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Pediatrics immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528339/molecular-diagnosis-of-tubercular-lymphadenopathy-from-fine-needle-aspirates-in-pediatric-patients
#1
Vivek Gupta, Arvind Bhake
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of peripheral tubercular lymphadenopathy (TBLN) in pediatric patients is often a challenge because features evident on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or tissue biopsy can be deceptive for the reason that they result from an immunological response. This study aimed to evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in pediatric patients under clinical suspicion for TBLN and to assess its role in the evaluation of cases cytodiagnosed as reactive lymphoid hyperplasia...
May 20, 2017: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524128/-placement-of-a-ventricular-catheter-into-narrow-lateral-ventricles-popular-navigation
#2
S S Ozerov, A E Samarin, A V Mel'nikov, E V Kumirova
Placement of a ventricular catheter is the most common and easiest procedure in neurosurgery. Usually, the procedure is performed using anatomical landmarks. However, despite the apparent ease of this manipulation, its results are not always satisfactory. According to the literature data, the rate of improperly placed ventricular catheters amounts to 10-40%, which is directly correlated with the risk of shunt dysfunction. The use of special equipment, such as ultrasound scanners, endoscopes, stereotactic devices, and neuronavigation systems, significantly increases success of surgery...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516235/clinical-imaging-and-genotypical-features-of-three-deceased-and-five-surviving-cases-with-ada2-deficiency
#3
Sezgin Sahin, Amra Adrovic, Kenan Barut, Serdal Ugurlu, Eda Tahir Turanli, Huri Ozdogan, Ozgur Kasapcopur
Deficiency of adenosine deaminase type 2 (DADA2) is a rare form of autoinflammatory disorder with limited reported cases. In this paper, we have presented the clinico-immunological, radiological and genetic characteristics of five surviving and three deceased childhood-onset DADA2 patients. We aimed to compare surviving and deceased patients in terms of clinical features and treatment modalities. Moreover, we have evaluated the causes of death in our DADA2 subjects together with the previously reported cases...
May 17, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504570/saliva-a-reliable-sample-matrix-in-bioanalytics
#4
Michael Gröschl
Saliva is gaining increasing attention as a bioanalytical sample matrix. Mostly because of the easy and noninvasive collection, it is not only beneficial in endocrinological and behavioral science, but also in pediatrics. Saliva also has the advantage of being the only body fluid which can be collected even during physical exercise, for example, during sportive activities, and there are physiological characteristics that make it superior to serum/plasma or urine for specific scientific questions. This review provides an insight into the physiology of saliva formation, explaining how certain compounds enter this bodily fluid, and gives advice for collection, storage and analytical methods...
May 15, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498087/an-expert-opinion-on-pandas-pans-highlights-and-controversies
#5
Francesca Chiarello, Silvia Spitoni, Eric Hollander, Marco Matucci Cerinic, Stefano Pallanti
OBJECTIVES: 'Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections' (PANDAS) identified a unique subgroup of patients with abrupt onset of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms clinically related to Streptococcus infection and accompanied by neuropsychological and motor symptoms. After almost 20 years, PANDAS has not been accepted as distinct disorder and new criteria for paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) have been replaced it, highlighting the fact that several agents rather than only Streptococcus might be involved...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495415/rhinovirus-from-bench-to-bedside
#6
REVIEW
Kelvin K W To, Cyril C Y Yip, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Rhinovirus has been neglected in the past because it was generally perceived as a respiratory virus only capable of causing mild common cold. Contemporary epidemiological studies using molecular assays have shown that rhinovirus is frequently detected in adult and pediatric patients with upper or lower respiratory tract infections. Severe pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications are increasingly recognized. Contrary to popular belief, some rhinoviruses can actually replicate well at 37 °C and infect the lower airway in humans...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487842/dietary-primary-prevention-of-allergic-diseases-in-children-the-philippine-guidelines
#7
REVIEW
Marysia Stella T Recto, Maria Lourdes G Genuino, Mary Anne R Castor, Roxanne J Casis-Hao, Diana R Tamondong-Lachica, Maria Imelda V Sales, Marilou G Tan, Karen S Mondonedo, Regina C Dionisio-Capulong
Allergic diseases, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema, and food allergy, are preventable diseases. Primary prevention strategies of allergic diseases have been in scrutiny. Effective prevention strategies maybe started prenatally, postnatally, during infancy, and even during childhood. These guidelines have been prepared by the Philippine Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology and the Philippine Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. They aim to provide evidence-based recommendations for the dietary primary prevention of allergic diseases in children...
April 2017: Asia Pacific Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481783/impact-of-perinatally-acquired-hiv-disease-upon-longitudinal-changes-in-memory-and-executive-functioning
#8
Kathleen M Malee, Miriam C Chernoff, Patricia A Sirois, Paige L Williams, Patricia A Garvie, Betsy L Kammerer, Lynnette L Harris, Molly L Nozyce, Cenk Yildirim, Sharon L Nichols
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding effects of perinatally-acquired HIV infection (PHIV) on longitudinal change in memory and executive functioning (EF) during adolescence, despite the importance of these skills for independence in adulthood. METHODS: PHIV (n=144) and perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected youth (PHEU, n=79), ages 12-17, completed standardized tests of memory and EF at baseline and two years later. Changes from baseline for each memory and EF outcome were compared between PHEU and PHIV youth with (PHIV/C, n=39) and without (PHIV/non-C, n=105) history of CDC Class C (AIDS-defining) diagnoses...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480529/acne-conglobata-in-a-long-term-survivor-with-trisomy-13-accompanied-by-selective-igm-deficiency
#9
Chiyoko N Inoue, Yoshiko Tanaka, Nobuko Tabata
Trisomy 13 (T13) is a congenital chromosomal disorder that is usually fatal within 2 years of birth, and only a few patients have been reported to reach adolescence. Here, we report a male long-term survivor of T13, currently 15 years of age, with a several-year history of extensive acne conglobata (AC) with abscesses on the face and neck. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was consistently isolated from the pustular lesions. Serum IgM levels were extremely low at 10 mg/dl. There were no abnormalities in neutrophil and total B cell number, or in serum IgA and IgG levels...
May 7, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465096/immunological-considerations-regarding-parental-concerns-on-pediatric-immunizations
#10
REVIEW
Francesco Nicoli, Victor Appay
Despite the fundamental role of vaccines in the decline of infant mortality, parents may decide to decline vaccination for their own children. Many factors may influence this decision, such as the belief that the infant immune system is weakened by vaccines, and concerns have been raised about the number of vaccines and the early age at which they are administered. Studies focused on the infant immune system and its reaction to immunizations, summarized in this review, show that vaccines can overcome those suboptimal features of infant immune system that render them more at risk of infections and of their severe manifestations...
April 29, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455155/-spike-in-acute-asthma-exacerbations-during-enterovirus-d68-epidemic-in-japan-a-nation-wide-survey
#11
Seigo Korematsu, Kengo Nagashima, Yasunori Sato, Mizuho Nagao, Shunji Hasegawa, Haruna Nakamura, Shiro Sugiura, Katsushi Miura, Kenji Okada, Takao Fujisawa
BACKGROUND: In September 2015, Japan experienced an unusual increase in acute asthma hospitalizations of children that coincided with an enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) epidemic. The objective of this study is to investigate whether EV-D68 had a causal relationship with the spike in asthma hospitalizations. METHODS: A nation-wide retrospective survey of asthma hospitalizations of children was performed for the period from January 2010 through October 2015. The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology asked its affiliated hospitals to report monthly numbers of hospitalizations, ICU admissions and mechanical ventilations due to acute asthma exacerbation...
April 25, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454648/the-siglec14-null-allele-is-associated-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-bcg-induced-clinical-and-immunologic-outcomes
#12
Andrew D Graustein, David J Horne, Jerry J Fong, Flavio Schwarz, Heather C Mefford, Glenna J Peterson, Richard D Wells, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Muki Shey, Willem A Hanekom, Mark Hatherill, Thomas J Scriba, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Maxine Caws, Nguyen Duc Bang, Sarah J Dunstan, Guy E Thwaites, Ajit Varki, Takashi Angata, Thomas R Hawn
Humans exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) have variable susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) and its outcomes. Siglec-5 and Siglec-14 are members of the sialic-acid binding lectin family that regulate immune responses to pathogens through inhibitory (Siglec-5) and activating (Siglec-14) domains. The SIGLEC14 coding sequence is deleted in a high proportion of individuals, placing a SIGLEC5-like gene under the expression of the SIGLEC14 promoter (the SIGLEC14 null allele) and causing expression of a Siglec-5 like protein in monocytes and macrophages...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453023/-hiv-aids-infection-in-children-and-adolescents-chilean-cohort-1987-2014
#13
Elba Wu, M Isabel Galaz, Carmen Larrañaga, Ana Chávez, Marcela González, Ana M Álvarez, Anamaría Peña, Juila Vlllarroel, Eloísa Vizueta
The present document describes the Cohort of HIV/AIDS children detected in Chile from 1987 to August 2014 and the effectiveness of the Protocol for Prevention of Vertical Transmission (PPVT) of HIV infection. Of the 375 HIV infected children enrolled since 1987 to August 2014, 245 of them are still in pediatric control. From the analysis of the Cohort is inferred that: a) it has observed an improvement in the detection of the HIV infected child, in number and precocious time; b) the majority of these children continue to be detected by clinic symptoms and signs (mainly unspecific and infectious manifestations); c) the ARVT use has meant a clinic and immunologic improvement with diminution of the infections, principally opportunistic infections, with a better life quality, a prolongation of survival and a diminution of lethality; d) as more survival has been produced, cancer has begun to be detected, a very infrequent complication observed in them before the ARVT use...
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449551/a-survey-of-korean-physicians-prescription-patterns-for-allergic-rhinitis
#14
Min Young Seo, Dong-Kyu Kim, Hye Mi Jee, Young Min Ahn, Yong Min Kim, Sang Duk Hong
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the prescription patterns according to characteristics of physicians using a survey distributed amongst physicians in Korea. Methods: We surveyed the prescription patterns for allergic rhinitis (AR) of the members of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology (KAAACI) and the Korean Association of Otorhinolaryngologists (KAO). Questionnaire contained 4 categories with 28 queries. 448 physicians including 98 internal medicine (IM), 113 pediatrics (PED), and 237 otorhinolaryngology (ENT) were responded...
April 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441819/-consensus-on-antimicrobial-management-and-infection-prevention-in-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422941/metabolism-related-micrornas-in-maternal-breast-milk-are-influenced-by-premature-delivery
#16
Molly C Carney, Andrij Tarasiuk, Susan L DiAngelo, Patricia Silveyra, Abigail Podany, Leann L Birch, Ian M Paul, Shannon Kelleher, Steven D Hicks
BACKGROUND: Maternal breast milk (MBM) is enriched in microRNAs, factors that regulate protein translation throughout the human body. MBM from mothers of term and preterm infants differ in nutrient, hormone, and bioactive-factor composition, but the microRNA differences between these groups have not been compared. We hypothesized that gestational age at delivery influences microRNA in MBM, particularly microRNAs involved in immunologic and metabolic regulation. METHODS: MBM from mothers of premature infants (pMBM) obtained 3-4 weeks post-delivery was compared with MBM from mothers of term infants obtained at birth (tColostrum) and 3-4 weeks post-delivery (tMBM)...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416004/clinical-study-of-children-with-takayasu-arteritis-a-retrospective-study-from-a-single-center-in-china
#17
Ye Feng, Xuemei Tang, Mingyue Liu, Juan Zhou, Xiaodong Zhao, Qiu Li
BACKGROUND: Delayed diagnosis of childhood Takayasu arteritis (TA) is common due to its atypical symptoms. The objective of the present study was to summarize the clinical features of childhood TA to raise awareness and improve management. METHODS: Eleven children diagnosed with TA at our hospital were enrolled. Clinical information, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome were then examined retrospectively. The Pediatric Vasculitis Activity Score (PVAS) and the Indian Takayasu Clinical Activity Score (ITAS2010) were used to assess disease activity...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403047/risk-factors-in-children-older-than-5-years-with-pneumococcal-meningitis-data-from-a-national-network
#18
Fanny Hénaff, Corinne Levy, Robert Cohen, Capucine Picard, Emmanuelle Varon, Christèle Gras Le Guen, Elise Launay
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of meningitis in children >5 years old may be associated with specific predisposing factors that can be anatomic, such as cerebrospinal fluid fistula or breach, or related to genetic susceptibility or N inborn or acquired immunologic defect. This study aimed to assess the anatomical and immunologic risk factors in children >5 years old with pneumococcal meningitis and prospectively enrolled in the French national meningitis network. METHODS: We analyzed all data for children who were 5-15 years old with a diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis between 2001 and 2013...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396105/eosinophilic-esophagitis-a-case-study-of-a-12-year-old-boy
#19
Katherine Kiely
Eosinophilic esophagitis is an underrecognized chronic condition in which symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux are accompanied by eosinophilia in the esophagus. This disorder affects both children and adults and is associated with a history of other atopic disorders, particularly food allergies. This case study discusses the epidemiology of eosinophilic esophagitis and the proper procedures for diagnosis, referral, and management using the dietary restrictions and pharmacologic treatment included in the clinical recommendations issued by the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology; and the American College of Gastroenterologists...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390934/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-quadrivalent-inactivated-influenza-virus-vaccine-compared-with-a-comparator-quadrivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-in-a-pediatric-population-a-phase-3-randomized-noninferiority-study
#20
Jolanta Airey, Frank R Albano, Daphne C Sawlwin, Alison Graves Jones, Neil Formica, Vince Matassa, Jane Leong
BACKGROUND: Seqirus 2010 Southern Hemisphere split-virion trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) was associated with increased febrile reactions in children. Studies in vitro concluded that increasing concentrations of splitting agent decreased residual lipids and attenuated proinflammatory cytokine signals associated with fever. We assessed immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4; produced using higher concentration of splitting agent) versus a United States-licensed comparator IIV4 in healthy children aged 5-17years...
May 9, 2017: Vaccine
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