-2013-to-2015-at-a-tertiary-general-hospital-in-vientiane-capital-lao-pdr
#1
Bounfeng Phoummalaysith, Viengsakhone Louangpradith, Tavanh Manivon, Bounxou Keohavong, Eiko Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Hamajima
In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), the cause of death is not registered in death reports. As a result, the government cannot produce official reports that show mortality according to cause of death. This study aimed to report the underlying cause of death in a tertiary general hospital (Mittaphab Hospital) in Vientiane capital. Mittaphab hospital is a governmental teaching hospital with 300 beds for inpatient services specialized in orthopedics, neurology, and hemodialysis. Since a children hospital exists beside Mittaphab Hospital, severe pediatric cases are referred to the child hospital...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597093/-pediatric-salivary-gland-tumors-and-tumor-like-lesions
#2
REVIEW
A Agaimy, H Iro, J Zenk
Salivary gland tumors and tumor-like lesions in the pediatric population are uncommon. They comprise a heterogeneous group of infectious/inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. Pediatric salivary neoplasms include benign tumors of mesenchymal or epithelial origin as well as malignancies of epithelial (carcinomas), mesenchymal (sarcoma) or hematolymphoid (lymphoma) derivation. Infectious/inflammatory conditions and hematolymphoid malignancies may represent either genuine parenchymal pathology or conditions involving intraglandular lymph nodes of the parotid glands (intraglandular lymphadenopathy and intraglandular nodal lymphomas)...
June 9, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596843/magnitude-and-predictors-of-antiretroviral-treatment-failure-among-hiv-infected-children-in-fiche-and-kuyu-hospitals-oromia-region-ethiopia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Seid Yassin, Gebremedhin Beedemariam Gebretekle
The objective of the study was to assess the magnitude and predictors of first-line antiretroviral treatment failure among HIV-infected children. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2015. All pediatric patients of <15 years old and who took at least 6 months of ART in Fiche and Kuyu hospitals of Oromia region, Ethiopia were included in the study. Collected data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify predictors of treatment failure...
February 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591258/immune-development-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-born-to-hiv-infected-women
#4
Maristela Miyamoto, Aída F T B Gouvêa, Erika Ono, Regina Célia M Succi, Savita Pahwa, Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
Immunological and clinical findings suggestive of some immune dysfunction have been reported among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children and adolescents. Whether these defects are persistent or transitory is still unknown. HEU pediatric population at birth, 12 months, 6-12 years were evaluated in comparison to healthy age-matched HIV-unexposed controls. Plasma levels of LPS, sCD14, cytokines, lymphocyte immunophenotyping and T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) were assessed. HEU and controls had similar LPS levels, which remained low from birth to 6-12 years; for plasma sCD14, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF and MCP-1, which increased from birth to 12 months and then decreased at 6-12 years; and for TREC/106 PBMC at birth in HEU and controls...
June 1, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575201/birth-weight-and-preterm-delivery-outcomes-of-perinatally-vs-non-perinatally-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-the-u-s-results-from-the-phacs-smartt-study-and-impaact-p1025-protocol
#5
Jennifer Jao, Deborah Kacanek, Paige L Williams, Mitchell E Geffner, Elizabeth G Livingston, Rhoda S Sperling, Kunjal Patel, Arlene D Bardeguez, Sandra K Burchett, Nahida Chakhtoura, Gwendolyn B Scott, Russell B Van Dyke, Elaine J Abrams
Background: Pregnancy outcomes of perinatally HIV-infected women (PHIV) are poorly defined. Methods: We compared preterm delivery and birth weight (BW) outcomes [low BW (LBW, <2500 g), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and BW z-scores (BWZ)] in HIV-exposed uninfected infants of PHIV vs. non-perinatally HIV-infected (NPHIV) pregnant women in the PHACS SMARTT or IMPAACT P1025 studies. Mixed effects models were fit to assess the association of maternal PHIV status with infant BWZ; log binomial models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks (aRR) for dichotomous outcomes...
May 30, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566378/a-critical-role-for-monocytes-macrophages-in-the-rapid-progression-to-aids-in-pediatric-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#6
Chie Sugimoto, Kristen M Merino, Atsuhiko Hasegawa, Xiaolei Wang, Xavier A Alvarez, Hiroshi Wakao, Kazuyasu Mori, Woong-Ki Kim, Ronald S Veazey, Elizabeth S Didier, Marcelo J Kuroda
Infant humans and rhesus macaques infected with the human or simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV, SIV) respectively, express higher viral loads and progress more rapidly to AIDS than infected adults. Activated memory CD4+ T cells in intestinal tissues are major primary target cells for SIV/HIV infection and massive depletion of these cells is considered a major cause of immunodeficiency. Monocytes and macrophages are important cells of innate immunity and also are targets of HIV/SIV infection. We reported previously that high peripheral blood monocyte turnover rate was predictive for the onset of disease progression to AIDS in SIV-infected adult macaques...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566336/maternal-humoral-immune-correlates-of-peripartum-transmission-of-clade-c-hiv-1-in-the-setting-of-peripartum-antiretrovirals
#7
Charmaine P Mutucumarana, Joshua Eudailey, Erin P McGuire, Nathan Vandergrift, Gerald Tegha, Charles Chasela, Sascha Ellington, Charles van der Horst, Athena P Kourtis, Sallie R Permar, Genevieve G Fouda
Despite widespread use of antiretrovirals (ARV), more than 150,000 pediatric HIV-1 infections continue to occur annually. Supplemental strategies are necessary to eliminate pediatric HIV infections. We previously reported that maternal HIV envelope-specific anti-V3 IgG, CD4 binding site-directed antibodies, and tier 1 virus neutralization predicted reduced risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (MTCT) in the pre-ARV era US-based Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS) cohort. As the majority of ongoing pediatric HIV infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa, we sought to determine if the same maternal humoral immune correlates predicted MTCT in a subset of the Malawian Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) cohort of HIV-infected mothers (n=88, 45 transmitting and 43 non-transmitting)...
May 31, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553123/the-hiv-protease-inhibitor-nelfinavir-as-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-the-treatment-of-refractory-pediatric-leukemia
#8
Vanessa Meier-Stephenson, Justin Riemer, Aru Narendran
PURPOSE: Refractory pediatric leukemia remains one of the leading causes of death in children. Intensification of current chemotherapy regimens to improve the outcome in these children is often limited by the effects of drug resistance and cumulative toxicity. Hence, the search for newer agents and novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed to formulate the next-generation early-phase clinical trials for these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive library of antimicrobials, including eight HIV protease inhibitors (nelfinavir [NFV], saquinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, atazanavir, lopinavir, and darunavir), was tested against a panel of pediatric leukemia cells by in vitro growth inhibition studies...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538421/malnutrition-is-associated-with-hiv-infection-in-children-less-than-5-years-in-bobo-dioulasso-city-burkina-faso-a-case-control-study
#9
Ghislain Gnimbar Poda, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Jane C-J Chao
Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and malnutrition are still 2 major health issues in sub-Saharan Africa including Burkina Faso where few studies have been conducted on child malnutrition and HIV infection. This study assessed the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV infection and also compared the prevalence of malnutrition in terms of an inadequate diet, underweight, stunting, and wasting among HIV-infected and uninfected children less than 5 years in Bobo-Dioulasso city, Burkina Faso...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532715/caretakers-barriers-to-pediatric-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-vietnam-a-qualitative-and-quantitative-study
#10
C T Tran, T H Pham, K T Tran, T K C Nguyen, M Larsson
BACKGROUND: Poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence leads to drug resistance and treatment failures. The options for second and third line ART regimens, particularly for pediatric patients, are very limited in low and middle-income countries. HIV-infected children are mostly passive drug-takers, thus caretakers play a very important role in assuring ART adherence. Pediatric ART adherence is still a challenging problem in Vietnam since non-adherence is the major risk factor for treatment failure...
June 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520616/pediatric-cancer-burden-and-treatment-resources-within-the-pediatric-iedea-consortium
#11
Steven A Brown, Salma Abbas, Mary-Ann Davies, Torsak Bunupuradah, Annette H Sohn, Karl-Günter Technau, Lorna Renner, Valériane Leroy, Andrew Edmonds, Marcel Yotebieng, Catherine C McGowan, Stephany N Duda, Lynne Mofenson, Beverly Musick, Kara Wools-Kaloustian
INTRODUCTION: The incidence and treatment of cancer in HIV-infected children from resource-limited settings has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVES: Develop and implement a cross-sectional survey to evaluate pediatric cancer burden, diagnostic modalities in use, and treatment availability as perceived by HIV clinic staff at regional International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) sites. METHODS: IeDEA regional investigators developed a cross-sectional clinical site survey which included questions on the numbers and types of pediatric cancers observed, modalities used to treat identified cancers and treatment options available at individual sites in the Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, and Southern Africa regions...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505015/virologic-response-to-first-line-efavirenz-or-nevirapine-based-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-african-children
#12
Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Alexander J Szubert, Moira Spyer, Richard Katuramu, Victor Musiime, Tawanda Mhute, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Oscar Senfuma, Ann Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Poorer virologic response to nevirapine- versus efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been reported in adult systematic reviews and pediatric studies. METHODS: We compared drug discontinuation and viral load (VL) response in ART-naïve Ugandan/Zimbabwean children ≥3 years of age initiating ART with clinician-chosen nevirapine versus efavirenz in the ARROW trial. Predictors of suppression <80, <400 and <1000 copies/mL at 36, 48 and 144 weeks were identified using multivariable logistic regression with backwards elimination (P = 0...
June 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502224/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-paediatric-tuberculosis-an-insight-review
#13
Nityananda Mandal, Parveen Kumar Anand, Subhash Gautam, Shritam Das, Tahziba Hussain
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem, invading all age groups world-wide. It is an opportunistic infection affecting the individuals alone or with co-infections. Childhood TB is a neglected aspect and a significant health problem in epidemic areas. It constitutes more than 20% of TB incidence. Pediatric TB exists in the shadow of adult TB. The clinicians concentrate on pulmonary manifestation of TB, whereas it is a major problem in both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary infections. The rate of infection with this disease is mostly associated with poverty, social disruption and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499879/developing-a-flexible-pediatric-dosage-form-for-antiretroviral-therapy-a-fast-dissolving-tablet
#14
Manjari Lal, Manshun Lai, Marcus Estrada, Changcheng Zhu
Current presentations of the anti-HIV drugs lopinavir and ritonavir make appropriate dosing for children difficult. We conducted a feasibility study to develop a formulation for these drugs with child-safe excipients in a flexible dosage form for children across the pediatric age spectrum. The freeze-drying in blister approach was used to produce fast-dissolving tablets (FDTs), as these can be dispersed in fluids for easy administration, even to infants, and appropriate portions of the dispersion can be given for different ages/weights...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498304/pharmaceutical-dosing-errors-at-a-pediatric-hiv-clinic-in-mwanza-tanzania
#15
Neel Mahesh Naik, Ruth Nicholas Mbwanji, Mwajuma Mgawe, Richard Ongoa, Anthony E Gesase, Gordon E Schutze, Mercy Minde, Lumumba Francis Mwita
The outpatient medication dosing error rate at a pediatric HIV clinic in Mwanza, Tanzania, was about 1 in every 34 prescriptions. Young children were at highest risk of a dosing error, likely due to dose changes with growth and also to the inconsistent supply of pediatric formulations. Majority of errors occurred at consecutive visits suggesting clinicians reordered medication without double checking dosing.
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498192/patterns-of-attendance-at-mother-support-groups-in-zimbabwe-the-epaz-trial-2014-2016
#16
Joanna Orne-Gliemann, Hélène Font, Talent Maphosa, Abigail Kangwende, Simba Rusakaniko, Vhumani Magezi, Tonderai Sengai, Bridget Shumba, Pemberai Zambezi, Geoff Foster
BACKGROUND: In Southern Africa, groups of mothers living with HIV successfully provide peer psychosocial support during pregnancy and early childhood. We report patterns of attendance at Mother Support Groups (MSGs) sessions among women and mothers living with HIV in rural Zimbabwe. METHODS: In the Elimination of Pediatric AIDS cluster-randomized trial, MSGs were established in 14 health facilities in Mutare and Makoni districts. Patterns of attendance at MSG sessions were categorized by calendar attendance from delivery to 6-month postpartum using a Dynamic Time Warping clustering method...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498184/viral-suppression-and-hiv-drug-resistance-at-6-months-among-women-in-malawi-s-option-b-program-results-from-the-pure-malawi-study
#17
Mina Hosseinipour, Julie A E Nelson, Clement Trapence, Sarah E Rutstein, Florence Kasende, Virginia Kayoyo, Blessings Kaunda-Khangamwa, Kara Compliment, Christopher Stanley, Fabian Cataldo, Monique van Lettow, Nora E Rosenberg, Hannock Tweya, Salem Gugsa, Veena Sampathkumar, Erik Schouten, Michael Eliya, Frank Chimbwandira, Levison Chiwaula, Atupele Kapito-Tembo, Sam Phiri
BACKGROUND: In 2011, Malawi launched Option B+, a program of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment for pregnant and lactating women to optimize maternal health and prevent pediatric HIV infection. For optimal outcomes, women need to achieve HIVRNA suppression. We report 6-month HIVRNA suppression and HIV drug resistance in the PURE study. METHODS: PURE study was a cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating 3 strategies for promoting uptake and retention; arm 1: Standard of Care, arm 2: Facility Peer Support, and arm 3: Community Peer support...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498181/impact-of-mother-infant-pair-clinics-and-short-text-messaging-service-sms-reminders-on-retention-of-hiv-infected-women-and-hiv-exposed-infants-in-emtct-care-in-malawi-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#18
Victor Mwapasa, Jessica Joseph, Timothy Tchereni, Aurelie Jousset, Andrews Gunda
BACKGROUND: Poor retention of mothers and HIV-exposed infants (HEIs) in HIV care threatens efforts to eliminate pediatric HIV. Novel strategies are required to address this challenge. We compared 12-month maternal and HEI postpartum retention in health facilities implementing the following HIV care delivery models: integrated HIV and maternal, neonatal, and child health services [mother-infant pair (MIP) clinics], MIP clinics plus short-text messaging service (SMS) reminders to prevent default (MIP + SMS), and standard of care (SOC)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489226/transition-of-care-for-youth-with-hiv
#19
Mary Ellen Acree
Remarkable advances have been made in the treatment of HIV. Despite progress in reducing perinatal HIV transmission, there is a growing number of adolescents and emerging adults with HIV who will require transfer of care from pediatric to adult providers. Adolescents with HIV have poorer retention in care and viral suppression compared to other age groups with HIV. Barriers to successful care of youth with HIV include mental health disorders, poor medication adherence, socioeconomic instability, and HIV-related stigma...
May 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481997/patterns-of-growth-body-composition-and-lipid-profiles-in-a-south-african-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-and-uninfected-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Sarah M Ramteke, Stephanie Shiau, Marc Foca, Renate Strehlau, Francoise Pinillos, Faeezah Patel, Avy Violari, Afaaf Liberty, Ashraf Coovadia, Louise Kuhn, Stephen M Arpadi
Background.: Prior research in sub-Saharan Africa reports dyslipidemia in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children receiving ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) compared with efavirenz; however, interpretation of findings is limited by lack of comparison data from HIV-uninfected children. Methods.: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of lipid profiles and growth within a larger longitudinal cohort study of perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children aged 4-9 years in Johannesburg, South Africa...
May 6, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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