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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784007/reporting-to-parents-on-children-s-exposures-to-asthma-triggers-in-low-income-and-public-housing-an-interview-based-case-study-of-ethics-environmental-literacy-individual-action-and-public-health-benefits
#1
Laura J Perovich, Jennifer Liss Ohayon, Elicia Mayuri Cousins, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Phil Brown, Gary Adamkiewicz, Julia Green Brody
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence about the effects of endocrine disruptors on asthma symptoms suggests new opportunities to reduce asthma by changing personal environments. Right-to-know ethics supports returning personal results for these chemicals to participants, so they can make decisions to reduce exposures. Yet researchers and institutional review boards have been reluctant to approve results reports in low-income communities, which are disproportionately affected by asthma. Concerns include limited literacy, lack of resources to reduce exposures, co-occurring stressors, and lack of models for effective reporting...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783942/effect-of-the-patient-education-learning-and-coping-strategies-in-cardiac-rehabilitation-on-return-to-work-at-one-year-a-randomised-controlled-trial-show-lc-rehab
#2
Birgitte Laier Bitsch, Claus Vinther Nielsen, Christina Malmose Stapelfeldt, Vibeke Lynggaard
BACKGROUND: Personal resources are identified as important for the ability to return to work (RTW) for patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) or heart failure (HF) undergoing cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The patient education 'Learning and Coping' (LC) addresses personal resources through a pedagogical approach. This trial aimed to assess effect of adding LC strategies in CR compared to standard CR measured on RTW status at one-year follow-up after CR. METHODS: In an open parallel randomised controlled trial, patients with IHD or HF were block-randomised in a 1:1 ratio to the LC arm (LC plus CR) or the control arm (CR alone) across three Danish hospital units...
May 21, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782384/breastfeeding-uncovering-barriers-and-offering-solutions
#3
Stephanie Sayres, Lisa Visentin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months after an infant is born. Although the recommendations are well known, mothers face barriers that make breastfeeding difficult. This article reviews the recent literature on barriers to breastfeeding as well as strategies for pediatricians to use to help women overcome them. RECENT FINDINGS: The mode of delivery, mother's socioeconomic status, return to work, and prenatal breastfeeding education have been reported as factors that influence breastfeeding...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780658/the-selective-labels-problem-evaluating-algorithmic-predictions-in-the-presence-of-unobservables
#4
Himabindu Lakkaraju, Jon Kleinberg, Jure Leskovec, Jens Ludwig, Sendhil Mullainathan
Evaluating whether machines improve on human performance is one of the central questions of machine learning. However, there are many domains where the data is selectively labeled in the sense that the observed outcomes are themselves a consequence of the existing choices of the human decision-makers. For instance, in the context of judicial bail decisions, we observe the outcome of whether a defendant fails to return for their court appearance only if the human judge decides to release the defendant on bail...
August 2017: KDD: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776428/evidence-of-the-impact-of-systemic-inflammation-on-neuroinflammation-from-a-non-bacterial-endotoxin-animal-model
#5
Chunxia Huang, Michael Garnet Irwin, Gordon Tin Chun Wong, Raymond Chuen Chung Chang
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation induces neuroinflammation and cellular changes such as tau phosphorylation to impair cognitive function, including learning and memory. This study uses a single model, laparotomy without any pathogen, to characterize these changes and their responses to anti-inflammatory treatment in the intermediate term. METHODS: In a two-part experiment, wild-type C57BL/6N mice (male, 3 month old, 25 ± 2 g) were subjected to sevoflurane anesthesia alone or to a laparotomy...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773778/a-collaboration-to-teach-us-mph-students-about-cuba-s-health-care-system
#6
Joan O'Connell, Ana María Gálvez-González, Jean Scandlyn, María R Sala-Adam, Xiomara Martín-Linares
In 2011, the US Department of the Treasury changed its regulations to allow US students to participate in short-term education programs in Cuba. Beginning in 2012, and each year thereafter, Cuba's National School of Public Health and the Colorado School of Public Health have jointly taught a class on the Cuban public health system. The program goals are to provide US students with an opportunity to learn about the Cuban national health system's focus on 1) prevention and primary health care services; 2) financial and geographic access to services and health equity; 3) continuum of care across the home, family doctor-and-nurse offices, polyclinics and hospitals; 4) data collection at all levels to understand health risks, including outbreaks, and to guide resource allocation; 5) assessing patients' health and risks using a comprehensive definition of health; 6) multisectoral collaborations between the Ministry of Public Health and other Cuban agencies and organizations to address population health risks; 7) disaster preparedness, response and recovery; and 8) provision of international health assistance...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772943/school-nurses-management-and-collaborative-practices-for-student-athletes-following-sport-related-concussion
#7
Michelle L Weber, Cailee E Welch Bacon, Tamara Valovich McLeod
The purpose of this study was to examine school nurses' management and collaboration with health-care providers (HCPs) for student-athletes following a concussion. Secondary school nurses accessed an online survey titled the Beliefs, Attitudes, and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (access rate = 15.6%; n = 1,246/8,000). Approximately 40% of schools where nurses were employed administered baseline and postinjury concussion assessments. No significant differences were found between employment model (single vs...
January 1, 2018: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767215/and-now-please-sign-on-the-dotted-line-teaching-residents-about-professional-life-after-residency
#8
Sherine Salib, Victoria Valencia, Alejandro Moreno
OBJECTIVES: Despite possible long-term repercussions, few training programs teach their residents about the business of medicine. In particular, certain contractual issues can adversely affect a young physician's career mobility. METHODS: We designed a business-of-medicine curriculum and used a survey to determine whether the curriculum satisfied attendees' perceived knowledge gaps about the topics covered in the course, which included four key contractual matters: physician employment contracts (including restrictive covenants), malpractice insurance, job search, and interviewing skills...
May 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756098/objectively-structured-verbal-examination-to-assess-surgical-clerkship-education-an-evaluation-of-students-perception
#9
Şükrü Aydın Düzgün, Sezgin Zeren, Zülfü Bayhan
Objective: The objectivity and reliability of examining methods are controversial. We subjected fourth-year medical students to a specially designed verbal exam which we called objectively structured verbal examination. We aimed to evaluate feedback from students about objectively structured verbal examination as an assessment instrument for gauging their surgical knowledge. Material and Methods: Objectively structured verbal examination modules were developed according to the learning goals of the surgical clerkship...
2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752299/anniversary-review-50-years-since-the-discovery-of-bromocriptine
#10
Michael O Thorner
Ergotism is the long term ergot poisoning by ingestion of rye or other grains infected with the fungus Claviceps purpurea and more recently by excessive intake of ergot drugs. It has either neuropsychiatric or vascular manifestations. In the Middle Ages the gangrenous poisoning was known as St Anthony's fire, after the order of the Monks of St Anthony who were particularly skilled at treating the condition. In 1917, Professor Arthur Stoll returned home to Switzerland from Germany, to lead the development of a new pharmaceutical department at Sandoz Chemical Company...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749079/acute-tau-knockdown-in-the-hippocampus-of-adult-mice-causes-learning-and-memory-deficits
#11
Ramon Velazquez, Eric Ferreira, An Tran, Emily C Turner, Ramona Belfiore, Caterina Branca, Salvatore Oddo
Misfolded and hyperphosphorylated tau accumulates in several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, Down syndrome, and Pick's disease. Tau is a microtubule-binding protein, and its role in microtubule stabilization is well defined. In contrast, while growing evidence suggests that tau is also involved in synaptic physiology, a complete assessment of tau function in the adult brain has been hampered by robust developmental compensation of other microtubule-binding proteins in tau knockout mice...
May 10, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748142/asynchronous-unsupervised-video-enhanced-feedback-as-effective-as-direct-expert-feedback-in-the-long-term-retention-of-practical-clinical-skills-randomised-trial-comparing-2-feedback-methods-in-a-cohort-of-novice-medical-students
#12
James Rammell, Joanna Matthan, Matthew Gray, Lucy R Bookless, Craig I Nesbitt, Paul Rodham, John Moss, Gerard Stansby, Alexander W Phillips
OBJECTIVES: To determine the degree of practical clinical skills' retention over a 7-week period after receiving either video-enhanced direct expert feedback (DEF) or asynchronous unsupervised video-enhanced feedback (UVF). DESIGN: A prospective single-blinded randomized trial was conducted over a 7-week period with novice medical students. Following a generic introduction, PowerPoint presentation and live demonstration of intravenous cannulation was given by an expert, and candidates performed the same task in isolation while being recorded and were randomized to receive either DEF or UVF...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744783/behavioral-interventions-to-eliminate-fear-responses
#13
REVIEW
Jingli Yue, Le Shi, Xiao Lin, Muhammad Zahid Khan, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
Fear memory underlies anxiety-related disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a fear-based disorder, characterized by difficulties in extinguishing the learned fear response and maintaining extinction. Currently, the first-line treatment for PTSD is exposure therapy, which forms an extinction memory to compete with the original fear memory. However, the extinguished fear often returns under numerous circumstances, suggesting that novel methods are needed to eliminate fear memory or facilitate extinction memory...
May 7, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736160/prediction-of-return-to-original-work-after-an-industrial-accident-using-machine-learning-and-comparison-of-techniques
#14
Jongin Lee, Hyoung-Ryoul Kim
Background: Many studies have tried to develop predictors for return-to-work (RTW). However, since complex factors have been demonstrated to predict RTW, it is difficult to use them practically. This study investigated whether factors used in previous studies could predict whether an individual had returned to his/her original work by four years after termination of the worker's recovery period. Methods: An initial logistic regression analysis of 1,567 participants of the fourth Panel Study of Worker's Compensation Insurance yielded odds ratios...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724613/perceptions-of-singaporean-patients-living-with-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillators-an-exploratory-qualitative-study
#15
Sim Leng Ooi, Betsy Seah, Vivien Xi Wu, Karen Wei Ling Koh, Nana Jiao, Hong-Gu He, Wenru Wang
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) as a preventive approach for high-risk patients with arrhythmias, little is known about the perceptions of ICD recipients regarding these devices and their impact on quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To explore perceptions towards quality of life, coping strategies, and learning needs of patients living with ICDs in Singapore. METHODS: 16 participants (age ranges 52 to 84 years old) were purposively recruited and interviewed individually for this exploratory qualitative study...
April 30, 2018: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722700/what-can-we-learn-from-a-500-year-event-experiences-from-urban-drainage-in-austria
#16
Manfred Kleidorfer, Franz Tscheikner-Gratl, Tanja Vonach, Wolfgang Rauch
Urban drainage systems are designed to capture the runoff for a certain return period of a design rainfall event. Typically, numerical models are used, which are calibrated by comparing model response and measured system performance. The applicability of such models to predict the system behaviour under extreme events is unclear, as usually then no data are available. This paper describes the analysis of an extreme rainfall event in the year 2016. The event is characterized by a very short duration and very high rainfall intensities...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717068/nursing-and-dental-students-reflections-on-interprofessional-practice-after-a-service-learning-experience-in-appalachia
#17
Susan Nierenberg, Linda Paine Hughes, Molli Warunek, Joseph E Gambacorta, Suzanne S Dickerson, Nancy Campbell-Heider
Nowhere is the discrepancy between good and poor oral health status more pronounced in the U.S. than in the Appalachian region, where there is a high incidence of dental problems related to non-flouridated water, limited access to care, and tooth loss. To address these disparities, in 2016 University at Buffalo dental and nurse practitioner faculty members led a group of dental and nursing students on a two-day service-learning experience in rural Tennessee. The aim of this study was to assess the dental and nursing students' reflections on this interprofessional service-learning experience in Appalachia...
May 2018: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714231/theoretical-surface-type-classifier-based-on-a-waveform-model-of-a-satellite-laser-altimeter-and-its-performance-in-the-north-of-greenland
#18
Song Li, Wenhao Zhang, Yue Ma, Xiao Hua Wang, Fanlin Yang, Dianpeng Su
Current land-cover classification methods using ICESat/GLAS's (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) datasets are based on empirical thresholds or machine learning by training multiple GLAS parameters, e.g., the reflectivity and elevation of the target and width, amplitude, kurtosis, and skewness of the return waveform. A theoretical classifier is derived based on a waveform model of an actual laser altimeter illuminating the sea surface. With given system parameters and the sea surface wind corresponding to the location of a laser footprint (the wind can be calculated by using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction dataset), a precise theoretical waveform can be generated as a reference...
April 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713494/developing-and-feasibility-testing-of-data-collection-methods-for-an-economic-evaluation-of-a-supported-selfmanagement-programme-for-adults-with-a-learning-disability-and-type-2-diabetes
#19
John L O'Dwyer, Amy M Russell, Louise D Bryant, Rebecca E A Walwyn, Alexandra M Wright-Hughes, Elizabeth H Graham, Judy M Wright, Shaista Meer, Jacqueline Birtwistle, Amanda J Farrin, Allan O House, Claire T Hulme
Background: The challenges of conducting research with hard to reach vulnerable groups are particularly pertinent for people with learning disabilities. Data collection methods for previous cost and cost-effectiveness analyses of health and social care interventions targeting people with learning disabilities have relied on health care/health insurance records or data collection forms completed by the service provider rather than by people with learning disabilities themselves. This paper reports on the development and testing of data collection methods for an economic evaluation within a randomised controlled trial (RCT) for a supported self-management programme for people with mild/moderate learning disabilities and type 2 diabetes...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712624/the-unanticipated-challenges-associated-with-implementing-an-observational-study-protocol-in-a-large-scale-physical-activity-and-global-positioning-system-data-collection
#20
Paul McCrorie, David Walker, Anne Ellaway
BACKGROUND: Large-scale primary data collections are complex, costly, and time-consuming. Study protocols for trial-based research are now commonplace, with a growing number of similar pieces of work being published on observational research. However, useful additions to the literature base are publications that describe the issues and challenges faced while conducting observational studies. These can provide researchers with insightful knowledge that can inform funding proposals or project development work...
April 30, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
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